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The Oklahoma City Bombing and the Politics of Terror 

by David Hoffman 

Copyright © 1998 David Hoffman 

Published online with the irrevocable permission of the author to republish with attribution on a non-profit basis. 

Hosted by the Constitution Society 
Text Version (under construction) 


[Editor: Chapter 10 included below was not included in the printed edition, which renumbered the remaining chapters accordingly. The chapters 
below the red bar are still being edited, so content may notmatch the printed edition, and the endnote numbers will mostly not match the correct 
endnotes.Theyare being putup in advanceofcompletion,butshould notbequoted untileditorialrevisionsarecomplete.] 




1. The Mannilicher-Carcanno Bomb 

2. The Face of Terror 

3. Non-Resident Alien 

4. Millar's Rent-A-Nazi 

5. Teflon Terrorists 

6. No Stone Unturned 

7. The Connection 

8. Lockerbie — a Parallel 

9. The Sting 

10. The Octopus 

11. The Covert Cowboys 

12. The Motive 

13. The Politics of Terror 

14. A Strategy of Tension 

15. Epilogue: Let Them Eat O.J. 


This book is dedicated to Ace Hayes, my friend and primary mentor, who passed away as this book went to press. As a speaker, and 
through his small newspaper, the Portland Free Press, Ace hammered away at the establishment with a loquacious cynicism and wit. Ace 
fought the battle with both pen and sword, dodging the law on the front lines of the trenches. He was both inspirational and instrumental in 
bringing this book to light. His friendship and counsel will be sorely missed. 

Note: The names of certain individuals have been changed and noted in the text. Libel law does not make generous allowances for the use 
of real names in the case of a person who has not been officially indicted, or who has not gone public (i.e., been previously interviewed in 
print or on TV), or who is not a public figure. 

You may order the hard copy edition of this bool< from 

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"You shall know the truth and the truth shall make you mad. " 
— Aldus Huxley 


The author would like to gratefully acknowledge the help and assistance of the following people, without whose help this story could not have 
been told: Melissa Klinzing and Brad Edwards, KFOR-TV, Nolan Clay, Daily Oklahoman, Rodney Bowers, Arkansas Democrat Gazette, 
Larry Myers and Rich Azar at Media Bypass, Juval Aviv of Interfor, Don Browning, Jon Rappaport, author of Oklahoma bombing: The 
Supressed Truth, Michele Moore, author of Oklahoma City: Day One, former DEA agent Mike Levine, Jesse Clear, Mark Sanford, Paul 
Friend, Idaho News Observer, video producer Chuck Allen, Oklahoma City: What Really Happened?, JD Cash and Jeff Holladay of The 
McCurtain County Gazette, Britt Anderson and the writers at Mother Jones, The Village Voice, Frances McMorris, The Wall Street Journal, 
Mike Whitely, Mike Vanderboegh, Mike Kemp, Ted Gundersen, Steve Wilmsen and Mark Eddy of the Denver Post, Mark Schafer, Arizona 
Republic, Ambrose Evans-Pritchard, London Sunday Telegraph, Clayton Douglas, The Free American, Charlie Hatfield, Ellis County Press, 
Brian Redman, Conspiracy Nation, Ben Partin, The folks at the BBC, Sarah McClendon, Bob Hall, Conspiracy Nation, Ken Armstrong, Rita 
Cosby, Fox News, John Mattes, Julian Share, CBC, Louis Champon, Roger Bunn, Anthony J. Hilder, Rick Sherrow, Audrey Cummings, 
Moshe Tal, Stu Webb, Glenn Wilburn, Pat Briley, Monte Cooley, Idaho Observer, The Free American, Hoppy Heidelberg, Eric Lighter, Bill 
Key, Martin Keating, Linda Thompson, Ramona McDonald, Robert Bickel, Tony Scarlatti, Dr. Rick Nelson, Robert Jerlow, Robert Peterson, 
Jason at CBS archives, David Parker, Billy at the Daily Oklahoman library, and the librarians at the Washington Post, New York Times, 
Dallas Morning News, Los Angeles Times, Miami Herald, Toronto Star, Covert Action Quarterly, and others, Joe Taylor at Newstrack in 
Tulsa, Oklahoma, Ann Bradley and Christie, and others in Stephen Jones' office, D'Ferdinand Carone, the clerks in the Oklahoma county 
and federal courts, and scores of others who have selflessly provide information from their own research and investigations into this and 
other scandals. 

My publisher, Adam Parfrey, who instinctively understood the significance of this crime, and, took a chance on me when none of big 
publishers would. 

State Representative Charles Key, who became a good friend. A man whose humor, faith, and courage to stand up and publicly question the 
governments' official line, putting his life and his career on the line, became an anchor for us all. 

Jayna Davis of KFOR, the original lead investigator on the Middle Eastern angle, eventhough the New York Times Broadcasting Company 
shut down her investigation and took away her helicopter and cell phone. 

David Hall of KPOC-TV, who gave me most of the leads I wouldn't have gotten anywhere else. Last I heard, the IRS was screwing with Hall 
because of his courageous work on the Waco case. 

Craig Roberts, whose patience and generosity proved invaluable. Craig was a staunch ally whose tenacity and good humor proved an 
inspiration when I became frustrated (which was pretty often). 

Craig's cop friend Randy, who sneaked into the NCIC now and then when we needed it. 

Leslie Jorgensen, {Newsweek and U.S. News & World Report ) a great gal with a marvelous sense of humor, who kept me up to date on the 
latest gossip and straightened me out about certain lawyers. 

Gene Wheaton, who took me for a circuitous ride through the desert to talk to me in a scene reminiscent of Mr. "X" in the movie JFK, then 
regaled me mostly with personal stories about his interesting life. 

Bill McCoy (may he rest in peace), who provided humorous translations for Wheaton's conspiracy theory theories, and was instrumental in 
keeping "scribblers" like me on the path. 

Ace Hayes (may he rest in peace), publisher of the Portland Free Press, and my main mentor, who helped me to understand how the 
system really works, or at least the system according to Ace. 

Sherman Skolnick, my other main mentor, who never let me forget how many years he's been in the business, and reminded me that I have 
a long way to go. 

Will Northrop, "Matzo-Ball Charlie," who claimed to work for every Israeli intelligence agency except the Mossad, then took me for $1600 to 
sip Margaritas in Florida. 

Mike Johnston, who accused me of stealing his book, Abu-Nidal: A Gun For Hire, when he knows full well that it was stolen by Chinese 
cleaning ladies and used as Won Ton wrappers. 

James "Jimmy" Rothstein, whose openness, patience, and selflessness proved to be a guiding light in the murky and confusing world of 
spooks and criminals. 

Mien Furher, Al Martin, Iran-Contra "insider extraodinaire," whose still waiting for his $100,000 retainer fee. 

Bill Jasper of the John Birch Society, who is convinced it really is all a Communist plot. 

George Wallace who introduced me to Jasper and kept the Commie hunters off my back. 

Roger Cravens, Dave Rydel, Claire Wolfe, Jon Roland, and other Patriots who posted important and much-needed information on the state 
of our nation on the Patriots' Information Mailing List (PIML); and Ian Goddard, Bob Hall, and others who did the same on the OKBOMB 
mailing list. 

Laurie Mylroie of the Foreign Policy Institute, for her in-depth analysis of the Iraqis and the World Trade Center bombing. 

Terry Cook, for his videos and books, and his excellent and comprehensive research on the staggering new technology that is taking control 
over our lives. 

Jim Levine, and Terry and Kelly, who handled our account and especially Jim's mother, who made me Chicken soup when I was sick. 

And finally, Mr. "M," without who's generous financial support, none of this would have been possible. 

And I can't leave out all those people who, although aware of the efforts of the authors and others in attempting to bring this information to 
the public, were either indifferent, or actually obstructed these efforts. The first of these honors goes to the so-called "Justice" Department 
and the FBI. And to the state Attorney General, Drew Edmondson, and the local District Attorney in Oklahoma City, Bob Macy, who has an 
annoying tendency to talk out of both sides of his mouth. Oh, Bob, what is that stench?! 

And the supervisors of the business office of Southwestern Bell and specifically Mr. Edwards and Mr. Dave Lopez, President of SWB, whose 
cold, callous, indifference and lack of empathy when I became behind on my phone bill resulted in the termination of my phone service for 
three weeks, my poor old mother thinking I was dead, and the interruption of our investigation, which they were fully aware of. 

And the kind and generous folks of M.C.I. Communications, who not only refused to sponsor our investigation, they never even sent a reply 
to my inquiry. May they and the principals of SWB get what they deserve. 

And ultimately, all my friends who have kept me [partially] sane throughout the years, even though conspiracies have a way of making one 
come unglued: Ron Ulfohn, Joe Williams, John Flores, David Wills, Lorenzo, Jon and Lisa, and all those helpful souls I've undoubtedly 
missed, including my parents (although I'm not sure they've helped me keep sane). 

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On April 19, 1995 when I heard the news (and literally heard the explosion) of the Murrah building, I was dumbfounded. As the realization 
sunk in that so many people and children were killed, I, along with millions of others watching the news coverage, felt that indescribable, 
overwhelming sensation in the pit of my stomach. 

Yet as the "story" unfolded, my spirits were lifted as I saw example after example of sheer human compassion and an outpouring of 
unblemished, unconditional love flow forth in a far greater degree than I had ever seen in any venue of life, including and especially in 
political circles. 

However, during the intense media coverage that followed, inconsistencies began emerging. Stories kept changing and although I couldn't 
see the emerging political angle, I could sense it. Those who dared oppose the revisionist news accounts were ostracized, mocked, 
discredited, dark-cornered, etc. I know, I was one who dared to be politically incorrect. 

At some point it became painfully apparent that there was more wrong than right with the federal investigation. That is when I had a very 
tough decision to make. Should I sit and do nothing and remain in my comfort zone simply "playing the part" of the caring politician for the 
photo ops? Or should I really do the right thing even if it meant giving the phrase "politically incorrect" a whole new dimension? 

It didn't take long after discussing it with my wife to determine that I had to do the right thing — no matter what the consequences were to be. 
Having come to that conclusion, I decided to go forward to search out the truth and tell it to a waiting world. Journalists such as David 
Hoffman, concerned citizens, and a few ex-law enforcement officers, have made many personal sacrifices to bring this truth to the American 

In response, the major media launched unheard of attacks against our desire to conduct constitutionally sound and proper investigations. 
The Daily Oklahoman and the Tulsa World have published nine separate editorials viciously attacking me, Glenn Wilburn and all those who 
have stood up and demanded all of the truth about this terrible crime. 

An editorial from the Daily Oklahoman entitled, "Drop It, Mr. Key" even had the audacity to say: 

As we argued when Key first set out on this course, the Legislature and its staff had no business investigating the bombing. It 
was, and is, poorly equipped to do so. The same can be said of a panel of local citizens. 

People in powerful positions have repeatedly attacked those of us who have scrutinized the federal investigation. Oklahoma Attorney 
General Drew Edmondson issued a personal attack saying that I was proposing a "wasteful witch hunt" and was pushing "the worst kind of 
paranoid conspiracy pandering." 

Oklahoma Governor Frank Keating, a former FBI agent himself, went so far as to say that "raising questions would not bring one whit of 
intelligence to the process." He later escalated his attacks saying those of us who were raising serious questions were "howling at the moon" 
and "off the reservation." 

All of these people are literally robbing the victims family members and survivors ■ 

■ and all of us — the opportunity and right to know the 

All of us have had to fight the formidable disinformation and smear campaign waged by "faceless forces" that appear to have pockets of 
unending depth and the mass media at their beck and call. 

Glenn Wilburn, who lost two grandchildren in the tragedy, and I filed a petition in November, 1995, to have a local county grand jury 
impaneled to investigate the bombing. This independent grand jury would be fully autonomous of the federal investigation, and would double 
in the capacity of a watchdog of the federal investigation. 

Here in Oklahoma, we are very fortunate to be one of only two states that have a constitutional guarantee that the people of a county can 
cause a grand jury to be impaneled whenever they feel there is a need simply by circulating a petition. It is and always has been a common 
occurrence in our state. 

Nevertheless, the Presiding State District Judge, Dan Owens, tried to stop us from petitioning to impanel the grand jury, and we were forced 
to appeal his actions to a higher court. That is where the latest and some of the most intense criticism has come from recently. One year 
after our appeal, we finally got a written opinion from the Court of Appeals in the Tulsa district. On December 24, 1996 the court ruled not 

only in our favor, but they did so unanimously. 

Not only was it unanimous, but the court issued the decision "For Publication." That means that it was such a clear-cut case in regard to the 
state constitution, statutes, and previous case law, that it constituted a precedent-setting case to be used in lawbooks, most likely for many 
years to come. 

Yet, why is there such extreme opposition to keep this independent grand jury from being allowed to assemble? As you will learn by reading 
this book, that is because some in our federal law enforcement agencies (i.e. ATF and FBI) had prior knowledge that certain individuals were 
planning to bomb the Murrah Federal Building! 

Prior knowledge on the part of some individuals in the Federal Government may also be why the federal prosecutors barred every single 
witness to John Doe(s) from the Federal Grand Jury. Of the more than 20 witnesses to one or more John Doe(s), none — not even one — 
were allowed to tell the Grand Jury what they saw. 

Additionally, when the prosecution's list of witnesses was unsealed, we found that the one witness who will be allowed to testify in the trial to 
McVeigh being in the company of a John Doe can't describe in any way who he saw. Indeed, the best witnesses who can positively place 
McVeigh in downtown Oklahoma City that morning saw him with one or more individuals and are able to describe to some degree what that 
person or persons looked like. Those witnesses were not even allowed to testify at McVeigh's trial. 

As bizarre as that sounds. Federal Prosecutors were not allowing any of those witnesses to be seen or heard by the Federal Grand Jury. 
This gives "blind justice" a whole new meaning. 

To make this even more clear, the Federal Grand Jury wanted to interview both the eyewitnesses and the sketch artist who drew the John 
Doe composites but they were flatly refused by the federal "authorities." Clearly they were blatantly deprived of their basic constitutional 
rights as grand jurors. Why? 

Just what is it that they are trying to accomplish? Or, perhaps more pointedly, just who are they trying to protect? And what are they trying to 

Let's not forget, elected officials are supposed to be the servants of the people and not the other way around. Just what's going on? And how 
are they getting away with it? 

Our efforts to reinvestigate the case before a county grand jury are important for numerous reasons. One of the reasons that concerns me 
most is that I fear that the record of McVeigh's trial will comprise the "official story" of what happened. If the evidence of prior knowledge and 
other perpetrators is not presented in this case, I fear that the government will be successful in shaping the official story to permanently 
exclude that evidence. 

Another reason that I feel that the OKC bombing case is important and directly effects you is that the government has reached a new level of 
operating out of the bounds of the law and is becoming more and more arrogant. You will read about some of those cases in the second part 
of this book. 

I don't know about you, but that kind of arrogance sickens me and leaves me with a eerie feeling. The government must not be allowed to 
get away with yet another botched job! The Government must be held accountable. 

In spite of the seemingly impenetrable and insurmountable forces acting against us, on February 18, 1997 the Oklahoma State Supreme 
Court miraculously ruled in favor of allowing the independent county grand jury and against the Federal Government's attempt to quash the 
rights of the people. That grand jury is investigating the case as this book goes to press. 

Based on two years of intense research and investigation, this book gives the public an insight into the evidence which the grand jury will 
confront. Hopefully now, the forgotten families, survivors, and victims who died from the blast will have their right to a full, open and truthful 
investigation of the events of April 19. 


Rep. Charles Key 

State Capitol BIdg., Rm 508 

Oklahoma City, OK 73105 


Publisher's note: The preceding Foreward was adapted for publication from an appeal letter sent by Representative Key to "concerned 
citizens" on 12 March 1997. Its publication in this book does not necessarily imply Rep. Key's endorsement of the author's conclusions. Both 
Rep. Key and David Hoffman spent long hours together investigating leads and sharing information regarding the Oklahoma City bombing. 

Author's note: While Representative Key and the people of Oklahoma have succeeded in impaneling their grand jury, they are without the 

necessary funds to proceed with the investigation. Any contributions towards this effort may be sent to: 

OI<lahonna County Grand Jury & 
Bombing Investigation Fund 
Post Office Box 75669 
Oklahoma City, OK 73147 

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"All governments are run by liars and nothing they say should be believed. " 

— I.F. Stone 


The images are forever etched in our minds. Scorched, burning cars, pouring black smoke and charred, twisted metal. Piles of rubble, 
screaming sirens and battered, bloody bodies. And the babies. Frail, lifeless figures — tiny, silent witnesses of death and destruction. 

In the early morning hours of April 19th, the Oklahoma City federal building had, in one long, horrible moment... exploded with the force of a 
volcano, spewing forth the contents of its human carnage onto the streets below. What had a few moments ago been the Alfred P. Murrah 
building was now a huge, gaping tomb. The entire fagade of the nine-story superstructure had been ripped away, exposing its innards — 
dangling chunks of concrete, tangled strands of cables and bent pieces of rebar — into the choking, blackened sky. Now it stood smoking 
and eerily silent, except for the muffled cries of its few remaining inhabitants and the wailing of the sirens off in the distance. 

One man, an ex-Marine, likened it to carnage he had witnessed in war-torn Lebanon. Another veteran, Thu Nguyen, who had his five-year- 
old son Christopher in the day care center, said, "I've seen war... . I've seen soldiers I fought with in Vietnam cut this way, cut in half, heads 
cut off. That was war. These are children. This is not a war. This is a crime." 

The scene was surreal — almost too horrific to bear. There were bodies — and pieces of bodies — strewn about, along with childrens' toys 
and workers' personal effects — tragic reminders of what had moments before been the meaningful mementos of someone's life. One 
passerby had been wrapped around a telephone pole, her head blown off. Workers who had been sitting at their desks were still sitting 
there... lifeless, morbid, like eerie figures out of a wax museum of horrors. 

Police detective Jay Einhorn remembers one scene: "There was a guy — a black guy — on the second floor, just sitting there. I knew he 
was dead. He's looking at me, and I'm looking at him... if you don't think that's fucking scary. We just said, man we gotta go up there and 

cover that guy up."^ 

Daina Bradley, who was trapped under a slab of fallen concrete, was still conscious. With no way to remove her without upsetting the huge 
piece of concrete, doctors were forced to amputate her leg. As Bradley lay screaming in a pool of water, surgeons, using scalpels and saws, 
and without anesthesia, amputated her leg below the knee. 

The federal office building, home to over 550 workers, had also housed a day care center. Nearby, a makeshift morgue had been set up in 
what had once been the childrens' playground. Refrigeration trucks lined up to haul away the dead bodies. "Sheriff Clint Boehler, from 
nearby Canadian County, recalls, "We went flying down there at about 110 miles an hour... you never saw so many services running over 
each other." As hundreds of volunteers poured in from all over the country, fireman, police and medical personnel began laying out the 
victims for identification. Shirley Moser, a nurse, began tagging dead children. "Their faces had been blown off, "said Moser. "They found a 
child without a head." 

Those who were lucky enough to escape the carnage were wandering about, dazed and confused. One man, his face bloodied, wandered 
down the street, saying he was headed home, except that he couldn't remember his name or where his home was. Another man who was 

entering the building had his arm blown off, but was in such a state of shock that he didn't notice it as he went about trying to help others.^ 

People who lived or worked nearby had been blown out of their chairs. Trent Smith, 240 pounds, was tossed seven feet into the air and 
through the window of his hotel room. Several blocks away, a bus filled with people was nearly blown on its side. The force of the blast 

extended for nearly 30 blocks, blowing out windows and heavily damaging a dozen buildings, and causing damage to almost 400 more.^ 

When it was all over, more than 169 people, including 19 children, lay dead, and more than 500 were injured. The damage was estimated in 
the hundreds of millions. 

Federal authorities were calling the bombing the single largest terrorist attack in the history of the United States. Yet it was difficult to discern 
whether the bombing was some ominous precursor to some as yet undeclared war, or the result of some criminal plot gone horribly awry. 
Just who had caused it wasn't clear. 

As rescue workers continued the difficult task of searching for bodies, and hospital workers began attending to victims, law enforcement 
agents began searching for clues. What was clear as law enforcement personnel descended upon the scene, was that the blast had left a 30 
foot wide, 8 feet deep crater in front of the building. Fortunately, a ATF agent who had recently attended a course on the identification of car 

and truck-bombs just happened to be in the federal courthouse. The agent was able to identify the cause of the blast immediately. He 
telephoned his superiors in Dallas and told them that an ammonium nitrate truck-bomb had just blown up the Murrah Building. 

Sixty miles away, near Perry Oklahoma, Highway Patrolman Charles Hanger was making his usual rounds. Around 10:30 a.m. Officer 
Hanger noticed a battered 1977 yellow Mercury, without a license plate, speeding along at 81 miles an hour. Pulling the vehicle over. Hanger 
cited the driver, 26-year-old Timothy James McVeigh, for driving without a license plate. As he was about to let McVeigh go. Hanger noticed 
a distinct bulge under McVeigh's windbreaker. When he asked McVeigh what he had under his jacket, McVeigh casually informed the cop 
that he had a gun — a 9mm Glock semi-automatic pistol. Hanger subsequently arrested McVeigh for carrying a concealed weapon, driving 

without a tags, and driving without insurance.^ 

Back in Oklahoma City, investigators were busily searching the wreckage for clues that could lead them to the perpetrators. It didn't take 
long for investigators to find what they were looking for — a piece of axle and a license plate — believed to have been part of the truck used 
in the bombing. After FBI agents ran the VI N (vehicle identification number) and the plate through their Rapid Start computer system, they 
discovered the vehicle belonged to a Ryder rental agency in Florida. A check with the agency revealed that the truck, a 1993 Ford, was 
rented out of Elliott's Body Shop in Junction City, Kansas. Elliott's said that they had rented the 20-foot truck to a Bob Kling on April 17th, 
and gave the FBI artist a description of two men who had rented the truck, known as Unsub #1 and Unsub #2. 

Kling, Unsub #1, had listed his address as 3616 North Van Dyke Road in Decker, Michigan. The address was the home of James Douglas 
Nichols and Terry Lynn Nichols. A quick check of that address with the Michigan Department of Motor Vehicles revealed a license in the 
name of Timothy James McVeigh. 

FBI agents interviewing James Nichols and relatives in Decker quickly learned that Timothy McVeigh was a friend of Nichols, who 
possessed large quantities of fuel oil and fertilizer. Armed with a search warrant, agents found 28 50-pound bags of fertilizer containing 
ammonium nitrate, a 55 gallon drum containing fuel oil, blasting caps, and safety fuse. 

Interviews with neighbors[, including Daniel Stomber, Paul Isydorak and others,] revealed that the Nichols brothers and McVeigh had 
experimented with explosives, using household items to produce small bombs using bottles and cardboard cartons, which they would 
detonate on their property for fun. Witnesses also claimed that in December of 1993, McVeigh and one of the Nichols brothers had visited 
Thumb Hobbies, Etc. to inquire about purchasing 100% liquid nitro model airplane fuel. One of these witnesses had reported that James 
Nichols had repeatedly blamed the U.S. government for all the problems in the world. 

Federal agents then decided they had enough evidence to arrest James Nichols, and to put out a warrant on his brother Terry, who was 
living in Herrington, Kansas. On April 22, Terry Nichols, wondering why his name was being broadcast on television, walked into the local 
police station in Herrington. 

In the meantime, witnesses at the scene of the bombing had given FBI agents a description of possible suspects. While interviewing people 
in Junction City, agents spoke to the manager of the Dreamland Motel who recognized the composite sketch of the suspect the FBI called 
Unsub #1. The man had registered at the Dreamland from April 14 to April 18 under the name of Tim McVeigh, had driven a yellow Mercury, 
and provided an address on North Van Dyke Road in Decker, Michigan. 

On April 21, Carl E. Lebron, a former co-worker of McVeigh's, recognized the composite sketch of Unsub #1 on TV and called the FBI. He 
said that the man was named Timothy McVeigh, and that he was possessed of extreme right-wing views, was a military veteran, and was 
particularly agitated over the deaths of the Branch Davidians in Waco, Texas in April, 1993. The man told the FBI that McVeigh expressed 
extreme anger towards the Federal Government. The man gave the FBI the last known address he had for McVeigh: 171 1 Stockton Hill 
Road, #206, Kingman, Arizona. 

Back in Perry, Oklahoma, McVeigh was still sitting in a cell at the Noble County Courthouse, waiting for his arraignment. After feeding 
McVeigh's name into the National Crime Information Center, the FBI discovered their suspect sitting quietly in the Noble County jail on a 
traffic and weapons charge. Just as McVeigh was about to be set free. District Attorney John Maddox received a call from the FBI telling him 
to hold on to the prisoner, that he was a prime suspect in the bombing of the Federal Building in Oklahoma City. 

So, by good luck, diligent work, and an amazing series of coincidences, federal law enforcement authorities solved the most heinous crime 
in the history of the United States — all within 48 hours. 

Or did they? 

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[E: In the original printed edition, there were both unnumbered footnotes and numbered endnotes. In this digital edition, all notes have been 
converted to endnotes and re-numbered. The numbers of the printed edition endnotes are shown in parentheses. Footnotes of the printed 
edition are also shown in parentheses, but with the format (<chapter number>:<page number>:<footnote symbol>). Thus, the footnote ** 
from Chapter 6, page 268, would be shown as (6:268:**). Some endnotes have been added or modified by the author or the digital editor, 
and these are surrounded in double square brackets [[]], with those of the editor prefixed with "E:".] 

1. (1) Detective Jay Einhorn, interview with author. 

2. (2) Nancy Gibbs,"The Blood of Innocents," Time, 5/1/95. 

3. (3) Ibid.. 

4. (4) According to "journalist" Larry Myers, McVeigh exited the vehicle and met Hanger between the two cars. Hanger asked McVeigh for 
his license. He then informed the cop that he was moving from Arkansas, at which point Hanger walked back to his vehicle and ran 
McVeigh's license. Hanger's video camera was on, as well as his microphone. As he walked back to McVeigh, he noticed a bulge under his 
jacket, and as he handed McVeigh his license, he quietly flipped the snap on his holster. He asked McVeigh if he was carrying a gun, and 
McVeigh informed him he was, at which point Hanger drew his weapon, shoved McVeigh against the car and spread his legs. McVeigh told 
Hanger that he had a concealed carry permit and showed him is old Burns Security badge. McVeigh sat in the passenger side of the patrol 
car and talked about the bombing as it flashed over the radio. When he arrived at the jailhouse, he asked, "when's chow?" 

5. See Partin Report and diagrams in appendix. 

6. (5) Sam Cohen's letter to Representative Key, 6/29/95, copy in author's possession. 

7. (6) William Jasper, "Explosive Evidence of a Cover-Up," Tiie New American, 8/7/95. 

8. (7) Ibid. 

9. The Atlas Powder Co. is in Dallas, Texas. 

10. (8) Christine Gorman, "Bomb Lurking in the Garden Shed", Time magazine, 5/1/95. 

11. (9) Rick Sherrow, interview with author. 

12. (10) Linda Jones, trial transcript, U.S. v. McVeigh. 

13. (11) Sacramento Bee, 4/30/95. 

14. (12) Brian Ford, "McVeigh Placed at Kansas Store," Tulsa World, 9/12/97. 
15.(1 :5:*) They claimed they didn't know where it was built. 

16. (13) Military Explosives, TM 9-1910/TO 11A-1-34, Dept. of the Army and the Air Force, 4/14/55, p. 121. 

17. (14) Michele Marie Moore, Oklahoma City: Day One (Eagar, AZ: Harvest Trust, 1996), p. 122. 

18. (15) KFOR-TV, 4/19/95. 

19. i^6) USA Today 4/28/95. 

20. (17) New York Times, 10/19/95. 

21. (18) Memorandum to all US Attorneys from Acting Assistant Attorney General John C. Keeney, 1/4/96, and letter of Frederick 

Whitehurst, 1/9/96 copy in author's possession. 

22. (19) "Outside Experts to Review FBI Crime Lab "Wall Street Journal, 9/19/95; OIG report, copy in author's possession. 

23. (1 :7:*) "Williams' report also states that the initiator for the Primadet or the detonating cord was a non-electric detonator; non-electric, 
burning type fuse of either hobby fuse or a commercial safety fuse was used as a safe separation and time delay system; and the time delay 
for the burning fuse was approximately 2 minutes and 15 seconds.... No evidence of a non-electric detonator or the named fuses, however, 
were found at the crime scene.... Williams also stated in his report that [a] fertilizer base explosive, such as ANFO... among other 
commercial and improvised explosives, has an approximate VOD of 13,000 fps. The statement of the VOD of ANFO, however, is incomplete 
because ANFO has a broad VOD range. For example, the Dupont Blasters' Handbook (Dupont) shows commercial ANFO products with 
VODs in the 7,000-15,600 feet-per-second range. When Williams wrote his Oklahoma City report, he was aware of this range...." 

24. (20) The Gundersen Report on the Bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Building, Oklahoma City, April 19, 1995, 11/1/96, copy in author's 

25. i2^) Ibid. 

26. As the OIG report states: "Whitehurst questions Williams' conclusion that none of the structural damage evident within the Murrah 
building was caused by secondary explosive devices or explosions." 

27. (1 :8:*) Partin pointed out that while the truck bomb that damaged the World Trade Center was in an enclosed space, thereby creating a 
much higher destructive force than a bomb out in the open, it did not destroy the support column next to it. 

28. (22) Richard Sherrow, "Bombast, Bomb Blasts & Ba\oney "Soldier of Fortune, 6/95. 

29. (23) Rabauch's letter to Partin dated 7/18/95, copy in author's possession. 

30. (24) CNN World News, 6/26/96. 

31. (25) Jim Loftis, interview with author. 

32. (1:10:*) The Israelis' host in the U.S. was Oklahoma City business leader Moshe Tal, an Israeli. According to William Northrop, another 
Israeli and Oklahoma City resident, Tal initially circulated the report, which was three pages and mentioned the Middle-Eastern bomb 
signature. After Tal was summoned to Israel, he returned denying those aspects of the report. It was suddenly, in keeping with the U.S. 
Government's position, no longer a Middle-Eastern bomb, and the report itself incredibly shrank from three pages to only one. 

33. (26) Lou Kilzer and Kevin Flynn, "Were Feds Warned Before OKC Bomb Built?" Rocky Mountain News, 2/6/97. The fuel dealer reported 
the purchasing attempt to the ATF, but the agency did not follow up. 

34. (27) Gronning's letter to Key, dated 6/27/95, copy in author's possession. 

35. (28) James L. Pate, "Bloody April: Waco Anniversary Triggers Oklahoma City Atrocity," Soldier of Fortune, August, 1995. 

36. (29) Larens Imanyuel, interview with author. 

37. (30) Engineering News, May 1, 1995, page 10-11. 

38. (31) The Gundersen Report on the Bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Building, Oklahoma City, April 19, 1995, 11/1/96, copy in author's 

39. (32) Larens Imanyuel, "The Bombing of the Oklahoma City Federal Building: Was a Cruise Missile Warhead Design Used?" Veritas, 

40. (33) Timothy McVeigh's Petition for Writ of Mandamus, 3/25/97, p. 35. 

41. (34) Ramona McDonald, interview with author. 

42. (35) "The Worst Terrorist Attack on U.S. Soil: April 19, 1995," CNN, 12/20/95. 

43. (1:1 3:*) Other people who were working in office buildings at the time reported that sparks flew out from their computers just before the 
blast. The manager of the Journal Record parking garage, two blocks from the Murrah Building, reported that the electronic computers in at 
least half a dozen cars had malfunctioned as a result of the blast. 

44. (36) Sam Cohen, interview with author. 

45. (37) Gene Wheaton, "The Covert Culture," Portland Free Press, May/June 1996. 

46. (38) David Noble, "Professors of Terror," Third World Resurgence (Penang, Malaysia), February-March, 1992, p. 34, quoted in Ramsey 
Clark, The Fire This Time, (New York, NY: Thunder's Mouth Press, 1992), p. 44. 

47. (39) Adel Darwick and Gregory Alexander, Unholy Babylon, (New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 1991), p. 104. 

48. (40) Harry M., confidential letter to author. 

49. (41) "Iraq Also Worked on Hydrogen Bomb," Associated Press, quoted in The Nashville Tennessean, 10/9/91, as quoted in Charles T. 
Harrison, "Hell in a Hand Basket: The Threat of Portable Nuclear Weapons," Military Review, May, 1993. 

50. (42) E-Mail message to Tony Scarlatti; Interview with author. 

51. (1:15:*) Within the last few years, articles have appeared in the U.S., European, and even Russian media dealing with an exotic new 
material known as 'Red Mercury' which had been developed by the Russians and allegedly held properties capable of producing far more 
efficient nuclear fission warheads than the conventional explosives developed thus far." 

52. (43) Harrison, Op Cit. 

53. New Yor/cer magazine, date unknown, quoted by nuclear physicist Galen Winsor on Radio Free America, 3/23/93. 

54. (44) Edward Zehr, "Turning Point: Resolving The Enigma of Oklahoma City," Washington Weekly 11/18/96. 

55. Some rescue workers, it was also rumored, had become ill with mysterious illnesses. They suffered from physical exhaustion and could 
barely drag themselves to work, it was reported, although these reports have not been substantiated. Of the 43 FEMA dogs that took part in 
the rescue effort, four died and one became ill. Rumors quickly spread that the dogs had died of radiation poisoning. The body of one of the 
deceased dogs, it was claimed, had been exhumed, his lungs found to be radioactive. The culprit was supposedly a radioactive isotope 
called Tritium. A heavy form of hydrogen. Tritium is an essential ingredient in nuclear weapons. In microscopic quantities it is also used as a 
"tracer" in medical procedures — injected into the bloodstream as an aid in radiology scanning. According to Larry Jacobson, Executive Vise 
President of the National Association of Search & Rescue (NASR) in Fairfax, Virginia, "We don't know of any dog coming out of the 
Oklahoma thing that had any more then cut paws... it was a totally baseless rumor." Mike Nozer, head of the Tulsa, Oklahoma K-9 Search & 
Rescue team, was busy assembling his team for the Heroes of the Heart parade in Bethany on April 19, 1996. He explained that all eight of 
his dogs were still active, in fact were at the parade that day. "My dogs were the first ones in the building," said Nozer, whose team worked 
for six days to pull people out of the wreckage. "I didn't have any one of my dogs down due to radiation." Nozer also explained that the Fire 
Department had sprayed a chemical in the building on the evening of the fourth day to prevent contamination from decaying bodies still 
inside. However, according to Nozer, this would not have affected the dogs. Skip Hernandez of Miami's Metro Dade Fire Department, 
worked with his dogs in the "pit," an area likely to have been contaminated. "Before we allow the dogs to go in, we ask certain questions [of] 
the hazardous materials guys because the dogs work very low to the ground," explained Hernandez. "All the dogs went thorough a thorough 
physical. None of our dogs left there injured... We would have known if there was radiation in there." Hernandez also said that the dog that 
died was an older dog, who died of cancer. The dog that had died was supposedly from a team in Virginia or Maryland. Sgt. Lavelle of 
Maryland Task Force 1 , told me one dog became sick from lyme disease, but he didn't think it was related to the bombing. As to the rumor of 
Tritium poisoning, he said, "That's the first we've ever heard of it." Jacobson, who works with the team in Virginia, said absolutely no dog 
died as a result of being in the Murrah Building. I asked Samuel Cohen about the possibility of Tritium poisoning. "Tritium could have been 
mixed up with ANFO," said Cohen. "But it seems far-fetched that they could have gotten that much into their systems to do any serious 
radiation damage. It's very unlikely to do damage unless it gets into the system in huge doses. The culprit would have to steal more Tritium 
than exists in any single lab on earth. He would need pounds. And Tritium is not cheap stuff. The last I checked, it was a few thousand 
dollars a gram." But whether search and rescue dogs actually died of radiation poisoning is another matter. A Rotweiler named Weinachten 
Gator Von Scott CD, who lived with his owner Jacob Scott in Broken Arrow, Oklahoma, died in June of 1996, of a broken neck after a fall. 
Gator had pulled the last survivor out of the Murrah Building. Another dog, a member of the Oklahoma County Sheriffs K-9 Unit named 
Chita, was hit by a car after escaping from her pen during a hail storm. While some have suggested that the dogs were killed to hide 
evidence of radiation poisoning, there is no evidence that either animal was suffering from such a malady. Yet considering the extent of the 
cover-up underway at the time, and the number of people who feared for their jobs, the autopsy reports on the dogs could have been faked. 
Certainly any revelation of a nuclear explosion would not only cause the government's already shaky premise to fall apart, but would cause 
widespread panic among the population. 

56. Sam Cohen, interview with author. 

57. (45) Sam Cohen, Journal of Civil Defense, Fall, 1995, quoted by F.R. Suplantier in Behind the Headlines. 

58. According to demolition experts, simply wrapping Primacord around the column supports 27 times would be enough to destroy them. 

59. (1:15:**) Authorities later backtracked on the leg, claiming that it belonged to Airforce recruit Lakesha Levy. They originally said the leg 

belonged to a light-skinned male in his 30s. They then said it belonged to a black female, in order to match it with Levy. 

60. (46) "A classified Pentagon study determines Oklahoma bombing was caused by more than one bomb," Strategic Investment 
Newsletter, 3/20/96. 

61. (47) William Jasper, "Multiple Blasts: More Evidence," The New American, date unknown. 

62. (48) "The Oklahoma City Bombing: Improved building performance through multi-hazard mitigation," FEMA, quoted in Relevance 
magazine, April, 1997. 

63. (49) General Benton K. Partin, interview with author. 

64. (50) New American, date unknown. 

65. (1:18:*) David Hall, manager of KPOC-TV in Ponca City, who has done considerable investigation into the bombing, told me that two 
Southwestern Bell employees called him and claimed they had a surveillance tape that showed the Murrah Building shaking before the truck 
bomb detonated. 

66. (51) Sam Cohen, interview with author. 

67. (52) Jeff Bruccelari, Oklahoma Radio Network, interview with Dr. Ray Brown, 2/18/97. 

68. (53) Jerry Longspaugh, Cover-Up in Oklahoma C/^y video, 1996. 

69. Emphasis mine. 

70. (54) Ramona McDonald, interview with author. 

71 . Although the tape was confiscated by the FBI it was later returned, likely altered, just as the FBI likely altered the famous Zapruder film of 
the JFK assassination by reversing the frames that showed the president's head being blown back. 

72. (55) William Jasper,"Seismic Support," The New American, 8/7/95, 1995. 

73. (56) Nolan Clay, "Scientists Debate Meaning of Bombing Seismograms", The Daily Oklahoman, 11/21/95. 

74. (57) Moore, Op Oil, p. 223. 

75. (58) William Jasper,"Seismic Support", The New American, Qlll^5, 1995. Brown later added that the one-fourth of the building collapsing 
on 4/19 could have created a larger pulse if it had help, say, from high-explosives, "so you wouldn't need quite as much building to be 
collapsing to cause the same sized pulse that we observed on the day of the explosion." 

76. (59) William Jasper, "Were There Two Explosions?", The New American, 6/12/95. 

77. (60) Washington Post, 4/23/95. 

78. (61) Moore, Op C/^, p. 223. 

79. (62) Hassan Muhammad, interview with author. 

80. (63) "William Jasper," OKC Investigator Under Attack," The New American, 6/23/97; video deposition of Jane C. Graham, 7/20/97, copy 
in author's possession. 

81. (64) "Oklahoma City: What Really Happened?", video by Chuck Allen, 1995. 

82. (65) Media Bypass, June, 1995. 

83. (66) Jasper, Op Oil, 6/12/95. 

84. (1 :23:*) Unfortunately, Partin shot himself in the foot in his first letter to Congress by insinuating that the bombing was the work of a 
Communist conspiracy (The Third Socialist International), thereby possibly portraying himself in the eyes of some as a Right-Wing "kook." 
But in spite of his politics, his technical credentials are beyond reproach. 

85. (1:23:**) This is reminiscent of the cover-up of the JFK assassination, where Secret Service agents carefully washed down the 
president's limo immediately after the shooting with buckets of water to remove all traces of bullet fragments, and had Governor Connolly's 
clothes, bullet holes and all, cleaned and pressed. 

86. (67) Guy Rubsamen, interview with author. 

87. (1:24:*) Such a situation is reminiscent of JFK's visit to Dallas, where the plotters made sure the President's protective bubble was 
removed from his limousine, and made sure the Secret Service never bothered to check the many open windows around Dealy Plaza — a 
standard security procedure in such a situation. 

88. (68) Dr. Paul Heath, interview with author. 

89. (69) "Witness Accounts Vary in Oklahoma City Bombing," Dallas Morning News, 10/8/95; Associated Press, 8/27/95; Associated Press, 

90. (70) Statement of unidentified witness taking by Rep. Charles Key, copy in author's possession. 

[91]. After publication of this book, Jane Graham was shown a photograph of German national Andreas Strassmeir, discussed later, and 
identified him as one of the men she saw. 

92. (71) Graham, Op Cit. One of the men was tall, late '30s, nice-looking, very dark hair, mustache, black cowboy hat, jeans. The others 
were slightly older; wearing khakis, short sleeves, all Caucasians. The FBI agent who interviewed Graham was Joe Schwecke . 

93. (72) Interviews with Paul Renfroe, OG&E; Thom Hunter, Southwestern Bell; Don Sherry, Oklahoma Natural Gas. Interviews with 
approximately 20 construction companies involved with a renovation bid by GSA. Contractor list supplied by GSA to author. 

94. (73) David Hall, interview with author. 

95. (74) J.D. Cash & Jeff Holladay, "Secondary Explosion Revealed in Murrah Blast," McCurtain Daily Gazette, 5/4/95. 

96. (75) Allen, Op Cit. 

97. (76) Jon Rappaport, Oklahoma City Bombing — The Suppressed Truth (Los Angeles, CA: Blue Press, 1995). 

98. (77) Veritas, 10/9/95. 

99. (1:27:*) According to Army technical manual on military explosives. Mercury Fulminate is only safe to handle if it is "dead-pressed." 

100. (78) Craig Roberts, "The Bombing of the Murrah Federal Building: An Investigative Report," (prepared for the Tulsa Office of the FBI), 
6/4/95, copy in author's possession. 

101. (1:27:**) It was the presence of military ordinance that brought the 61st EOD (Explosive Ordinance Demolition) team from Fort Sill in to 
examine and defuse the bombs. 

102. (1:27:t) The Army had a recruiting office in the building, which would have made the presence of military personnel inconspicuous. The 
Department of Agriculture also had an office in the building. The Department of Agriculture has been used as a front for IRS intelligence, and 
also the 1 13th M.I.G. (Military Intelligence Group) in Chicago in 1970. Given the easy access to military personnel in the building, it would 
have been easy for military personnel to go through the building unnoticed. 

103. (79) General Benton K. Partin, interview with author. 

104. (80)KFOR-TV. 

105. (1:29:*) According to the September, 1995 edition of Firehouse magazine, there were three bomb scares: one at 10:22, one at 10:45, 
and one at 1:51. (See Radio logs. Appendix) 

106. Taped interview of Tiffany Smith by Rep. Charles Key. 

107. (81) Jim Keith, OKBOMB — Conspiracy and Cover-Up (Lilburn, GA: llluminit Press, 1996). 

108. (82) Edward Comeau, "Fire Investigation Report: Oklahoma City Bombing and Rescue Operation," National Fire Protection Association, 

109. It was rumored that one of the devices was taken to Kirkland Air Force Base in Albuquerque, NM. Fred Shannon of the Ellis County 
Press in Albuquerque claimed his source is too frightened to come forward. If this account is true, it is curious to say the least, why a bomb 
would be taken to a remote military base, when Tinker Air Force base is less than 10 miles away. Interestingly, a branch of Sandia Labs is 
located at Kirkland Air Force Base. The Sandia Corporation, headquartered in Albuquerque, and the Lawrence Livermore National 
Laboratory, located in Alameda County, CA, have cooperated on the development of highly sophisticated explosives, including nuclear 
weapons. Sandia often conducts it's tests at the White Sands Missile Test Range, just west of Alamagordo. White Sands was the home to 
the ATF's "Dipole Might" experiments (see below). Was the government taking one of its bombs back home to Momma? 

110. (83) Allen, Op Cit. 

111. (84) Moore, Op Cit., p. 221 . Ricks made this statement the day of the bombing. 

112. (85) General Benton K. Partin, interview with author. 

113. (86) Rick Sherrow, interview with author. 

114. (1 :30:*) The TOW missile, inspected by the 61st EOD team out of Ft. Sill was inert, as reported on the Oklahoma County Sheriffs 
Evidence/Ordinance Acceptance Form, dated 4/19/95, copy in author's possession. 

115. (87) BATF RAC Dewy Webb, interview with author; OCPD Officer Don Browning, interview with author. 

116. This author requested the Sheriffs video under the Oklahoma Open Records Act. I subsequently received the original version from a 
friend. It seems the Sheriff sent me an edited version, with the ordinance being removed edited out. 

117. (88) J.D. Cash & Jeff Holladay, "Worker Helped Remove Munitions, Missile from Murrah Building," McCurtain Daily Gazette, 7/7/95. 

118. (89)/ib/d. 

119. The BATF lied about the presence of a methamphetamine lab on the Branch Davidian compound in Waco, Texas in order to 
circumvent the Posse Comitatus Act, which prevents the military from being used for domestic law enforcement. Consequently, tanks from 
the Army's Joint Task Force Six were used (driven the FBI) to demolish and gas the Branch Davidian compound. Eighty-six men, women 
and children were either crushed to death or burned alive. The FBI, ludicrously enough, claimed that the tanks were there to knock holes in 
the walls in order to allow people to escape — an absolutely ridiculous assertion — they could have simply used the windows and doors. 

120. (90) Relevance magazine, 7/95. 

121. (91) Moore, Op Cit., p. 107. 

122. (92) Ibid. 

123. (1:33:*) This author interviewed a retired Army criminal investigator who complained about Lester Martz's stonewalling a similar 
investigation he was involved in. 

124. (93) Allen, Op Cit; Moore, Op Cit. 
^25. (94) Ibid., p. 116. 

126. (95) Richard L. Sherrow, "Aftershocks and Subterfuge: Cloud of Doubt Lingers Over Government Cover-up," Soldier of Fortune, April, 
1996; Moore, p. 106. 

127. This was reported briefly in the New York Times and the Wall Street Journal. The two articles were then quickly buried in scrap-heap of 

128. (96) Lawrence W. Myers, "Bureau of ANFO Truck-Bomb Fabrication," Media Bypass, November, 1996. 

129. (97) "Who Are They? The Oklahoma Blast Reveals The Paranoid Life and Times of Accused Bomber Timothy McVeigh and His Right- 
Wing Associates." Time, 5/1/95. 

130. (98) Dale Russakock & Serge Kovaleski, "An Ordinary Boy's Extraordinary Rage; After a Long Search For Order, Timothy McVeigh 
Finally Found a World He Could Fit lnto,"l/l/as/?/A7gtoA7 Post, 7/2/95. 

131. (99) John Kifner, "Oklahoma Bombing Suspect: Unraveling a Frayed Life," New York Times, 12/31/95. 

132. (100) "An Ordinary Boy's Extraordinary Rage," Washington Post, 7/2/95. 

133. (101) Robert D. McFadden, "Terror in Oklahoma: The Suspect — One Man's Complex Path to Extremism," New York Times, 4/23/95. 

134. (2:36:*) Lori Fortier originally told the press, "It truly sickens me when I see my friend's face, yes my friend's face, portrayed on the 
cover of Time magazine as the face of evil." 

135. (102) Sheffield Anderson, interview with author. 

136. (2:36:**) Noble County Assistant Attorney Mark Gibson, who has prosecuted many killers, said "You could just feel the evil in them." Yet 
he said of McVeigh, "I looked at him and realized I felt no repulsion or fear." 

137. (103) Prime Time Live, 5/10/95. 

138. (104) "Biography: McVeigh, Part II," IVIedia Bypass, May, 1996. Myers would later rescind this statement to me, saying he thought 
McVeigh was the "most maniacal terrorist in U.S. history." 

139. (105) "An Ordinary Boy's Extraordinary Rage," Wasiiington Post, 7/2/95. 

140. (106) Media Bypass. May, 1996. 

141 . (2:40:*) Real estate agent Anne Marie Fitzpatrick said McVeigh was "very dynamic" and had "a twinkle in his eye and a 
smile." {Washington Post 7/2/95. ) 

142. (107) "An Ordinary Boy's Extraordinary Rage", Washington Post, 7/2/95. 

143. (108) IVIedia Bypass. 5/96. 

144. (109) Washington Post, 7/2/95. 

145. (110) Media Bypass. May, 1996. 

146. (Ill) Robert D. McFadden, "Terror in Oklahoma: A Special Report — John Doe No. 1, A Life of Solitude and Obsessions," New York 
Times, 5/4/95. 

147. (^^2)Washington Post, 7/2/95. 

148. (113) Media Bypass. May, 1996. 

149. (114) Lana Padilla and Ron Delpit, By Blood Betrayed, (New York, NY: HarperCollins, 1995), p. 63. 

150. (2:43:*) Padilla told me later that the information about McVeigh's so-called demolitions expertise was provided by co-writer Ron Delpit. 

151. (115) David Hackworth & Peter Annin, "The Suspect Speaks Out," Newsweek, 7/3/95. 

152. (116) Newsweek, 5/15/95. 

153. (117) John Kifner, "The Gun Network: McVeigh's World — A Special Report; Bomb Suspect Felt at Home Riding the Gun-Show 
Circuit." New York Times, 7/5/95. 

154. (118) FBI 302 Statement of Carl. E. Lebron, Jr., 4/22/95, copy in author's possession. 

155. (119) Washington Post, 7/2/95. 

156. (120) New York Times, 5/4/95. 

157. (121) Media Bypass, March, 1995. 

158. (122) New York Times 5/4/95. 

159. (123) Media Bypass, March, 1995. 

160. (124) New York Times, 5/4/95. 

162. While other soldiers and airmen were quoted during the war making statements like "shooting fish in a barrel" ... "We hit the jackpot" ... 
"a turkey shoot," only McVeigh "killed Iraqis." For a detailed account of atrocities committed by U.S. forces, see: Ramsey Clark, The Fire 
This Time: U.S. War Crimes in the Gulf, (New York, NY: Thunder's Mouth Press, 1992). 

163. (126) Media Bypass, March, 1995. 

164. (127) "Oklahoma Bombing Suspect: Unraveling a Frayed Life," New Yorl< Times, 12/31/95. 

165. (128) Padilla, Delpit, Op Cit, p. 153. 

166. (129) Keith, OpCit.,p.4^. 

167. (130) "McVeigh's Army Pals Join Bid to Save His Life," CNN, 6/9/97. 

168. (131) Kenneth Stern, A Force Upon the Plain: The American Militia Movement and the Politics of Hate, (New York, NY: Simon and 
Schuster, 1996), p. 190; New York Times, 5/4/95. 

169. Stern's book, written on behalf of the American Jewish Committee with the tacit approval of the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) of the 
B'Nai B'rith, seeks to completely discredit all factions of the emerging Patriot and Militia movements. Stern begins with the premise that 
McVeigh is guilty, and then attempts to indict the militia movement by association. Most all of Stern's sources derive from mainstream press 
accounts and ADL and SPLC (Southern Poverty Law Center) reports. There is no indication from his source notes that the author ever 
interviewed any of McVeigh's friends or associates, or did any independent research on the bombing whatsoever. 

170. (2:49:*) Rice is president of New England Investigations. He teaches the only accredited course in the subject of profiling, and has 
testified in state and federal court in regards to handwriting analysis, and Moore runs an executive assessment firm in Washington, D.C. that 
specializes in assessing personality traits of applicants based on their handwriting samples. 

171. (132) "Inside the Mind of McVeigh." Media Bypass, April, 1996. 

172. (133) "Biography: McVeigh, Part II," Media Bypass, May, 1996. 

173. (134) New York Times, 12/31/95. 

174. (135) Washington Post, 7/2/95. 

175. (136) New York Times, 12/31/95. 

176. (137) New York Times, 5/4/95. 

177. (138) New York Times, 7/5/95. 

178. (139) Washington Post, 7/2/95. 

179. (140) "The Suspect Speaks Out," Newsweek. 7/3/95. 

180. (141) Released by McVeigh's attorney Stephen Jones to the Washington Post. 

181. (142) Newsweek, 7/3/95. 

182. (143) Washington Post, 7/2/95. 

183. (144) Media Bypass, March, 1995. 

184. (145) Report of Investigation, David B. Fechheimer, 12/13/96, addressed to Stephen Jones, copy in author's possession. 

185. (146) Released by McVeigh's attorney Stephen Jones to the Washington Post. 

186. (147) New York Times, 5/4/95. 

187. (2:52:*) McVeigh himself admitted that it "was delayed in my case." 

188. (148) Washington Post, 7/2/95, 4/23/95. 

189. (2:52:**) This was confirmed to me by Terry Nichols' ex-wife, Lana Padilla: "Terry told me that. Terry just said that when he was in the 
Gulf War, they had implanted that to keep track of him." 

190. (149) Glenn Krawczk, "Mind Control and the New World Order," Nexus magazine, Feb-March, 1993, quoted in Keith. 
191.(150)/ib/d.,p. 196. 

192. (2:53:*) The firm does classified research for both NASA and the Air Force, and is a ranking subcontractor for Sentar, Inc., an advanced 
science and engineering firm capable, according to company literature, of creating artificial intelligence systems. Sentar's customers include 
the U.S. Army Space and Strategic Defense Command, the Advanced Research Projects Agency (see discussion of ARPA later in this 
chapter), Rockwell International, Teledyne, Nichols Research Corp. and TRW. Their sales literature boasts a large energy shock tunnel, 
radar facilities "a radio-frequency (RF) simulator facility for evaluating electronic warfare techniques." (Constantine) 

193. (151) Constantine, Op Cit. 

194. (152) Nexus, Feb-March, 1993, quoted in Keith. 

195. (153) The U.S. General Accounting Office issued a report on September 28, 1994, which stated that between 1940 and 1974, DOD and 
other national security agencies studied hundreds of thousands of human subjects in tests and experiments involving hazardous 
substances. GAO stated that some tests and experiments were conducted in secret. Medical research involving the testing of nerve agents, 
nerve agent antidotes, psychochemicals, and irritants was often classified. Additionally, some work conducted for DOD by contractors still 
remains classified today. For example, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) has not released the names of 15 of the approximately 80 
organizations that conducted experiments under the MKULTRA program, which gave psychochemical drugs to an undetermined number of 
people without their knowledge or consent. According to the GAO report, the CIA has not released this information because the 
organizations do not want to be identified. ("Is Military Research Hazardous To Veterans' Health? Lessons Spanning Half A Century," The 
Rockefeller Report (Senator Jay Rockefeller), 12/8/94.) 

196. (2:55:*) After his arrest, Bryant said that he had been "gotten to," and "had been programmed." "Sleepers" such as Bryant were most 
likely programmed to kill their victims in order to precipitate law and order crack-downs, such as occurred in the aftermath of the Australian 
melee, where the government recently outlawed almost all types of guns. 

197. "A Caution From Down Under," Portland Free Press, July/October, 1997. 

198. (154) "A By the Book Officer, 'Suspicious By Nature,' Spots Trouble and acts fast," New York Times, 4/23/95. 

199. (155) Dick Russell, Tiie Man Who Knew Too Much, (New York, NY: Carroll & Graf), 1992, p. 679. 

200. (156) Project MKULTRA, The CIA's Program of Research in Behavioral Modification, Joint Hearing Before the Senate Committee on 
Intelligence, 8/3/77. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977. 

201. In fact, according to Ted Gundersen, West did indeed examine McVeigh. When pressed on the accuracy of his source, Gundersen 
insisted he was "100 percent reliable." 

202. Russell, Op Cit, p. 211-212. 

203. Martin A. Lee and Bruce Shiain, Acid Dreams: The CIA, LSD, and the Sixties Rebellion (New York, NY: Grove Press, 1985), pp. 22, 
189-90; Gordon Thomas, Journey Into Madness, Bantam Books, 1989. 

204. The 1957 American Psychiatric Association roster notes that 1,253 of its 7,104 members came from Germany and the Eastern 
European countries. 

205. Tim Kelsey, "The Oklahoma Suspect Awaits Day of Reckoning," London Sunday Times, date unknown. 

206. (157) Thomas, Op Cit., p. 116. 

207. (158) Russell, Op Cit., p. 673. 

208. (159) William M. Turner and John G. Christian, The Assassination of Robert F. Kennedy: A Searching Look at the Conspiracy and 

Cover-Up 1968-1978, (New York, NY: Random House, p. 197), Quoted in Constantine, p. 12. 

209. (160) Russell, Op Cit, p. 681. 

210. (161)/ib/d.,p. 675. 

211. (162) Ibid., p. 673. (Warren Commission Report, Vol. 5, p. 105.) 

212. Alex Constantine, Psychic Dictatorship in the U.S.A., (Portland, OR: Feral House Press), 1995, p. 6. 

213. Hugh MacDonald, Appointment in Dallas, Zebra, pp. 107-108, quoted in Constantine, p. 6. 

214. On February 7, 1976, Ambassador Walter J. Stoessel, Jr. told some of the 125 members of his staff that the Russians were using 
microwaves beams to listen in on conversations inside the embassy, and that such radiation could be hazardous to their health. (Paul 
Broudeur, The Zapping of America, (New York, NY: W.W. Norton) 1977, p. 95. 

215. Ibid., p. 95. 

216. (163)//)/d.,p. 19. 

217. (164) Art Ford & Lincoln Lawrence, Were We Controlled, (New York, NY: University Books), 1967, quoted in Russell. 

218. (165) Robert O. Becker, M.D. and Gary Selden, The Body Electric: Electromagnetism and the Foundation of Life, (New York, NY: 
William Morrow & Co.), p. 1085, quoted in "Bioeffects of Microwave Radiation," Unclassfied, Vol. IV, No. 3, June/July, 1992, National 
Association of Security Alumni. 

219. (166) Turner and Christian, Op. Cit, Anthony Sampson, The Arms Basaar: From Lebanon to Lockheed (New York, NY: Viking Press, 
1977), p. 276, quoted in Constantine, p. 12. 

220. (2:60:*) Apparently, McVeigh was not there the entire time. Phone records indicate he made steady calls until the 7th of April, when he 
was seen at a bar in Tulsa, Oklahoma. The phone calls resume on April 1 1 . 

221 . New York Times, 5/4/95. 

222. Ibid. 

223. (169) Sherman Skolnick, Conspiracy Nation, June, 1996. 

224. (170) Constantine, "The Good Soldier." 

225. Ibid. 

226. Ibid. 

221 . In 1987, police in Tallahassee, Florida discovered six small children living in a van driven by two men dressed in suits. The children 
were naked, bruised and dirty, and acting like animals. They were unaware of the function and purpose of telephones, televisions or toilets. 
They were not allowed to live indoors, and were only given food as a reward. The case was turned over to U.S. Customs agents, who were 
contacted by detectives from the Washington, D.C. Metropolitan Police Dept., then investigating a cult known as the "Finders." When officers 
searched the their premises, they discovered instructions for kidnapping and purchasing children, avoiding police detection, information on 
the use of explosives and terrorism, and the international transfer of currency. The officers also found a photo album showing pornographic 
photos of children, adults and children participating in blood rituals involving the disembowelment of goats, and an alter surrounded with jars 
of urine and feces. Formerly called the "Seekers," the "cult" was run by Marion David Pettie. An unconfirmed memo states that Pettie was 
trained in counterintelligence; his CIA handler was Colonel Leonard N. Weigner, a career Air Force and CIA operative. When Customs 
agents attempted to follow up on the MPD investigation, they were told that "the activity of the Finders had become a CIA internal matter. 
The MPD report has been classified secret and was not available for review." Martinez was subsequently "advised that the FBI had 
withdrawn from the investigation several weeks prior and that the FBI Foreign Counter Intelligence Division had directed MPD not to advise 
the FBI Washington Field Office of anything that had transpired." What police and Customs agents were describing was undoubtledy part of 
Operation "Monarch," a program of CIA mind control involving the use of small children raised in captivity to respond to various stimuli 
invoked by their CIA captors. One of the chief field operatives of Operation Monarch was none other than Michael Aquino. (U.S. Customs 
Report: Detective Jim Bradley of the Washington, D.C. Metropolitan Police Dept. Daniel Brandt, Name Base Newsline, No. 5, April-June 
1994: "Cults, Anti-Cultists, and the Cult of Intelligence." Department of the Treasury, United States Customs Service: Report of Investigation. 
Subject: "Finders." 2/12/87. Agent Raymond J. Martinez.) 

Probably the best known case is Jonestown, a cult of over 900 followers in Guyana who committed "mass suicide" in 1978. led by the 

Reverend Jim Jones. Jonestown was a veritable prison where all the classic mind control techniques were utilized. While little more than a 
swamp, it nevertheless contained a modern hospital, from which massive quantities of behavioral modification drugs were recovered. One of 
Jones' top aides, George Philip Blakely, who recruited mercenaries for the CIA in Angola, was the son-in-law of Dr. Lawrence Layton, a 
former Army biochemical warfare specialist. Researchers have speculated that Jonestown was part of the CIA's MKULTRA experiments. 
(Joe Holsinger, "Statement to the Forum Entitled 'Psycho-Social Implications of the Jonestown Phenomenon,'" 23 May 1980, Miyako Hotel, 
San Francisco, quoted in Brandt, Name Base Newsline, No. 5, April-June 1994: "Cults, Anti-Cultists, and the Cult of Intelligence.") 
"Guyanese troops discovered a large cache of drugs, enough to control the entire population of Georgetown, Guyana (pop. 200,000), for 
over a year. One footlocker contained 1 1 ,000 doses of Thorazine, a dangerous tranquilizer, and others such as sodium pentothal (truth 
serum), chloral hydrate (a hypnotic), demerol. Thallium (confuses thinking), haliopareael and Largatil (powerful tranquilizers) and many 
others. It was very evident that Jonestown was a tightly-run concentration camp, complete with medical and psychiatric experimentation." Bo 
Gritz, Called to Serve. The members of Jonestown were reported to have died from cyanide-laced punch, but many were found shot-to- 
death by the compound's guards. The military purposefully took over a week to remove the bodies, ensuring, as in the Waco case, that no 
autopsies could be performed. National Security Advisor Brzezinski's office ordered that "all politically sensitive papers and forms of 
identification" be removed from the bodies, and Jonestown's mysterious financial resources were found scattered in banks and investments, 
estimated to be from $26 million to $ 2 billion. (Kenneth Wooden, The Children of Jonestown (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1981), p. 196, 
quoted in Brandt.) 

Another well-known case is the Temple of Set, a satanic cult in San Francisco run by former Army psychological warfare specialist Lt. 
Colonel Michael Aquino, who has written about the control of mass populations. Aquino was accused by an Army Chaplain of molesting 
several young children at the Presidio. The case was investigated by the SFPD, then turned over to the Army's C.I.D. (Criminal 
Investigations Division), where it was subsequently dropped. Freedom of Information Act requests I made about Aquino's investigation while 
editor of the Free Press were stonewalled. Aquino himself picked up on my interest and began bombarding me with letters both dismissing 
these and all related allegations as "mass-hysteria," while backing up his claims with the threat of a libel suit. (Aquino once announced that 
he is the Devil incarnate. I still wonder to this day why the Devil needed to take me to Municipal Court to extract his vengeance.) 

228. Deposition of anonymous Naval Intelligence officer, copy in author's possession. 

229. (171) Brandon Stickney, All American Monster: The Unauthorized Biography of Timothy McVeigh (New York, NY: Prometheus Books, 
1996), p. 226. 

230. For an excellent account of the potential of hynosis and its use in military applications, see Science Digest, April 1971, "Hypnosis 
Comes of Age," by G.H. Estabrooks. 

231. Marchetti and Marks, Op Cit., p. 279. 

232. (172) Scott Anderson, "Globe publishers' Viet tour in mind warfare," Now Magazine, Toronto, Canada, 5/26/94, Quoted in Keith, p. 179. 

233. (2:62:*) Former intelligence operative Gene "Chip" Tatum described a recent massive heroin and cocaine smuggling operation being 
run by rogue elements of the U.S. Government across the Canadian border into Montana with the complicity of local officials. "These officials 
were recruited to assist in the smuggling operations, thinking they were part of a government-sanctioned covert operation." (Excerpt of a 
letter from Tatum to the Montana Senate Judiciary Committee, 3/22/97). 

234. (173) Gene Wheaton, memo, copy in author's possession; interview with author. 

235. Pitzer was later found "suicided" like Admiral Boorda, shot in the chest with a .45. The left-handed Pitzer was found holding the gun in 
his right hand. As Craig Roberts writes in JFK: The Dead Witnesses, "Pitzer, a consummate note taker and maker, left no suicide note, and 
no autopsy report was ever released to either the public or the family.... all references to Pitzer being present at the autopsy of John F. 
Kennedy have been removed from government records." Neither does Pitzer's family believe he committed suicide. 

236. (174) Jay Wrolstad, "Smoking Gun: Does Dan Marvin Have Evidence of a Kennedy Assassination Conspiracy?" The Ithaca Times, 
8/22/96; Franklin Crawford, "Local Man Tells JFK Story," The Ithaca Journal, 1 1/16/95; Daniel Marvin, "Bits & Pieces: A Green Beret on the 
Periphery of the JFK Assassination," The Fourth Decade, May, 1995; Colonel Daniel Marvin, interview on Tex Marrs' World of Prophecy, 
WWCR shortwave, 4/20/96. Marvin's authenticity and credibility have been established by respected Kennedy researchers, as well as 
Professor L. Pearce Williams of Cornell University, and Jacqueline Powers, former managing editor of the Ithaca Journal, who said "[Col. 
Marvin] had evidence to back up what he was claiming. I believe him. Everything he has said to me has been true; he's willing to tell what he 
knows, which can't be easy for him." 

237. Captain David V. Vanek, who took the assassination course with Marvin, was allegedly asked by the CIA to assassinate Pitzer after 
Marvin refused. Vanek denied the allegations in an affivavit. 

238. (175) Jonathan Kwitny, The Crimes of Patriots (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 1987), p. 103; Affidavit of Colonel Edward P. Cutolo, 
commander of the 10th Special Forces Group (Airborne), 1st Special Forces, 3/11/80, copy in author's possession. 

239. (176) Hoppy Heidelberg, interview with author. 

240. (177) "The Gundersen Report on the Bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, April 19, 1995, copy 
in author's possession. 

241. (178) Russell, Op Cit. 

242. (179) "Something Big is Going to Happen," Time Magazine, 5/8/95. 

243. (180) Wasiiington Post, 5/4/95. 

244. (2:66:*) The term "sheep-dipped" is best clarified by former CIA-Department of Defense liaison L. Fletcher Prouty, in his classic work on 
the CIA, The Secret Team (Prentice Hall). "It is an intricate Army-devised process by which a man who is in the service as a full career 
soldier or officer agrees to go through all the legal and official motions of resigning from the service. Then, rather than actually being 
released, his records are pulled from the Army personnel files and transferred to a special Army intelligence file. Substitute but nonetheless 
real-appearing records are then processed, and the man "leaves" the service." 

245. (195) New Yori< Times, 4/23/95. 

246. (196) "Terror in Oklahoma: The Suspect; Arizona Neighbors Recall a Man's Love of Weaponry and 'Poor Attitude'", New Yorl< Times, 

247. (197) Wasiiington Post, 7/2/95. 

248. (198) Marylin Hart, Interview with author, 1/15/96 & 4/1/96. 

249. (199) Rob Rangin, Interview with author, 4/1/96. 

250. (200) John Kifner, "Arizona Trailer Park Owner Remembered the Wrong Man," New Yorl< Times, 4/25/95. 

251. (201) Marylin Hart, Interview with author, 1/15/96. 

252. (202) New Yorl< Times, 4/23/95. 

253. (203) Steve Wilmsen and Mark Eddy, "Who bombed the Murrah Building?" Denver Post, date unknown. 

254. (204) FBI 302 of Lebron, Op Cit. 

255. (205) Patrick E. Cole, "I'm Just Like Anyone Else," Time, 4/15/96. 

256. (206) "An Ordinary Boy's Extraordinary Rage", Wasiiington Post, 7/2/95. 

257. (207) New Yorl< Times, 4/24/95. 

258. (208) Mark Schaffer, "Gun Class Sheds New Light On McVeigh," Tlie Arizona Republic, 5/28/95, quoted in Keith. 

259. (209) New Yorl< Times, 12/31/95. 

260. (210) Kevin Flynn and Lou Kilzer, "John Doe 2 Remains a Mystery: OKC Bombing Case's Unknown Suspect Could be More Than One 
Man, Investigators Believe," Rocl<y Mountain News, 3/3/97. 

261 .(211) New Yorl< Times, AI2AI^5. 

262. (*) The child protective services went to the compound, knocked on the door, walked in, and interviewed the children. They found no 
evidence of abuse and left. 

263. (*) This will be explored more fully in Volume Two. 

264. (212) Media Bypass, March, 1995. 

265. (213) New Yorl< Times, 1151^5. 

266. (214) Tim Kelsey, "The Oklahoma Suspect Awaits Day of Reckoning," London Sunday Times, 4/21/96. 

267. (215) Robert Vito, "Three Soldiers," CNN News, 8/9/95. 

268. (216) Trial of Timothy McVeigh. 

269. (217) Opening statement of lead prosecutor Joseph Hartzler at Timothy McVeigh's trial. 

270. (218) Howard Pankartz and George Lane, "Sister Testifies Against Brother," Denver Post, 5/6/97. 

271. (219) George Lane, "Letters Provide Damaging Evidence," Denver Post, 5/6/97; "Sister's Role Seen as Pivitol," Denver Post, 5/6/97. 

272. (220) Time, 5/1/95. 

273. (221) New York Times, 5/4/95. 

274. (222) "Oklahoma Bombing Plotted for Months, Officials Say, but Suspect Is Not Talking," New Yorl< Times, 4/25/95, quoted in Keith, p. 

275. (*) Nichols' discharge in the spring of 1989 for "hardship" reasons is also interesting. Another parallel is that of Thomas Martinez, the 
FBI infiltrator within the radical right Silent Brotherhood, who was given an honorable discharge during basic training. The Army choose not 
to explained why. (Keith, Op Cit.) 

276. (223) Emma Gilbey, "Brothers in Arms with a Destructive Hobby," London Sunday Telegrapii, 3/24/95. 

277. (224) Affidavit of FBI Agent Patrick W. Wease. 

278. (225) Newsweel<, 5/15/95. 

279. (226) Robert Jerlow, interview with author. 

280. (*) The letter to the girlfriend apparently was indicative of plans to bomb other locations. Interesting that the suspect would leave such 
an curiously incriminating trail of evidence. 

281. (227) New Yorl< Times, 7/5/95. 

282. (228) Dateline, NBC, 2/13/96. 

283. (229) Wasiiington Post, 7/2/95. 

284. (230) New Yorl< Times, 7/5/95. 

285. (231) ibid.; Wasiiington Post, 7/5/95. 

286. (232) Tiie Spotiigiit, 5/26/97. 

287. (*) Catina told London Sunday Telegrapii reporter Ambrose Evans-Pritchard that the man was "always" there. "He seemes out of place, 
but he was always around." 

288. (233) Jim Garrison, On tiie Traii of tiie Assassins, (New York, NY: Warner Books, 1988), p. 157. 

289. (*) In a rather prophetic statement, Michael Fortier's mother was heard to remark that McVeigh led "a double life." 

290. (234) Media Bypass, 3/95; New Yori< Times, 1151^5. 

291. (235) Beth Hawkins, "The Michigan Militia Greet the Media Circus," Detroit Metro Times, 3/26/95. 

292. (236) David Van Biema, Time, 6/26/95. 

293. (*) In what may appear to be an ominous coincidence, America in Peril made its debut just as the ATF and FBI were making their own 
apocalyptic plans for the Branch Davidians in Waco, Texas. 

294. (**) The Michigan Militia has officially disowned him. 

295. (237) Washington Post, 7/2/95. 

296. (238) Ken Armstrong, No Amateur Did Tiiis (Aptos, CA: Blackeye Press, 1996), p. 17. 

297. (*) Interestingly, Jennifer was found burning papers on an outdoor grill when the FBI showed up on April 23. 

298. (239) J.D. Cash, "McVeigh's Sister Laundered Bank Robbery Proceeds: ATF Surveillance Confirmed by Informant," McCurtain Daily 
Gazette, 1/28/97. 

299. (*) Interestingly, authorities wouldn't find any traces of ammonium nitrate in these lockers. 

300. (*) As pointed out previously, FBI chief chemist Frederick Whitehurst, who tested McVeigh's clothes, said no explosive residue was 
found. Whitehurst has since gone on to publicly accuse the FBI of manufacturing and tainting evidence in dozens of cases. 

301 . (240) Arnold Hamilton, "Bombing Accounts are Varied," Dallas Morning News, 10/8/95. 

302. (241) Connie Smith, interview with author. These accounts appeared in the McCurtain Gazette, The New American, and the Denver 
Post, among other places. 

303. (242) Dr. Paul Heath, interview with author. 

304. (243) Hoppy Heidelberg, interview with author. 

305. (244) Trish Wood, The Fifth Estate, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation; J.D. Cash, "Is a Videotape From a Tulsa Topless Bar the 
'Smoking Gun' in Oklahoma City Bombing?" McCurtain Daily Gazette, 9/25/96. 

306. (245) Tony Boiler, Assistant Project Manager, Goodwill Industries, interview with author. 

307. (246) Jane Graham, interview with author. Graham is a friend and co-worker of Joan's. 

308. (247) J.D. Cash, McCurtain Daily Gazette, 7/14/96. 

309. (248) Sherie, confidential interview with author. 

310. (*) She saw the truck at 6:00 a.m. at the diner, then it left before 7:00 a.m. She then saw it at Geary Lake in the afternoon on her way to 
Junction City, then saw it there on return trip around 3:00-4:00 p.m. The mainstream-press originally said Whittenberg saw the truck on 
Tuesday, parroting the FBI's line that McVeigh had rented the truck on the 17th. 

311. (249) Dan Parker, "McVeigh Defense Questions Co-Defendant's Claim," Daily Oklahoman, date unknown; Steve Wilmsen and Mark 
Eddy, "Who bombed the Murrah Building?" Denver Post, date unknown; Timothy McVeigh's Petition for Writ of Mandamus, 3/25/97, p. 36. 

312. (250) Linda Kuhlman and Phyliss Kingsley, interviews with author. 

313. (251) Mark Eddy, "Witnesses tell a different story," Denver Post, 6/16/96. 

314. (*) What is interesting is that McVeigh's friend James Nichols said that McVeigh never wore a baseball cap, much less backwards. He 
said McVeigh only wore an Army-issue cap. 

315. (252) Chuck Allen, interview with author. 

316. (253)/ib/d. 

317. (254) Jane Graham, interview with author. Graham is a friend and co-worker of Johnston's. 

318. (*) It is interesting that McVeigh would choose to hang around the scene of the crime, along with his easily identifiable yellow Mercury 
Marquis, minutes after it occurred. Johnston described the John Doe 2 as shorter and darker than McVeigh. 

319. (255) "Feds Charge Terry Nichols in Bombing," Los Angeles Times, 5/10/95, quoted in Keith, p. 185. 

320. (256) FBI FD-383 (FBI Facial Identification Fact Sheet) of Tom Kessinger, dated 4/20/95, copy in author's possession. 

321. (257) London Sunday Times, 4/21/96. 


258) Affidavit of FBI Special Agent Henry C. Gibbons, 4/21/95, copy in author's possession. 

259) Garrison, Op Cit, p.65, 77. 

260) Bid, p.66. 
261)/ib/d.,p. 79. 

262) Julie DelCour, "Informant Says Tulsan Talked About Local, OC Bombings," Tulsa World, 2/9/97. 

263) "TNT, $5 a stick. Need more. Call after 1 May, see if I can get some more." 

264) William Pepper, Orders to Kill: The Truth Behind the Murder of Dr. Martin Luther King, (New York, NY: Carol & Graf), 1995, p. 156. 

265) London Sunday Times, 4/21/96. 

266) Kevin Johnson, "McVeigh Lawyer Says FBI Agents Using Trickery," USA Today, 8/14/95, quoted in Keith, Op Cit, p. 57. 

267) Lana Padilla, interview with author. 

268) Bob Papovich, interview with author. 

269) "A Look at Terry Nichols," Associated Press, 4/5/96. 

270) Lana Padilla, interview with author, Diane Sawyer, ABC News Prime Time Live, 5/10/95. 

271) Padilla and Delpit, Op Cit., p. 36. 

272) Associated Press, 4/5/96. 

273) Steve Wilmsen and Mark Eddy, "Who bombed the Murrah Building?" Denver Post, date unknown. 

274) Serge F. Kovaleski, "In a Mirror, Nichols Saw a Victim," Washington Post, 7/3/95. 

275) "A look at Terry Nichols," Associated Press, 4/5/96. 

276) Media Bypass, date unknown. 

277) Ibid. 

278) Kovaleski, Op Cit. 

279) Padilla and Delpit, Op Cit., p. 168. 

280) Keith, Op Cit., p. 179. 

281) Kovaleski, Op Cit. 

*) In October of 1959, Lee Harvey Oswald appeared suddenly at the American Embassy in Moscow, and dramatically handed over his 

U.S. Passport and a letter renouncing his American citizenship. 

282) Associated Press, 4/5/96. 

283) Kovaleski, Op Cit. 

284) Lana Padilla, interview with author. 

285) Elizabeth Gleick, "Who Are They? The Oklahoma blast reveals the paranoid life and times of accused bomber Timothy McVeigh 


352. (287) Barbara Whitten berg, interview with author. 

353. (288) Washington Post, 7/3/95. 

354. (289) Denver Post, date unknown. 

355. (290) Kovaleski, Op Cit.. 

356. (291) Padilla and Delpit, Op Cit., p.3. 

357. (*) When I questioned her about this apparent contradiction, she told me her later statement was correct, and the book's account was 

358. (292) Lana Padilla, interview with author. 

359. (**) Nichols became interested in selling military surplus in December of 93' to April of 94' according to Padilla. 

360. (293) Padilla and Delpit, Op Cit., p. 6; interview with author. 

361. (294) KFOR interview with Lana Padilla. Interview with author. 

362. (295) Padilla, Op Cit., p.5, 9. 

363. (296) Lana Padilla, interview with author. 

364. (297) Padilla, Op Cit., p. 12. 

365. (298) Lana Padilla, interview with author. 

366. (299) Lou Kilzer and Kevin Floyd, "McVeigh Team Tries Again for Delay," Rocl<y IVIountain News, 3/26/97; Timothy McVeigh's Petition 
for Writ of Mandamus, 3/25/97. 

367. (300) Telephone records of Terry Nichols, copy in author's possession. 

368. (*) Earlier, McVeigh had told Padilla, "I'll write to him (Nichols), but I guess I'd better do it in code, because there are a lot of nosy 

369. (301) David Jackson, Linnet Myers, Flynn McRoberts, Ciiicago Tribune, 5/11/95. 

370. (302) Padilla and Delpit, Op Cit., p. 201. 

371 . (*) Nichols' attorney Michael Tigar claimed his client's use of aliases while renting the storage lockers was to prevent the credit card 
companies from coming after him. 

372. (*) McVeigh Defense attorney Christopher Tritico questioned the analysis, noting the FBI laboratory isn't accredited by any agency for 
such a test. Tritico also used photographs of a test hole drilled into lead by the bit to argue that grooves and scratches didn't resemble those 
in the hole closely enough to call them a match. 

373. (303) J.D. Cash, McCurtain Gazette, date unknown. 

374. (304) "McVeigh Appeals Conviction, Sentence," Reuters, 1/16/98. 

375. (305) Barbara Whitten berg, interview with author. 

376. (306) Nolan Clay, Robby Trammell, Diana Baldwin and Randy Ellis, "Nichols, Bomb Materials Linked," Daiiy OI<laiioman, date unknown. 

377. (307) Jerri-Lynn Backhous, interview with author. 

378. (308) Dorinda J. "Wendy" Hermes, interview with author. 

379. (*) Butler and Snell also reportedly had connections to Jack Oliphant of Kingman, Arizona. 

380. (309) New York Times, 5/20/95. 

381. (310) Edward Zehr, "Oklahoma City Cover-up Exposed: But the Mainstream Media are Still in Denial," Washington Weel<ly, 2/17/97. 

382. (311) "The Company They Keep," Transcript of the Canadian Broadcasting Company "Fifth Estate" piece on Oklahoma City, originally 
broadcast on 22 October 1996, Host, Bob Oxiey, Voice-Over Announcer, Trish Wood, Francine Pelletier; Guest, Robert Millar, Leader, 
Elohim City; Kerry Noble, Formerly Of CSA; Steven Jones, Timothy McVeigh's Lawyer; Joe Adams, Bailiff; Ross Mcleod, Security Agency 

383. (312) Warren Gotcher, interview with author. 

384. (313) Anthony Thornton, "Bomb Plans Found in Defendant's Home, FBI Agent Testifies," The Daily OI<lahoman, 4/3/96. "Anthony 
Thornton, "Three Defendants Found Guilty in Bomb Plot, The Daily Oklahoman. date unknown. 

385. (314) Judy Thomas, "We Are Not Dangerous, Leader of Separatists Says" Kansas City Star, 3/17/96. 

386. (315) Mark Fazlollah, Michael Matza, Maureen Graham and Larry King, "FBI: Heist Trail Led to White Supremacists," Philadelphia 
Inquirer, 6/30/96. 

387. (*) Mathews himself was the Northwest representative of William Pierce's National Alliance. 

388. (316) "Bank Bandits Tied to Rightists," Associated Press, 1/21/96; J.D. Cash with Jeff Holladay, "Rebels With a Cause, Part 3: The 
Aryan Republican Army, McCurtain Daily Gazette, 12/29/96. 

389. (317) Bill Merlin, "Devoted to Making Nation 'Ungovernable': Group Patterns its Organization After Irish Republican Army," Spokesman- 
Review, 12/29/96. 

390. (318) J.D. Cash, "The Spy Who Came in From the Cold," McCurtain Daily Gazette, 2/1 1/97. 

391. (319) J.D. Cash with Jeff Holladay, "Rebels With a Cause, Part Four: An Ex-Wife's Suspicions In The OKBOMB Case," McCurtain Daily 
Gazette, 12/31/96. 

392. (320) Andreas Strassmeir, interview with author. 

393. (321) Judy L. Thomas, "Man Target of Bank Robbery Inquiry," Kansas City Star, 1/29/97. 

394. (322) Ambrose Evans-Pritchard, The Secret Life of Bill Clinton: The Unreported Stories (Washington, DC: Regnery), p. 80. 

395. (*) It may be telling that part of Strassmeir's training involved feeding people disinformation. 

396. (323) Pritchard, Op Cit.; William Jasper, "More Pieces to the OKC Puzzle," The New American, 6/24/96. 

397. (324) February, 1996 press release from the Cause Foundation, quoted in The New American. 

398. (*) Around the same time, the caller telephoned the National Alliance office in Arizona. The National Alliance is the organization formed 
by William Pierce, who wrote The Turner Diaries. 

399. (325) Laura Frank, "Oklahoma City Probe May Touch Tennessee," The Tennessean, 6/30/96. 

400. (326) J.D. Cash, "Is a Videotape From a Tulsa Topless Bar the 'Smoking Gun' in Oklahoma City Bombing?" McCurtain Daily Gazette, 

401 . (327) Judy Thomas, Kansas City Star, 3/17/96. 

402. (328) Dennis Mahon, interview with William Jasper. 

403. (329) Timothy McVeigh's Petition for Writ of Mandamus, 3/25/97, pp. 44-45. 

404. (330) Jeff Steinberg, interview with author. 

405. (331) The members, Gene Schroder, Alvin Jenkins, and Ed Petruski, met with Iraqi Ambassador Mohammed Mashat before the start of 
Desert Storm. The Iraqis took notice of the group's patriotic activities, and invited them to Washington. "They were hoping to open up 
negotiations with America," explained Schroder, a farmer and veterinarian from Campo, Colorado. "They knew that we'd meet with them and 
push the issue some with our Representatives and Congressmen." The entire affair was completely legitimate and well-publicized, having 
been reported in at least one local newspaper in Colorado. The Constitutionalists and anti-war activists also had the support of Senators 
Hank Brown and Bob Dole. "We called the State Department and everything was cleared," they explained. Yet it seemed Jones' was trying 
to portray the meeting as part of a broader conspiracy between Iraqis and American dissidents. The attorney referred to the three men as 
Posse Comitatus members — a tax-protest organization of the mid-'80s with anti-Semitic overtones and connections to white supremacist 
groups. All three denied belonging to the group. Jones then mentioned that Petruski lived an hour's drive from bombing defendant Terry 
Nichols' house. Petruski denied knowing Nichols. (Eugene Schroder, Alvin Jenkins, and Ed Petruskie, interviews with author; Timothy 
McVeigh's Petition for Writ of Mandamus, 3/25/97.) 

406. (*) Although Jones only refers to "Suspect I," it is well-known that he is referring to Nichols, because he says he was "A subject of the 
FBI and Grand Jury investigation...." There were only two people investigated by the Federal Grand Jury: Timothy McVeigh and Terry 

407. (332) Pritchard, Op Cit, 3/30/97. 

408. (333) Ingo Hasselbach with Tom Reiss, Fuhrer-Ex: Memoirs of a Former A/eo-A/az/ (New York, NY: Random House, 1996), p. 215; 
John Michael Johnston, "Investigative Report Concerning Fact-Finding Trip to Germany," 5/15/96, copy in author's possession. 

409. (*) The El Rukn case is documented in the Federal Reporter in Unites States v. McAnderson, 914 F. 2d 934 (7th Cir. 1990). "The El 
Rukns sought to impress the Libyans and to demonstrate the depth of their commitment by discussing specific terrorist acts, among them 
destroying a government building, planting a bomb, blowing up an airplane, and simply committing a wanton 'killing here and a killing there' 
to get the Libyans' attention. Eventually, the leader of the El Rukns decided that the Libyans would only be impressed by the use of powerful 
explosives." (Jones, Writ of Mandamus, p. 85) 

410. (334) "Black History and the Class Struggle," Tlie Separatist League, No. 11, August, 1994. In a letter to his followers concerning his 
strange alliance with the NOI, Rockwell wrote: "I was amazed to learn how much they and I agree on things: they think that blacks should 
get out of this country and go back to Africa or to some other place and so do we. They want to get black men to leave white women alone, 
and white men to leave black women alone, and so do we. The Honorable Elijah Muhammad and I have worked out an agreement of mutual 
assistance in which they will help us on some things and we will help them on others. (" 

411. (335) Washington Times, 9/30/85. 

412. (336) Ambrose Evans-Pritchard, "IRA supplied detonator for Oklahoma terror bomb," London Sunday Telegrapii, 3/30/97. 

413. (*) British officials no doubt took the implications seriously. Jones had spent considerable time consulting with British explosives experts 
who planned to testify on behalf of the defense, as well as officials from MI5, Britain's domestic intelligence service and even an unnamed 
IRA member.( (Associate Press, 3/30/97.) 

414. (337) Tom Conlon and Helen Curtin, Dublin Sunday Times, 7/13/97, quoted in IVIcCurtain Daily Gazette, 7/15/97. 

415. (338) Rita Cosby reporting, KOKH, FOX, 4/2/97; Andreas Strassmeir, interview with author. 

416. (*) Information obtained from the Military Records Center by Ambrose Evans-Pritchard reveals that Petruski served in the Air Force 
Office of Special Investigations (OSI), retiring in 1975. His dalliance with the military included a stint as a Foreign Intelligence Officer in 
Vietnam, then Special Projects Officer, Special Activities Branch, Counterintelligence Division in Washington, D.C. He was reactivated with a 
"sensitive" assignment during the Gulf War. 

417. (339) "Strassmeir, OKC, And The CIA," The New American, 7/22/96. 

418. (340) Phil Bacharach, "Casting Doubts: Were Others Involved in the Federal Building Bombing?" Oklahoma Gazette, 2/13/97. 

419. (*) Curiously, when the FBI queried various federal law-enforcement and intelligence agencies to determine if Strassmeir was a 
cooperating witness or a confidential informant, only the CIA reported that it held any records on him. These records were turned over to 
prosecutors, but not made available to McVeigh's defense team, despite a court order compelling their disclosure. 

420. (341) J.D. Cash, with Jeff Holladay "Weeks Before OKC Bombing, ATF Had 'Wanted' Posters On Strassmeir," McCurtain County 
Gazette, 7/28/96. 

421. (342) J.D. Cash, "Agents Probe OKC Bombing Links To Bank Robberies," McCurtain Daily Gazette, 7/16/96. 

422. (*) Interestingly, cases involving violence or planned violence by militias from around the U.S. show a recurring theme of government 

penetration and infiltration of militia groups. For example, testimony in the Muskogee bombing case showed that the FBI was literally paying 
the operating expenses, including the phone bills for the Tri-State Militia. 

423. (*) OHP pilot Ken Stafford, ATF technician Pat McKinley, and acting ATF SAC Tommy Wittman flew over Elohim City on February 7, 
1995, and reported to Finley-Graham. 

424. (*) BATF regional director Lester Martz denies that the BOLO was put out by the ATF. 

425. (343) Tulsa Police Intelligence, confidential interview with author. 

426. (344) An INS memo of January 10 stated: "Per your note, I talked to Angela Finely, ATF. It may be awhile before the subject is 
contacted or arrested, but we will probably be called to assist." 

427. (*) It seems the ATF and FBI were also concerned about the possiblity of an "intramural fire fight" between their respective agencies at 
Elohim City. 

428. (345) Cash, Op Cit. 

429. (*) Howe's allegations of federal malfeasance dovetailed with those of federal informant Cary Gagan, who was inside the Middle 
Eastern cell tied to the bombing. 

430. (346) Pritchard, Op Cit. 

431. (347) Ibid.; The OHP officer who made the arrest was Vernon Phillips. 

432. (348) J.D. Cash, IVIcCurtain Daily Gazette, 7/14/96. Dennis Mahon also admitted that Strassmeir worked for the GSG-9. 

433. (*) The FBI didn't go to any great lengths to question Strassmeir, nor his roommate Michael Brescia. Months after the bombing, the FBI 
places a leisurely call to Strassmeir's home in Berlin. They made no attempt to question or arrest Brescia. 

434. (**) When Middle Eastern suspect Hussain al-Hussaini came under scrutiny by KFOR and other investigators for his role in the 
bombing, the FBI "debunked" the "rumors" about him, too. Was he also an agent? (See Chapter 6) 

435. (349) J.D. Cash and Jeff Holliday, "Weeks Before Bombing, ATF Had Out "Wanted" Posters, McCurtain Gazette, 7/29/96, quoted in 
American Freedom, September, 1996. 

436. (*) The ostensible purpose of the raid was to recover bomb-making materials — materials which had been obtained by Howe at the 
request of her ATF handler — Finley-Graham! 

437. (350) J.D. Cash, "Controversy Over Howe's True Loyalties Become Focus of Her Trial," McCurtain Daily Gazette, 7/30/97. 

438. (351) J.D. Cash, McCurtain Gazette, 7/14/96. The source claimed that classified computer records of the ATF contained evidence that 
Strassmeir was indeed a key component in the agency's espionage operation at Elohim City, and numerous neo-Nazi groups throughout the 

439. (352) London Sunday Telegraph, date unknown. 

440. (353) "Hate and the Law: Kirk Lyons, Esq." Anti-Defamation League, Special Edition, June, 1991. 

441 . (354) Lyons had this to say about Mahon in an interview with Volkstreue, a German Neo-Nazi magazine: "I have great respect for the 
Klan historically but sadly, the Klan today is ineffective and sometimes even destructive. There are many spies in it and most of its best 
leaders have left the Klan to do more effective work within the movement. It would be good if the Klan followed the advice of former 
Klansman Robert Miles: 'Become invisible. Hang the robes and hoods in the cupboard and become an underground organization.' This 
would make the Klan stronger than ever before." 

442. (355) Ambrose Evans-Pritchard & Andrew Gimson, "Did Agents Bungle US Terror Bomb?", date unknown. Some of the dialogue was 
added from Pritchard's 1997 release. The Secret Life of Bill C//>7toA7(Washongton, DC: Regnery), p. 90. 

443. (*) "When The New American asked Evans-Pritchard if he believed Strassmeir was referring to himself when speaking in the third 
person of the 'informant,' he replied, 'Of course, there's no doubt that is exactly what he meant to convey. He was stating it as plainly as he 
could' without admitting criminal culpability on his own part." (William Jasper, "Elohim, Terror and Truth," The New American, 3/31/97.) 

AAA. (356) Andreas Strassmeir, interview with author. 

445. (357) Alex Constantine, "The Nazification of the Citizen's Militias and the Transformation of Timothy McVeigh from Hyper-Military 
'Robot' to Mad Bomber," 12/9/95. 

446. (358) Petition for Writ of Mandamus of Timothy McVeigh, 3/25/97, p. 44. 

447. (359) Constantine, Op Cit. 

448. (360) Ibid. 

449. (361) William Jasper, "Elohim, Terror, and Truth," New American, 3/31/97. 

450. (362) Charles, Op Cit. In her report of September 26, 1994, Finley-Graham indicates that Mahon "gave 183 approximately 2 feet of 
green safety fuse, a can of gun powder and a plastic funnel," and said he would "instruct 183 how to assemble hand grenades." 

451. (363) James Ridgeway, "Lone Assassins?: A Series of Arrests May Link the Oklahoma City Bombing Suspects to a Larger Plot," 
Village Voice, 2/5/97; Mark Eddy, "Others Eyed in Bomb Probe?" Denver Post, 1/29/97. 

452. (364) Cash, Op Cit. 

453. (365) Zehr, Op Cit. 

454. (*) According to reports, it was Cash who "persuaded" Mahon to make the recording. 

455. (366) ATF ROI 53270-94-01 24-B, 1/11/95. 

456. (367) Ibid. 

457. (368) Letter read into testimony at Howe's trial. 

458. (369) ATF ROI, 9/26/94. "Andy also told 183 that there exists a black market dealer who can get grenades, C-4 and a range of 

459. (*) Dawson was also a paid informant for the Greensboro Police Department. 

460. (**) With a map of the parade route supplied by Greensboro Police Department Detective Jerry Cooper, Dawson, Butkovich, and their 
KKK and neo-Nazi comrades were able to select the most advantageous site for their ambush. Although Cooper and other officers surveilled 
the house where the killers had assembled and took down license numbers, they inexplicably decided to take a lunch break less then 45 
minutes before the march. By the time the shooting started, the tactical squad assigned to monitor the demonstration was still out to lunch. 
Even more inexplicably, two officers responding to a domestic call at the Morningside projects, the site of the CWP march, noted the 
suspicious absence of patrol cars usually assigned to the area. One of the cops. Officer Wise, later reported receiving a bizarre call from 
police dispatch, advising him to "clear the area as soon as possible." The incident resulted in an ATF/FBI-led cover-up similar in most 
respects to the Oklahoma City whitewash, with most of the suspects being acquitted of first degree murder charges. Echoing the factitious 
rants of federal officials in Oklahoma, FBI Director William Webster called the charges of federal complicity "utterly absurd." Although the 
killers had been recruited, organized and led on their murderous rampage by ATF and FBI operatives, none ever served a day of jail-time. 
((*) Frank Donner, Protectors of Privilege: Red Squads and Police Repression in America, (Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA, University of 
California Press: 1990), p. 360; Michael Novick, "Blue by Day, White by Night: Organized White Supremacist Groups in Law Enforcement 
Agencies," People Against Racist Terror, 2/3/93, p. 3.) 

461. (370) Ivo Dawnay, "Informant Accuses FBI Over Oklahoma Bomb," Electronic Telegraph, 7/20/97. 

462. (*) Just as federal informant Cary Gagan provided the FBI and U.S. Marshals with warnings. 

463. (371) Kay Clarke, interview with author. Snider's half-sister, Kay Clarke, testified that she drew the composite sketch of the man Snider 

464. (372) Diana Baldwin and Ed Godfrey, "Separatist Asks for Immunity — Witness Takes the Fifth Before Grand Jury," Daily Oklahoman, 

465. (373) Ambrose Evans-Pritchard, '"Master of Disguise' Ready to Run," London Sunday Telegraph, 3/30/97. 

466. (374) Diana Baldwin, "Former Klansman Identifies Aryan Leader as John Doe 2," Daily Oklahoman, 10/8/97. 

467. (375) Cash, Op Cit. 

468. (*) When McVeigh's defense team asked federal prosecutors for Howe's reports in pre-trial discovery, they were informed the records 
didn't exist. When it was shown that the records did indeed exist, an angry Judge Matsch ordered the records delivered to the defense and 
threatened the prosecutors with removal from the case if they lied one more time. 

469. (*) Finley-Graham admitted during Howe's subsequent trial that she was listed as an "active informant" through December 18, 1996, but 
offered an interesting explanation for that status. Both Finley-Graham and federal prosecutors claimed that removing her from the official 
listing might have led to the destruction of records regarding the bombing. "That was especially intriguing and troubling," writes New 
American editor Bill Jasper, "because it left unanswered who would have destroyed which records, and why any records concerning the 
deadliest terrorist attack on American soil would have been destroyed, especially while the investigation is ongoing and a trial is pending." 

470. (376) William F. Jasper, "Undercover: The Howe Revelations," The New American, 9/15/97. 

471. (*) Her live-in neo-Nazi boyfriend, James Viefhaus Jr., had been arrested earlier for allegedly promoting a call-in message advocating 
the bombing of federal buildings in 15 different cities. The message, reportedly connected to the National Socialist Alliance of Oklahoma, 
also endorsed the April 19th bombing. The FBI claimed to have discovered bomb-making materials in Viefhaus' home. 

472. (377) "Ex-Informant Indicted on Charges," Associated Press, 3/13/97, Indictment No. 97-CR-05-C, Northern District of Oklahoma, 

473. (378) Richard Leiby, "How a Wheaton Kid Became a Neo-Nazi Bank Robber, and One Confused Human," Washington Post, 2/13/97. 

474. (379) James Ridgeway, Village Voice, 7/23/96; Cash, Op Cit. 

475. (380) Fazlollah, et al.. Op Cit. 

476. (381)/ib/d. 

477. (382) Leiby, Op Cit. 

478. (383) Morlin, Op Cit. 

479. (384) Leiby, Op Cit. 

480. (*) Chevie and Cheyne Kehoe, two brothers who opened fire on police in Ohio in February of 1997 during a routine traffic stop, also 
lived at Elohim City. Were they some of the people trained in weaponry by Strassmeir? 

481. (385) Paul Queary, "Bombing Informant Ruffles Case," Associate Press, 2/23/97. 

482. (386) Robert Heibel, interview with author. 

483. (387) Walter Goodman, "Terror in Oklahoma City: TV Critics' Notebook; Wary Network Anchors Battle Dubious Scoops, New York 
Times, 4/20/95. 

484. (388) Craig Roberts, interview with author. 

485. (*) Lipkin also told Roberts that Stinger missiles have been smuggled into the country. A Stinger is thought to have been responsible for 
the attack on TWA flight 800. 

486. (389) Arnold Hamiltion, "Oklahoma City Car bomb Kills at Least 31; Scores Missing in Rubble of Office Building," Dallas Morning News, 

487. (390) Hugh Davies, "Rental Car is Key Clue on Trail of Terrorists," London Sunday Telegraph, 4/21/95. Abdul Yasin, another Iraqi, was 
released and returned to Iraq. Abdul Basit is Yousefs real name. 

488. (*) No evidence was produced for the so-called assassination attempt. The allegations were reminiscent of the tale of Iraqi soldiers 
pulling babies out of incubators, which turned out to be a lie. 

489. (391) Patrick Cockburn, "Defector Exposes Saddam's Lies on Chemical Weapons," The Independent, 5/7/96. "General Sammara'i says 
that the committee in charge of sabotage on which he served, and which uses a special 600-strong military unit called 888 to carry out 
operations, still exists and he suspects it was involved in giving support to the bombers. 

490. (392) Paul Anderson, Metro Correspondent Chicago, IL "Threat of Terrorism Further Increases," Net News Service , 07/07/93. 

491. (393) Ibid., Center for National Security Policy, No. 95-D23 11 April 1995 Decision Brief. 

492. (394) William Carley, "A Trail of Terror," Wall Street Journal, 6/16/93, p. A1, quoted in James Phillips, "The Changing Face Of Middle 
Eastern Terrorism," Heritage Foundation Report, 10/6/94. 

493. (395) Jack Anderson, Dale Van Atta, "Iraq Reported to Send Terrorists to U.S.," Washington Post, 1/28/91 . 

494. (*) A note on Steven Emerson: Although there is no evidence contradicting these claims, it should be noted that Emerson has, in the 
past, served as an official mouthpiece for the U.S. government, as a consultant to the Pentagon. He played a large role in covering up the 
truth of the Pan Am 103 bombing, by attacking and smearing Lester Coleman, Juval Aviv, and any others who tried to bring forth the truth. 
Emerson also went on the Heraldo Rivera show in June of 1997 and attempted to bash Kevin Flynn of the Rocky Mountain News who had 
uncovered connections between Terry Nichols and suspects in the Philippines. The author attempts in this instance merely to report a few 
basic facts as related by Emerson, who does have some experience in Middle East terrorism. The author, however, holds Emerson's 
dubious connections with elements of the government in question. 

495. (396) The bombings included a Jewish community center in Buenos Aires and the Israeli embassy, the downing of a commuter plane in 
Panama, and a Jewish charity organization in London. It is assumed that the July, 1994 attacks by Hizbollah — which coincided with King 
Hussein's peace-making trip to Washington — were primarily to disrupt the Israeli/PLO peace talks. 

496. (397) According to Phillips: "Islamic radicals also often have a different audience in mind than Palestinian nationalists. Instead of using 
terrorism to influence Western powers to change their policies, they often use terrorism to punish Western powers and inspire other Muslims 
to rise up against the West. This focus on the Muslim audience rather than an American audience helps explain how the bombers of the 
World Trade Center could rationalize their bloody actions. The bombing was meant to demonstrate the power of Islamic radicals and the 
vulnerability of the U.S., not to lead the U.S. to rethink its Middle East policy." 

497. (398) Confidential report of William Northrop to KFOR, 5/10/96. Copy in author's possession. 

498. (399) Phillips, Op Cit. "Between 1980 and 1989 over 400 terrorist actions spilled over from the Middle East to other regions, with 87 
percent of these actions occurring in Western Europe." Paul Wilkinson, "Terrorism, Iran and the Gulf Region," Jane's Intelligence Review, 
May 1992, p. 222. 

499. (400) "Jihad in America," PBS Documentary, 11/21/94. 

500. (*) Shimon Havitz, an Israeli General attached to the Prime Minister's office, also told McVeigh Defense Attorney Stephen Jones that 
the Israelis had issued a warning to the Americans. 

501 . (401) Yehizkel Zadok, "The FBI is Conducting a Search for 'Three Middle Easterners,'" Yediot Arhonot, 4/20/95. 

502. (402) Report of William Northrop, and interview with author. 

503. (403) Timothy McVeigh's Petition for Writ of Mandamus, 3/25/97, p. 81. Jones points out, given the issue of the credibility of the 
information, that the head of Saudi Intelligence is the King's own son. 

504. (*) Jones said that Lipkin met with his U.S. "counterpart," Phil Wilcox, the U.S. State Department's coordinator for terrorism, after the 
bombing to "compare notes." The reader will also recall that two Israeli bomb experts traveled to Oklahoma City after the bombing to analyze 
the bomb signature. 

505. (*) Jones originally said that the meeting took place in Kingman, AZ. According to Gagan, that was incorrect, and was to protect 
Gagan's information. 

506. (*) Gagan had intermittent contact with the Soviets throughout the mid-'80s. In 1982, Gagan met a Soviet spy named Edward 
Bodenzayer while in Puerto Vallerta. Bodenzayer had been exporting classified technology to Russia through his import/export business. He 
was eventually arrested as a result of a joint FBI/Customs counterintelligence sting operation known as Operation Aspen Leaf. 

507. (404) Cary Gagan, interview with author. 

508. (405) Deposition of Cary James Gagan, 7/14/95. Copy in author's possession. 

509. (*) Gagan later seemed to waver on this point: "I don't care what they say — where he was supposedly — he was there." He later said: 
"I'm not sure, but it sure looked like him. He just didn't fit." 

510. (**) Gagan recalls that Omar threw something in the trash. Gagan later fished it out. They were technical diagrams in Spanish that 

appeared to be bomb plans. 

51 1 . (*) According to Gagan, his Arab friends were interested in buying the Postal Center, and asked Gagan to propose a cash deal to 
Colombo. They were apparently interested in its mail and truck rental facility. 

512. (406) Mike Levine, interview with author. 

513. (407) Report of Craig Roberts, 5/8/95, copy in author's possession. Roberts is the author's partner on the Oklahoma City bombing 

514. (*) What is interesting, considering the FBI's lack of response, is that the Tulsa office of the FBI had commissioned Roberts to provide a 
report on the bombing. 

515. (**) Gagan coyly admitted to knowing Iran-Contra drug runner and pilot Barry Seal. 

516. (408) Gagan contacted Dave Floyd at the U.S. Marshals Office. He said 'We've got to get moving on this right away.' I said, 'Well, I've 
got to have immunity.'" 

517. (*) Gagan was referring to a Middle Eastern man who flew in from Oklahoma City. Gagan had never seen him before. 

518. (*) Gagan gave accurate and specific descriptions of street addresses he had been in Kingman, and provided receipts for his travels to 
the Arizona town. He also provided receipts for hotel rooms in which he claims bomb planning meetings were held. He said the original plot 
involved blowing up a Jewish convention center in Denver where President Clinton was speaking. 

519. (409) FBI Agent Mark Holtslaw, interview with author. 

520. (410) Hand-written letter from Gagan to Tina Rowe, copy in author's possession. 

^^^ ■ V / Jayna Davis, KFOR-TV broadcast, June, 1995. U.S. Marshals Service head Tina Rowe said, regarding Gary Gagan's hand-delivered letter: "I work in a federal 
building and all my friends work in federal buildings, and it's not something that anyone working in that environment would ever overlook." KFOR then uncovered a copy of 
Gagan's envelope, on which the matching signature of a Marshals Service employee was found. The Marshals Service claimed it was suspicious, because it's office policy to 
sign both the first and last name, and to stamp all incoming mail. 

522. (**) The Judge who sent Gagan to the mental hospital, John P. Gately, was later termed incompetent and disbarred due to brain 

523. (411) Kevin Flynn, "Romer, Norton get Bomb Threats: CBI Informant's Reliability in Question; He Also Warned of Federal Building 
Blast," Rocky Mountain News, 8/12/95. Gagan was worried about what had happened in Mexico with the Soviets, and didn't want to accept a 
plea bargain. 

524. (412) Federal Public Defender, confidential interview with author. 

525. (*) A voice stress analysis the author ran on Gagan's interview tapes showed he was telling the truth. 

526. (**) Reports indicating that Gagan had been of assistance to the DEA were illegally removed from his informant file in an attempt to 
discredit him. 

527. (413) Letter of Immunity from U.S. Justice Dept. signed by Henry Solano, to Gary James Gagan, copy in author's possession. 

528. (414) "FBI Furor," Unclassified, Summer, 1997. 

529. (415) Gail Gibson, "The Strange Murder-For-Hire Trial of Chuck Hayes Got Even Stranger Yesterday," Lexington IHerald-Leader, 
1/16/97. Myers claimed that Hayes, a former CIA operative, had tried to hire a hit-man with a mere $5,000, using an open phone line. 

530. (416) Former Army C.I.D. investigator, confidential interview with author. 

531. (417) Dick Russell, "Spook Wars In Cyberspace: Is the FBI Railroading Charles Hayes?" l-ligii Times, June, 1997. 

532. (*) Gagan says the Letter of Immunity was not filed with the court, in violation of standard procedure. He also asserts that Allison's 
signature was signed by his secretary, and is no good. 

533. (418) Florida police detective, confidential interview with author. 

534. (*) Gagan claims that on January 15, 1997, as he was waiting for a bus at 1st and Lincoln in downtown Denver, a dark four-door Buick 
came careening around the corner, firing at him with a silenced automatic weapon. A check with Doug Packston at the Colorado Transit 
Authority revealed a bullet hole in the bus shelter and glass that had been replaced. 

535. (*) It is unlikely that Gagan could have known about King's story, which was not widely reported. 

536. (**) The Florida police detective I spoke with told me that the FBI and state authorities "didn't want to investigate this," referring to the 
connections he uncovered between Arab-Americans, the PLO, and the Call Cartel, in the mid-80s. He believes the FBI's head of 
Counterintelligence came to Florida disguised as an agent, found out what they were working on, and took off. As he said, "Things weren't 
right... It was as if someone were looking at this and saying 'stay away from it.'" His experience ties into that of an Army C.I.D. officer who 
investigated the brother of one of the Middle-Easterners allegedly involved in the bombing, who was involved in military espionage in 
Huntsville, Alabama in the mid-80s. He said the FBI "stonewalled" the case. (More on this later) 

537. (419) OCPD Dispatch of 4/19/95. 

538. (420) David Harper, "Just who is Carol Howe? Jurors Will Have To Decide Who the Real Woman Is," Tulsa World, 7/28/97. "Howe said 
she heard a 'powerful murmur' in the fall of 1995 that Tulsa could be the target of a major bombing in the spring of 1996. Howe said 
Thursday she left messages in 1995 but that her calls weren't returned." 

539. (*) A specific warning regarding flight 103 was also passed on from a Mossad Agent working at the Frankfurt airport. 

540. (**) What is interesting is that Oliver "Buck" Revell, former Counter-Terrorism chief of the FBI, pulled his son and daughter-in-law off 
Pan Am 103 minutes before the flight. Did Revell know something the rest of us did not? (Steven Emerson doesn't bother mentioning that 
little fact in his psyop piece entitled The Fall of Pan Am 103 , which, incidentally, leaves out the entire CIA/drug connection that many feel 
was linked to the bombing. 

541. (**) Was Solano pressured to ignore Gagan's warning? The Denver U.S. Attorney had earlier intended to proceed with an investigation 
into corruption by top U.S. officials connected with Boulder Partnerships, Ltd., Twin Cities Bank of Little Rock, and MDC Holdings of Denver, 
until he realized who was involved — friends of Bill Clinton and George Herbert Walker Bush. 

542. (421) Robert Rudolph, "Lawmen Get Warning of Plot on U.S. Targets," Newark Star Ledger, 3/22/95. 

543. (422) Wendy Holden and David Millward, "Oklahoma Bomb Suspect Seized at Heathrow," London Sunday Telegraph, date unknown. 

544. (423) Ibid. 

545. (424) Ibid. 

546. (425) Steven Emerson and Brian Duffy, The Fall of Pan Am 103, (New York, NY: G.P. Putnam's), 1990, p. 176; also see "The Maltese 
Double Cross," a British TV documentary on Pan Am 103. 

547. (*) Ahmed's detention produced a flurry of responses from the ACLU (American Civil Liberties Union), who were notified by Ahmed's 
friend Sam Khalid. The ACLU has long been funded (some say taken over) by the Roger Baldwin Foundation, a CIA front. Perhaps they 
wanted their man Ahmed released, just as the CIA wanted Jordanian Marwan Kreeshat released. 

548. (**) Haider Al Saiidi, one of Khalid's workers, had a wife who miscarriaged after the bombing due to harassment. When Haider made 
that public, Khalid fired him. If Clear's theory is true, it is curious why Khalid fired him. 

549. (426) Police Report of arrest of Hussain Al-Hussaini. Sharon Twilley also stated she believed she had seen McVeigh in a bar on NW 
10th Street, and had seen Hussaini and other Khalid employees in the same bar at different times. 

(* What must be pointed out again is that the FBI is claiming McVeigh rented the Ryder truck the following Monday, 
April 17, which he did. This account indicates that two Ryder trucks were involved in the operation, not one, as the 
FBI claims. 

550. (* 

551. (* 

552. (427) Craig Freeman and Dennis Jackson, interviews with author. 

553. (428) Sharon Cohen, Associated Press, 4/26/95. 

554. (429) Ruby Foos, interview with author; Davies, Op Cit, 4/21/95. 

555. (430) Jim Polk, CNN, 4/20/95; Sharon Cohen, Associated Press, 4/21/95. 

556. (431) William Jasper, "The Trial of John Doe No. 2," The New American, 5/13/96. 

557. (432) J.D. Cash, "Lose Your Illusion," Media Bypass, February, 1996. 

558. (433) Margaret Hohmann and Ann Domin, interviews with author. 

559. (434) Debra Burdick, interview with author. 

560. (435) Jayna Davis, KFOR, shadow interview with Kay H., 6/17/95. 

561. (436) David Snider, interview with author. 

562. (437) OKPD Dispatch of 4/19/95. 

563. (438) David Hall, interview with author. 

564. (*) A source in the Sheriffs Office interviewed by Jayna Davis said the FBI refused to explain why it had cancelled the APB. David Hall 
said the APB was canceled by an FBI agent named Webster. Yet according to OCPD officer Don Browning, the FBI later "admitted" to 
"fabricating" the APB. 

565. (**) Both Ernie Cranfield and neighbors saw the brown pick-up at Sahara Properties. 

566. (439) Ernie Cranfield, interview with author. 

567. (*) Heather Khalid also told Cranfield in a secretly-taped interview that she had not been able to find any time record on Hussaini for 
April 19, so she made one up and gave it to Dave Balut, a reporter for KWTV. Khalid employee Terry Holliday, told a reporter at KOCO-TV 
that Hussaini had been painting the house at NW 31st Street on April 19, then later told Cranfield that Hussaini had not actually been there 
on the 19th. Heather claimed that she had taken some supplies to Hussaini that morning, but Holliday claimed she had never been there. 
Khalid worker Barnaby Machuca also repeatedly changed his story regarding Hussaini's whereabouts. 

568. (*) Numerous FBI and law enforcement sources Davis contacted agreed that Hussaini resembled the sketch of John Doe 2, and 
believed there was a Middle Eastern connection to the bombing, possibly connected to the World Trade Center bombing. (KFOR's 
Response to Plaintiff's Interrogatories, Hussaini vs. KFOR). 

569. (440) OCPD D.U.I, report, copy in author's possession. 

570. (* FBI spokesman Steve Mullins wouldn't confirm or deny whether Hussaini was a suspect; FBI agent James Strickland, who would 
later investigate Khalid's alleged shooting of his secretary, Sharon Twilley, also declined to comment on whether Hussaini was a suspect. 

571. (441) George Lang, "Out on a Limb," date unknown. 

572. (442) Dave Balut reporting, KWTV, 10:00 p.m. newscast, 6/16/95. 

573. (443) Sam Khalid, interview with author. 

574. (*) William Northrop is an ex-lsreali intelligence officer who was indicted by former U.S. Attorney Rudolph Gulianni, and testified against 
Israel's role in Iran-Contra. A friend of the late CIA Director William Casey, Northrop's name was reportedly found in Casey's diary upon his 

575. (*( Khalid, speaking on behalf of Hussaini, claimed his INS records were "stolen." 

576. (*) Yousef arrived in New York on September 1, 1992. Many New York law enforcement officials reportedly believe that Iraq was 
involved [in the Trade Center bombing], although they can not prove it. (Laurie Mylroie, "World Trade Center Bombing — The Case of Secret 
Cyanide," The Wall Street Journal, July 26, 1994, p. A16.), quoted in James Phillips, The Changing Face of Middle Eastern Terrorism," Tiie 
l-ieritage Foundation, Bacl<grounder, #1005, 10/6/94. 

577. (444) Mylroie, Op Cit. Yousef, who grew up in Kuwait, was also identified by Kuwaiti Interior Minister Sheik AN al Sabah al Salim as an 
Iraqi collaborator during Iraq's 1990 invasion of Kuwait. (Charles Wallace, "Weaving a Wide Web of Terror," Los Angeles Times, 5/28/95.) 

578. (*) Hussain al-Hussaini moved to Houston after going public and suing KFOR. 

579. (445) Louis Champon, interview with author. According to Champon, who is suing the federal government, Peter Kawaja, who was 
head of security for Champon's plant, hired Wackenhut. Kawaja was later given immunity to act as an informant. Said Robert Bickel, a 
Customs informant and investigator familiar with the case: "Hell, Barbouti was treated more like a damn state bird than a terrorist." 

580. (*) Louis Champon said he saw Barbouti meet with Secord at the Fountain Blue Hotel in Miami in 1988. 

581. (446) Mike Johnston, interview with author. John Conally, "Inside the Shadow CIA," Spy magazine, September, 1992; Said Louis 
Champon, "They are so well-protected by an entity in our own government, that they have put up a wall...." 

582. (*) Yet according to Champon's former head of security Peter Kawaja, and Iraqgate investigator Robert Bickel, Champon himself isn't 
so innocent. "Champon had to know about the cyanide leaving the plant," said Bickel. "He was there every day, while the plant was being 
built and operated." Nevertheless, Champon went public, and was threatened and shut down by U.S. Customs and the I.R.S. 

583. (447) TK-7 is a chemical company in Oklahoma City owned by Moshe Tal, an Israeli. Barbouti had attempted to purchase a formula 
from them that could extend the range of rocket fuel for the Iraqi SCUD missiles. 

584. (*) While Ishan Barbouti allegedly "died" of heart failure in London in July of 1990, he was reportedly seen afterwards alive and well 
flying between Aman, Jordan and Tripoli, Libya. Other accounts indicate that he is living safe and well in Florida. 

585. (448) Clark, Op Cit, 

586. (449) Ibid., pp. 70-72, Quoted in William Blum, Killing Hope: U.S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II (Common Courage 
Press, 1996), p. 335; "The Gulf War and its Aftermath," The 1992 Information Please Almanac (Boston, 1992), p. 974, Quoted in Blum, p. 

587. (450) Laurie Garrett (medical writer for A/evi/sofay), "The Dead," Columbia Journalism Review, May/June, 1991, p. 32, quoted in Blum, p. 

588. (451) Needless Deaths Op. Cit., p. 135, quoted in Blum, p.335. 

589. (452) Ibid., pp. 201-24; Clark, pp. 72-4; Los Angeles Times, 1/31/91; 2/3/91, quoted in Blum, p. 336. 

590. (453) Bill Meyers, PBS Special Report: After the War, Spring, 1991, quoted in Clark, p. 53. 

591. (454) "Biography: McVeigh, Part Two, Media Bypass, March, 1995. 

592. (*) World Trade Center bomber Mahmud Abouhalima told Egyptian intelligence that the World Trade Center bombing had been 
approved by Iranian intelligence. 

593. (455) Yossef Bodansky, Terror: The Inside Story of the Terrorist Conspiracy in America (New York, NY: SPI Books, 1994), quoted in 
Keith, Op at., p. 154. 

594. (456) Ibid., p. 153. 

595. (457) Indeed, a major terrorism summit sponsored by Tehran in June of 1996 saw delegates from Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iraq, Saudi 
Arabia, and other Mid-East and African states, as well as Bosnia-Herzegovina, Germany, France, Britain, Canada, and the U.S. come 
together to form a joint working committee under the command of the new HizbAllah International — transforming that group into "the 
vanguard of the revolution" of the Muslim world. 

596. (458) Defense & Foreign Affairs, Op Cit. 

597. (459) Ibid. 

598. (460) Ronald W. Lewis, "Uncivil Air War" (The Shootdown of TWA Flight 800)," Air Forces Monthly, No. 104, November 1996, posted 
by S.A.F.A.N. Internet Newsletter, No. 213, December 21, 1996. 

599. (461) Dr. Laurie Mylroie, Ph.D., "Terrorism in Our Face," American Spectator, April, 1997. 

600. (*) This will be explored more fully in Volume Two. 

601. (462) Phillips, Op Cit. It is reported that hundreds of them are also being trained by Iranian Revolutionary Guards in Sudanese training 


602. (463) See Edward Gargan, "Where Arab Militants Train and Wait," New York Times, 8/ 1 1/93; Tim Weiner, "Blowback From the Afghan 
Battlefield," New York Times Magazine, 3/13/94; Daniel Klaidman and Gregory L. Vistica, "In Search of a Killer," Newsweek, 8/1 1/97. 

603. (464) "The New Era of Global Terrorism," IVISA News, date unknown, posted on Internet. The leaders of Abu Sayyaf are: Abdurajak 
Abubakr Janjalani, Amilhussin Jumaani, Edwin Angeles, Asmad Abdul. 

604. (465) "U.S. Forces in Gulf on High Security Alert," Reuter, 4/7/97. 

605. (466) Patrick Cockburn, "Defector exposes Saddam's Lies on Chemical Weapons," Tiie Independent, 5/7/96. "General Sammara'i says 
that the committee in charge of sabotage on which he served, and which uses a special 600-strong military unit called 888 to carry out 
operations, still exists and he suspects it was involved in giving support to the bombers. 

606. (*) Abdul Rahman Yassin, an Iraqi indicted for his part in the World Trade Center bombing fled to Baghdad. His brother, Musab Yasin, 
provided a safehouse for the later plots. While the New York office of the FBI wanted to arrest him, curiously, the Washington office 
objected. Another Iraqi with a Ph.D. in microbiology, currently living in New Jersey, is Walied Samarrai. 

607. (467) Charles Wallace, "Weaving a Wide Web of Terror," Los Angeles Times, 5/28/95; Robert D. McFadden, "Nine Suspected of 
Terrorism are Arrested in Manila," New York Times, 12/30/96. 

608. (*) The nine suspects are: Yousefs brother, Adel Anonn (alias Adel Bani); Abdul Kareem Jassim Bidawi; Haleem Jassim Bidawi; 
Jamaal Jaloud; Ibrahim Abid; and Najim Nasser (Iraqis); Emad Almubarak (Sudanese); Saleh Al Quuwaye, and Zaid Al Amer (Saudis). 

609. (**) Angeles told Jones that there are links to Philippine mail-order-bride businesses and criminal/terrorist activity. It was not clear from 
Jones' brief exactly what this entailed. 

610. (468)//)/d.,p.3. 

611. (469) Lana Padilla, interview with author. 

612. (**) Referring to the place in Davao, Angeles said, "It was also the place where Muslims were taught in bomb making." 

613. (470) Lou Kilzer and Kevin Floyd, "McVeigh Team Tries Again for Delay," Rocky Mountain News, 3/26/97; Timothy McVeigh's Petition 
for Writ of Mandamus, 3/25/97. 

614. (471) Lana Padilla, interview with author. 

615. (472) "Petition For Writ of Mandamus of Petitioner-Defendant, Timothy James McVeigh and Brief in Support", Case No. 96-CR-68-M, 

616. (*) A source close to Jones said that attorney Jim Hankins actually prepared the Writ. 

617. (*) Northrop claims that when he tried to run the information down in Kingman he came up empty. His source in the U.S. Marshals 
Service, who was looking into the matter, received a call from the Justice Department, and was promptly stonewalled, he said. 

618. (*) Casinos have been used to launder money. A drug dealer or other criminal enters the casino with dirty money, buys large quantities 
of chips, gambles a bit, then cashes in the chips for clean money. Russbacher told Stich that the process also works in reverse. He 
explained in one case how the CIA, through Shamrock Overseas Disbursement Corporation, gave money to the casino, who in turn would 
give gambling chips to the recipients when they arrived, then the chips were cashed in. Russbacher named three Las Vegas casinos 
allegedly involved in the operation, including the Frontier, Stardust, and Binyon's Horseshoe. 

619. (t Considering the reports from dancers at two stripper bars — one in Tulsa and one in Junction City — McVeigh and Nichols had a 
penchant for these types of places. 

620. (473) As interrogatory answers filed by KFOR in its defense against al-Hussaini state: [Lana] Padilla said that her son. Josh, went to 
Las Vegas about once a month, where he was with Tim McVeigh, Terry Nichols, and Middle-Eastern men. Padilla expressed the opinion that 
there was a Middle-Eastern connection to the Oklahoma City bombing. 

621. (474) "Omar Khalif was one of the aliases listed on Khalid's 1990 federal indictment. 

622. (475) Melissa Klinzing, former KFOR news director, interview with author. 

623. (**) After Davis questioned several employees at the MGM, two were fired. 

624. (476) Louis Crousette and Jayna Davis, transcript in author's possession. 

625. (477) Gordon Novel, interview with author. 

626. (*) Gagan recognized Abraham Ahmed being with Khalid. Gagan said he saw Ahmed (by another name) in Las Vegas with Omar- 
Khalid in the Summer or Fall of 1994. He said he also saw Hussain al-Hussaini in Oklahoma City when he was here in April. 

627. (**) Al Saiidi, incidentally, was the man who's wife who had a miscarriage after stones were thrown through his window. When Al Saiidi 
went before news cameras to complain about the incident, Khalid fired him. 

628. (478) Ernie Cranfield, interview with author. 

629. (*) The State Tax Commission also wanted Cranfield to testify against Khalid. Instead, Khalid paid a fine. "That covered up for his ex- 
wife getting killed," said Cranfield. 

630. (t At the same time, interestingly, two Middle Eastern residents of the Woodscape apartments skipped out without paying their rent. It 
should also be noted that two heavy-set Arabs work for Sam Khalid. 

631. (479) Keith, Op Cit, p. 148. 

632. (480) Joe Royer, interview with author. The FBI agent who interviewed the couple told them that one VIN number was left intact, and 
fingerprints were found. 

633. (481) Rex Carmichael, interview with author. 

634. (*) Was the brown pick-up painted at Route 66, or elsewhere? According to information obtained by Will Northrop, Haider al-Saiidi was 
hired by AN Khoddami at International Auto works, a body shop located at 16th and Blackwielder, after he was fired by Khalid. An Iranian, 
Khoddami is reportedly a friend of Khalid's. Sharbat Khan, a Pakistani and Rizwan A. Shaikh were reportedly going to buy International Auto 
Works from Khoddami. 

635. (482) Tom's is run by Tom Breske, who Carmichael described as "bad news." 

636. (483) Confidential interview with author. 

637. (484) Michael Reed, interview with author. 

638. (**) Don Browning, interview with author. Kamal had been working with the FBI to track Khalid and others who were involved in 
insurance fraud scams. Although he definitely knew Khalid, he disputed that he said "This is the Mossad" to Browning. Browning swears he 
did. Yet Jayna Davis said Browning told her that Kamal said that Khalid was a member of "Hamas," a far cry from the Mossad, the Israeli 
intelligence agency. Another possible explanation is that there were Mossad agents posing as members of Hamas, but it seems unlikely that 
Kamal would know that. 

639. (485) Bob Jerlow, interview with author. 

640. (486) OCPD detective, confidential interview with author. 

641 . (*) When Jerlow asked an FBI source if KFOR was on the right track, he was told "Keep doing what you're doing." Curiously, an OCPD 
contact of Davis' was told by his FBI source, "stay away." 

642. (*) Macy and State Attorney General Drew Edmondson had also pushed certain aspects of the Anti-Terrorism Bill, using the bombing 
as a platform. 

643. (**) This is doubly interesting, since Richardson was the U.S. Attorney who prosecuted Khalid for insurance fraud in 1990. Richardson 
"committed suicide" in July of 1997 over "work- related" matters. 

644. (*) While Khalid's attorney claimed that only $15,000 dollars or so was involved in the scams, the U.S. Attorney's report is more 
incriminating. Khalid was also accused during his arson case of employing false Social Security numbers. One of them is registered to a 
woman in Oklahoma City; the other to a woman in Miami. 

645. (**) One of the agents, James Strickland, would later be assigned to the Twilley assault case. 

646. (t He later told investigative journalist Williann Jasper he emigrated from Libya. 

647. (487) U.S. vs. Sam Khalid, Response to Presentence Report; Sam Khalid, interview with author. 

648. (*) According to a local HUD representative I checked with, Khalid paid cash for most of his properties, avoiding the scrupulous 
background checks and the typical paper trail which accompanies them. Additionally, none of Khalid's three companies, which employ 
numerous employees, are registered with the State or have Federal Tax I.D. numbers. 

649. (*) Emphasis in original. 

650. (488) FBI spokesman Charles Steinmetz said the information he gave Burnes came from former FBI Deputy Assistant Director Bob 

651. (489) Karen Burnes, "Palestinians: Dirty Business," CBS West 57 Street News magazine, 5/2/89, Citd in Howard Rosenberg, 
"'Palestinian Network': A Full Report?, Los Angeles Times, 6/1/89. 

652. (*) "Before the bombing, we couldn't get the U.S. Attorney's office interested," said private investigator Ben Jacobson. "After the 
bombing, they just wanted us to keep our mouths shut." 

653. (490) Northrop, Op Cit. 

654. (491) In federal court filings, WISE was described as "a front used to bring international terrorists to the United States." 

655. (*) It seems the reference to "Iranians" as used by this CID officer is a generic term meant to refer to Middle-Easterners in general, 
although some Iranians were definitely involved. 

656. (**) According to Mike Johnston, the head of security for 777 Post Oak Corporation (a high-rise office complex in Houston affiliated with 
IBI, Ishan Barbouti's company) had a son in the U.S. military intelligence. The father, who was later wanted for impersonating a CIA agent, 
would call his son at the Major Command Assignments Center at Boiling Air Force in Washington, D.C. around August 1 990, just prior to the 
Iraq's invasion of Kuwait. Some of the calls apparently involved the use of a modem to tap into the command center's computers. 

657. (492) Retired U.S. Army CID investigator. Interview with author. 

658. (493) General Robert L. Moore (Ret), interview with author. 

659. (*) Tom Weisman was the FBI SAC of the Huntsville office. 

660. (**) This detective also said that the chief of the FBI's counterintelligence division masqueraded as a police officer and traveled to 
Florida to collect data on the their investigation. 

661. (t Brazelton didn't return calls. 

662. (*) Had it actually come from Mexican drug king-pin Juan Garcia Abrego, who is linked to the Call Cartel, and had reportedly sent two 
bag-men up to Oklahoma City to finance the bombing? 

663. (**) Kingman has also been called the "Golden Triangle" of Speed (Methamphetamine), and McVeigh had known Clark Volmer, a 
paraplegic drug dealer and loan shark in town. On October 19, six months to the day of the bombing, Gagan was directed by a man he 
describes as "Hizbollah" to take a bus from Las Vegas to Kingman, to deliver a large bag of money — estimated to be between $200,000 
and $300,000 to an individual who was "militia looking in appearance." 

664. (t McPeak hired McVeigh in 1993 to do security work at a local shelter. When his girlfriend was arrested in Las Vegas on a bad credit 
charge, Clark Vollmer, a paraplegic drug dealer in Kingman, helped bail her out. In February of '95, McPeak claims, Vollmer asked him to 
ferry some drugs. He refused. Shortly thereafter, an ANFO bomb exploded under a chair outside McPeak's home. When he went to 
Vollmer's house to confront him, he found Timothy McVeigh, along with another man he didn't recognize. 

665. (494) "FBI Finds Possible Evidence in OKC Bombing, CNN, 7/20/95. 

666. (495) Hugh Dellios, "Federal Marshals Arrest Chemist," Chicago Tribune, 5/13/95; Mark Schaffer, "Probe Nets 2nd Man in Oatman," 
Arizona Republic, 5/14/95, quoted in Keith, p. 52; Katherine Mauro, Oatman Mining Co., interview with author; Records of the Federal 
Bureau of Prisons. 

667. (496) Diane Sawyer, "Prime Time Live," 4/25/95. 

668. (497) Mike Johnston, "Investigative Fact Finding Trip to Germany," 1995, copy in author's possession; Jonathan Vankin, Conspiracies, 
Cover-Ups & Crimes: From Dallas to Waco, (Lilburn, GA: llluminit Press, 1996), p. 211. 

669. (*) Skorzeny was at the nexus of the surviving elements of the Nazi movement, and helped organize its tentacles after WWII. 

670. (498) Johnston, Op. Cit; Vankin, Op Cit., p. 226; Martin A. Lee and Kevin Coogan, "Killers on the Right: Inside Europe's Fascist 
Underground," Mother Jones, May, 1987. 

671. (499) Der Spe/ge/ writer Martin Killian, interview with author. Libya also reportedly funded the Irish Republican Army. 

672. (500) Johnston, Op. Cit. 

673. (501) Mike Levine, interview with author. 

674. (502) Tom Jarriel, ABC 20/20, January 19, 1996. 

675. (503) Jeffrey A. Builta, "Extremist Groups," Office of International Criminal Justice, Chicago, date unknown. The connection is 
reportedly through Pakistani Brigadier General Imtiaz. 

676. (504) Terrorist Group Profiles, Dudley Knox Library, Naval Postgraduate School, date unknown. 

677. (505) Builta, Op Cit. 

678. (*) The Bureau of Prisons had "no record" of Edward Flinton, eventhough he served time in federal prison. Usually this means the 
individual is under the "witness protection program." 

679. (506) Kevin Flynn, "Romer, Norton Get Bomb Threats: CBI Informant's Reliability in Question; He Also Warned of Federal Building 
Blast," Rocky Mountain News, 08/12/95. Gagan said he met with Al Fuqra members on different occasions between October, 1995 and 
February 1996. 

680. (507) Judge Lewis Babcock and John Strader, interview with author. Gagan said he met with U.S. Marshal Jake Warner at Brooklyns 
restaurant on October 27, 1995. "In all the years that I've known [Gagan], he's never met with a pair of people in suits," said the manager in 
an interview with the author. 

681 . (*) Gagan said he saw Daniel with Omar and Ahmed in Mexico. On November 27, Gagan says he was instructed by his "Hizbollah" 
contact to rent a room at the La Vista Motel in Denver in preparation for another meeting. Gagan said his attempts to have the FBI stake out 
the room were ignored. The informant claims he learned of plans to bomb simultaneous targets in Phoenix and Denver on or about February 
8, 1996 — the specific targets being the ATF office in the Mile High Center at 1700 Broadway in Denver, and the DEA/Customs office at 1 15 
Inverness Drive in Englewood, Colorado. 

682. (508) Hampton's alias was Abd al-Rashid Abdallah, and Gant's was Abd Rashid. 

683. (*) A voice stress analysis run on the caller indicated he was telling the truth. 

684. (*) This claim was allegedly based on DNA tests and footprint matches. 

685. (509) Jim Killackey, "Leg Confirmed as 169th Victim's," Daily Oklahoman, date unknown; "Leg Lost in Blast Still a Mystery," Dallas 
Morning News, 10/19/95; "Oklahoma Bomb Victim Exhumed," 3/15/96, Associated Press; Gary Tuchman, "Does severed leg prove 
McVeigh's innocence?," CNN, 8/7/95. 

686. (510) William Jasper, interview with author. Mahon stated this to Jasper on October 1 , 1996, 

687. (51 1) "Rise of HizbAllah International," Defense & Foreign Affairs, 8/31/96. 

688. (512) FBI 302 statement of Mohammad Abdul Haggag, quoted in Mylroie, Op Cit. 

689. (513) Timothy McVeigh's Writ of Mandamus, 3/25/96, copy in author's possession, also quoted in William Jasper, " Defense Cits 
Mideast Connection," The New American, 5/12/97. 

690. (514) Phillips, Op Cite. 

691. (515) She said that her father had also met Yasser Afaf at, and had his photograph on his wall. 

692. (*) Michele also said she overheard her father talk about approaching neo-Nazis through the National Socialist Party. Did Hirram Torres 
try to contact National Socialist leader Gary Lauck? Apparently, Strassmeir was on to Lauck, as he was arrested on his way to Denmark. 
Strassmeir had learned about Lauck's travel plans from WAR leader Dennis Mahon, a friend of Brescia and Strassmeir, who, as mentioned 
previously, was being paid by the Iraqis. 

693. (516) Keith, Op Cit, p. 151. 

694. (**) We ran Torres' tapes through a voice stress analyzer. They indicated she was being truthful. 

695. (517) There were no purges in the Communist intelligence services in the former Soviet Union [FSU]. Documents and records, as 
General Sejna points out, were transferred from Eastern Europe to Moscow. Those who ran the KGB still run the SVR, and a dozen other 
services in Russia and the FSU. 

696. (518) Michael Hedges, "Senate Resolution Asks Clinton to Block Resettlement of Iraqis," Washington Times, 9/14/93; "Iraq: Admission 
of Refugees into the United States," Congressional Research Service Report for Congress, Library of Congress, 10/28/93; Letter from 
Senator David Boren to Craig Roberts, 3/14/94, copy in author's possession; Denmark, Norway, Sweden, the U.K., Australia, Pakistan, and 
Syria absorbed the remaining refugees. 

697. (*) The Federal Government allocated $6,000 per refugee for resettlement purposes, at the same time that veterans who suffered from 
Gulf War illness were being ignored by the Veterans Administration. 

698. i5^9) Ibid. 

699. (*) On December 4, 1981, President Reagan issued an Executive Order permitting the CIA to conduct covert operations inside this 
country. Not that they didn't already. 

700. (*) Like Andreas Strassmeir, Hussaini was unable to come up with his INS records. Khalid claimed they were stolen by KFOR, a claim 
that Jayna Davis just laughed at. 

701 . (*) The government's refusal to admit the terrorist missile shoot-down of TWA flight 800 may very well have as its basis the need to 
maintain the ability of the crucial airline industry to continue functioning. 

702. (*) As Washington insider journalist Sara McClendon told me, "Bush has a hold on the Clinton administration, and I don't know what it 
is. . . . George Bush starts these things. . . he's pushing Mena, Arkansas off on Clinton. . . . Most of the people don't know that Bush is 
manipulating the administration." 

703. (520) McVeigh was indicted on 1 1 counts: conspiracy to use a bomb to destroy the Federal Building, detonating the bomb, destroying a 
federal building, and murdering eight federal law enforcement agents. 

704. (521) Brandon M. Stickney, All American Monster: The Unauthorized Biography of Timothy McVeigh (New York, NY: Prometheus 
Books, 1996), p. 177; "Richard Serrano, "Clues Sought in Details from McVeigh's Arrest," Los Angeles Times, 9/10/95, quoted in Armstrong, 
Op Cit. p. 118. 

705. (*) McVeigh was taken over to Hanger's patrol car, where he heard radio broadcasts about the bombing, and casually chit-chated with 
Officer Hanger. ( When he arrived at the jailhouse, he simply asked, "when's chow"? 

706. (522 Col. David Hackworth and Peter Anninn, j"And We're Going to Go to Trial," Newsweek, 7/3/95. 

707. (523) Richard A. Serrano, "Clues Sought in Details from McVeigh's Arrest," 9/10/95, quoted in Ibid. 

708. (524) Application and Affidavit FBI Special Agent Henry C. Gibbons. 

709. (525) Elizabeth Gleick, "Who Are They?" Time, 5/1/95. 

710. (526) New York Times, 4/22/95. 

71 1 . (*) For that matter, why would he rent an easily traceable truck, apply for jobs at the Federal Building using his real name, allow himself 
to be filmed by numerous security cameras, stop to ask directions minutes before the bombing, hang around two blocks from the crime 
scene minutes after the blast, speed away without a license plate, and fail to shoot the cop who stopped him? 

712. (527) United States v. Timothy James McVeigh, direct testimony of FBI Agent James Elliott, 4/28/97. The complete confidential vehicle 
identification number was 1FDNF72J4PVA26077. 

713. (*) The author saw a close-up videotape of the axle taken by Deputy Sheriff Melvin Sumter, which clearly shows the serial number on 
the differential housing, which is part of the rear axle assembly. It was not, as some amateur researchers claimed, on the axle itself. 

714. (528) FBI FD-383 (FBI Facial Identification Fact Sheet) of Tom Kessinger, dated 4/20/95, copy in author's possession. Tim Kelsey, "The 
Oklahoma Suspect Awaits Day of Reckoning," London Sunday Times, 4/21/96. 

715. (529) Cash, Op Cit. 

716. (530) Edward Zehr, "The McVeigh Trial Gets Underway: Mainstream Media Miss The Real Story," Washington Weel<ly, 5/5/97. 

717. (*) Elliott stated in his FBI 302 that a second man accompanied "Kling" on April 17, and thought he saw "fair size" light blue sedan. 

718. (*) In fact, Elliott testified that he met with the prosecution for two hours, several days prior to the his appearance at trial. 

719. (531) Affidavit of Richard Renya, July 5, 1995 

720. (532) A/evi/svi/ee/c reporter, confidential interview with author. 

721. (*) An anonymous informant who contacted State Representative Charles Key several times stated, "...the ATF regularly uses leased 
Ryder trucks to move ordinance. And you know it's against ICC regulation and everything but he said they secretly do it." Investigator Craig 
Roberts said the Army also has "open contracts" with Ryder. 

722. (533) "Phone Records Link Suspects Before Blast," Daily OI<lalioman, 5/3/96. 

723. (534) Testimony of OPUS Telecom expert John Kane, U.S. v. McVeigh. 

724. (535) Kevin Flynn, "Computer Records Show Calls Made But Aren't Clear Who Made Them," Rocl<y IVIountain News, date unknown. 
"Prosecutors have pressured OPUS representatives not to discuss this issue with the News, even asking them not to verify how their 
computer systems work, the employees said." 

725. (536) Steve Wilmsen, "Records Point to John Doe 2," Denver Post, date unknown; Steven K. Paulson, Associated Press, 2/15/97. In a 
later ruling. Judge Matsch stated that Manning denied prosecutors did anything wrong to elicit his testimony. 

726. (537) J.D. Cash, interview with James Sargeant, IVIedia Bypass, July, 1996. 

727. (538) Barbara Whitten berg, interview with author. 

728. (*) Interestingly, McGown did not state on his FBI 302 who was driving the truck on April 16, when his mother had asked him to request 
that the driver move it. 

729. (539) Investigation on 5/7/95 at Junction City, Kansas File # 174A-OC-56120-D-815 by SA Mark M. Bouton -WSA, date dictated 5/8/95. 

730. (540) Robert Vito, "Oklahoma Bombing Investigators Hit Troublesome Snags," CNN, 11/24/95. 

731. (541) A/evi/svi/ee/c reporter, confidential interview with author. 

732. (542) Hoppy Heidelberg, Interview with author. 

733. (543) Joseph Vinduska and Dennis Euwer are two witnesses who saw the truck at the lake on the 18th. 

734. (544) Steve Wilmsen and Mark Eddy, "Who bombed the Murrah Building?" Denver Post, date unknown. 

735. (545) Jack Douglas Jr. "Bomb link to lake reportedly scrapped. Fort Wortii Star-Telegram, 3/25/97. 

736. (546) Evan Thomas, "This Doesn't Happen Here," Newsweek, 5/1/95; U.S. v. McVeigh. 

737. (547) U.S. v. James Douglas Nichols and Terry Nichols, Criminal Complaint, statements of FBI Special Agent Patrick Wease. 

738. (548) "Some Witnesses Leery Of Bombing Grand Jury," Daily Oklahoman, 8/10/97; Gary Antene, interview with author. 

739. (549) U.S. v. McVeigh, testimony of Richard Chambers. 

740. (550) "FBI Investigates Possible McVeigh Link to Fuel Buy," Rocky Mountain News, 4/1 1/97. 

741. (*) However, the indictment named Libyan Abdel Basset AN al-Megrahi as the customer. Authorities' second witness, Abdu Maged 
Jiacha, a Libyan intelligence officer who defected to the U.S., was put into the Federal Witness Protection Program and given a $4 million 
dollar reward for his testimony against Megrahi. 

742. (551) Ed Hueske, interview with author. 

743. (552) Frank Shiller and Max Courtney, interviews with author. 

744. (553) Lou Kilzer and Kevin Flynn, "Were Feds Warned Before OKC Bomb Built?" Rocky Mountain News, 2/6/97. 

745. (554) Testimony of Kevin Nicholas, U.S. v. McVeigh. 

746. (555) Padilla and Delpit, Op Cit., p. 209; David Johnson, "Agents in Kansas Hunt for Bomb Factory as Sense of Frustration Begins to 
Build," New York Times, 4/30/95, quoted in Keith, p. 37. 

747. (556) James. D. Nichols, Freedom's End: Conspiracy in Oklahoma, self published, 1997, p. 164. 

748. (557) "McVeigh's Fingerprints Not on Key Items," CNN, 5/15/97. 

749. (*) As the Associated Press recently reported, police in upstate New York had been falsifying evidence, including fingerprints, for years. 

750. (558) Jim Garrison, On Tiie Trial of the Assassins (New York, NY: Warner Books, 1988), p. 1 13. 

751. (559) Whitehurst contended the problems in the FBI's lab had been occurring since at least 1989. 

752. (560) David Johnston and Andrew C. Revkin, "Report Finds FBI Lab Slipping From Pinnacle of Crime Fighting," New York Times, 

753. (561) "Report: FBI Lab Botched Oklahoma Bombing Evidence," CNN, 3/22/97. 

754. (*) As Whitehurst stated: "...Mr. Thurman, in my estimation does intentionally misrepresent evidence and is, absolutely, without a doubt, 
beyond any possible other explanation's grasp, result oriented. He wants the answer that will prove guilt..." 

755. (**) Whitehurst testified that he was told not to provide any information or evidence, such as alternate theories to the urea-nitrate theory, 
that could be used by the defense to challenge the prosecutors' hypothesis of guilt in the World Trade Center case. (Ryan Ross, "Blasting 
the FBI," Digital City Denver, 1997) 

756. (562) John Kelly, "FBI: McVeigh Contradictions," Unclassified, date unknown; Memorandum to All U.S. Attorneys from John Keeney, 
Acting Assistant Attorney General, 1/4/96, copy in author's possession; "Outside Experts to Review FBI Crime Lab," Wall Street Journal, 
9/19/95; "Team to Investigate FBI Chemist's Bias Claims," Associated Press, date unknown; Pierre Thomas, "FBI Lab Audit Finds Some 
Discrepancies," Washington Post, 9/15/95. 

757. (**) "Mr. Williams... rewrote my reports in an unauthorized rewriting, issued these reports, unauthorized, changes being in them, and 
changed the meaning of the reports I think, without realizing it," Whitehurst later testified. 

758. (563) Memorandum to Scientific Analysis Chief James Kearny, copy in author's possession, date unknown. 

759. (564) Garrison, Op Cit., P. 116. 

760. (565) "FBI Furor," Unclassified, Summer, 1997. 

761. (566) Ryan Ross, "Blasting the FBI," Digital City Denver, 1997. 

762. (567) Nolan Clay, "McVeigh Items Seized From Home, Brief Says," Daily Oklahoman, 6/1 1/96; U.S. v. McVeigh, testimony of Special 
Agent Steven Burmeister. 

763. (568) Karen Abbott, "Defense Says FBI Tainted Residue: Evidence Questioned; British Expert Testifies; The Tables Turn Today, Rocky 
Mountain News, 5/21/97. Burmeister said he photographed the crystals before they disappeared. 

764. (569) Deputy Sheriff Clint Boehler, interview with author. 

765. (570) Ryan Ross, Digital City Denver, 1997. Reno would later comnnent, "It is unfair, it is unreasonable, it is a lie to spread the poison 
that the government was responsible at Waco for the murder of innocents. That kind of language is unacceptable in a society that values 

766. (571) U.S. V. McVeigh. 

767. (*) McVeigh selected Oklahoma City for the fact that the agents and the orders that came out of that building were responsible for the 
tragedy at Waco, Fortier alleged at trial. 

768. (572) The gun — a Ruger Mini-30 rifle. Serial No. 18957425 — was actually purchased by Terry Nichols on November 10, 1993, from 
Randy's Hunting and Sport in Bad Axe, Michigan. 

769. (573) Hoppy Heidelberg, interview with author. 

770. (574) Copy of letter in author's possession. 

771. (575) David Maranise, Pierre Thomas, "Officials See Conspiracy of at Least Four in Blast; Probe Focuses on Suspect's Right-Wing 
Ties, Washington Post, 4/23/95. 

772. (576) Ibid. 

773. (577) Dallas Morning News, 6/15/95. 

774. (578) Peter Carlson, Washington Post, 3/23/97. 

775. (*) Hartzler's letter, Jones said in his brief, "indicates that the Justice Department is still searching for John Doe No. 2 and may be 
releasing disinformation to lessen public pressure to find [him]." 

776. (579) Nolan Clay and John Parker, "John Doe 2 Still Sought, Letter: Says Prosecutors Doubt Witnesses Mistaken," The Daily 
Oklahoman, date unknown. 

777. (580) William Jasper, New American, date unknown. 

778. (581) Nolan Clay and Penny Owen, '"Wacky Theories' Unfair, McVeigh Attorney Says," Daily Oklahoman,^0/29/96. "We have an 
obligation to investigate everything," Hartzler told a group of bombing victims. "And if we find some rumor or whatever it is, it makes it into an 
FBI report." 

779. (582) John Gibson, interview with Charles Key and V.Z. Lawton, MSNBC, 4/25/97; V.Z. Lawton, interviews with author. 

780. (583) New York Times, 12/3/95. 

781 . (*) The federal prosecutors' lame excuse for confining the evidence to McVeigh and Nichols was to maintain a "deadline" set by federal 
guidelines on providing speedy trials. 

782. (584) Harry Wallace, CBS This Morning, 10/16/95. 

783. (585) Jon Rappaport is the author of The Oklahoma Bombing: The Suppressed Truth (Santa Monica: Blue Press, 1995). 

784. (586) Hoppy Heidelberg, interview with author. 

785. (587) J.D. Cash, "New Investigation Into Oklahoma City Bombing Demanded," Jubilee, Nov/Dec, 1995. In the Whitewater affair, a 
special federal judge panel, by statute, appointed an Independent Counsel, Kenneth Starr, supposed to be separate and apart from the 
Justice Department. Under the law, this was supposed to assure the public that there would be an "independent" investigation of possible 
high-level criminality, not a white-wash. Miguel Rodriguez was reportedly blocked by Starr and others from probing and calling independent 
witnesses, not necessarily FBI nor forensic experts beholden to a political agenda. All this, in respect to suspicions that White House deputy 
counsel Vincent Foster, jr. was not really a suicide but murdered. "Whitewater And The 'Runaway' Federal Grand Jury", Sherman H. 
Skolnick. Conspiracy Nation, Vol. 5, No. 30. 

786. (*) It seemed that the John Doe 2 lead was officially dropped in early May. An FBI memo regarding a John Doe 2 lead instructs all FBI 
offices: "In view of the fact that the Oklahoma Command Post has directed all offices to hold unsub #2 leads in abeyance, San Francisco will 
conduct no further investigation regarding this lead." (174A-OC-56120 TPR:tpr, investigation was conducted by Special Agent (SA) Thomas 
P. Ravenelle regarding Richard Dehart, DOB 6/21/65, as a Phoenix resident and a possible look- alike for unsub #2, dated 5/3/95.) 

787. (588) Reddy and Wilmsen, Op Cit. 

788. (589) Dr. Paul Heath, interview with author. 

789. (590) Sharon Cohen, Associated Press, 4/27/95, quoted in Armstrong, Op Cit, p. 27. 

790. (*) It should be noted that McVeigh was supposedly on the road on April 12, traveling from Kingman to Junction City. 

791. (591) Barbara Whitten berg, interview with author. 

792. (592) Jayna Davis, interview with author. 

793. (593) Linda Kuhlman and Phyliss Kingsley, interviews with author. 

794. (594) Connie Hood, interview by Glenn Wilburn and J.D. Cash; Keith, Op Cit, p. 147. 

795. (595) Ibid. 

796. (596) Tony Boiler, Assistant Project Manager, Goodwill Industries, interview with author. 

797. (597) Jerri-Lynn Backhous and Dorinda Hermes , interviews with author. 

798. (598) Kevin Flynn, "Guard saw 2nd truck at building: Story Mirrors Bombing Trial Witness' Account of Blast Day," Rocl<y IVIountain 
News, 5/24/97. 

799. (599) Arnold Hamilton, Dallas Morning News, 11/27/95. 

800. (600) Brian Ford, "McVeigh Placed at Kansas Store," Tulsa World, ^IMI^l. 

801. (601) Hamilton, Op Cit 

802. (*) This is the same thing that Brian Marshall, the Johnny's Tire Store employee, said. 

803. (*) David Snider, interview with author. Snider appeared to be a credible witness. 

804. (602) Mark Eddy, "Witnesses Tell a Different Story," Denver Post, 6/16/96. 

805. (603) Rodney Johnson, interview with author. 

806. (604) "Some Witnesses Leery Of Bombing Grand Jury," Daily Oklahoman, 8/10/97. 

807. (605) Monterey County Herald, 4/29/95, quoted in Armstrong, Op Cit, p. 8. 

808. (606) Judy Kuhlman and Diana Baldwin, "Witnesses Say McVeigh Not Alone — Testimony Places John Doe 2, Another Man With 
Bomber," Daily Oklahoman, 9/1 1/97. 

809. (607) "FBI Searching for Third Man in Oklahoma City Bombing," CNN, 3/10/97. 

810. (*) "Reference lead #10,220: Referenced lead #10,220, San Francisco was directed to locate and interview LESTER SCANLON 
concerning his knowledge of STEVEN COLBERN. In view of the fact that COLBERN has been eliminated as a suspect in this matter, San 
Francisco will conduct no further investigation concerning lead #10,220." (FBI memo dated 5/3/95.) 

811. (608) Cash, Media Bypass, February, 1996, Op Cit 

812. (*) As the Legal Times noted: "Within hours of landing, [Deputy A. G. Merrick] Garland was hit by a barrage of legal concerns.... In 
subsequent days. Garland met with Oklahoma County District Attorney Robert Macy, gently notifying him of the Justice Department's desire 
not to have a local investigation going on simultaneously." 

813. (609) Foreign Policy Institute expert, confidential interview with author. 

814. (*) The Brady Rule and Federal Rule of Criminal Procedure 16(a)(1)(C) provides: "Upon request of the defendant the government shall 
permit the defendant to inspect and copy and photograph, books, papers, documents, photographs... which are within the possession. 

custody or control of the government, and which are material to the preparation of the defendant's defense...." 

815. (610) U.S. V. McVeigh, Timothy McVeigh's Petition for Writ of Mandamus, 3/25/97. 

816. (611) Ambrose Evans Pritchard, "Victims Sue in Oklahoma: Fight for Truth," London Sunday Telegraph, 3/23/97. 

817. (612) J.D. Cash and Jeff Holladay, "Day of Blast 'an Amazing Coincidence,'" McCurtain Gazette, 12/1/95. 

818. (613) Pat Briley, interview with author. 

819. (*) Judge Matsch was not impressed with this evidence. He commented during trial that there must be half a million blue GMC pick-ups 
with camper tops. 

820. (614) Ken Armstrong, interview with Oklahoma Highway Patrol, August 30, 1995. 

821. (615) Amber McGlaughlin, interview with author. 

822. (616) Ken Armstrong, No Amatuer Did This (Aptos, CA: Blackeye Press, 1997). 

823. (*) The assertion was that McVeigh was demonstrating how to make a "shaped charge," which would have been impossible to make 
using 55-gallon barrels of ANFO. 

824. (617) Testimony of Deborah Brown, U.S. v. McVeigh. The author has had personal experience with methamphetamine users, and can 
vouch for the drug's ability to induce psychotic states. 

825. (*) In fact, Fortier was very intent during testimony on impressing upon the jury that the guns from the Moore "robbery" were stolen, 
saying in response to Jones' cross-examination: "No, no! I'm convinced those guns were stolen!" As J.D. Cash observed, Fortier's 
successful plea-bargain was partly dependent on carrying that fact forward. 

826. (618) Hoppy Heidelberg, interview with Jon Rappaport. 

827. (*) Even Judge Matsch was forced to tell the jury: "You should bear in mind that a witness who has entered into such an agreement has 
an interest in this case different from any ordinary witness. A witness who realizes that he may be able to obtain his own freedom or receive 
a lighter sentence by giving testimony favorable to the prosecution has a motive to testify falsely. Therefore, you must examine his testimony 
with caution and weigh it with great care." 

828. (619) The Fifth Estate, Fall, 1996, Vol. 31, #2. 

829. (620) Denver Post, 5/6/97. 

830. (621) "Juror's Emotions With Crying Witnesses," The Spotlight, 5/26/97. 

831. (622) "Nichols' Wife Says She Didn't Understand FBI Consent Form," CNN, 6/28/96 

832. (623) Keith, Op Cit, p. 35. 

833. (624) Chris Hansen, "His Brother's Keeper," Dateline, 1995, quoted in Keith, p. 36; Bob Popavitch, interview with author. 

834. (*) Most noticeably the Tulsa World, which earned the knick-name. The Tulsa Pravda."The Daily Oklahoman has been called the "Daily 
Joke-la-homan" by locals. 

835. (**) Levine also graciously represented Representative Key and several investigators, including the author, who had set up a charitable 
trust to investigate the bombing, for free, and brought Chicken soup to the author when he was sick. 

836. (t Keating told Gary Harper during one of his weekly citizen chat sessions that Key was sleeping with a judge's wife. Keating also 
unsuccessfully tried to find a political candidate to run against the popular 5-term Representative. As Portland Free Press publisher Ace 
Hayes writes, "[Keating] is a pure devotee of Imperial State power and his approach is, 'to hell with free speech, free thought or free 
association.' He will protect the rich by attacking people no matter what fine words he swears an oath to...." 

837. (625) Robby Trammel and Randy Ellis, "Call For Bomb Investigation Debated," Daily Oklahoman, 6/29/95. 

838. (626) As we argued when Key first set out on this course, the Legislature and its staff had no business investigating the bombing. It 
was, and is, poorly equipped to do so. The same can be said of a panel of local citizens who would be asked to investigate one of the most 

complicated cases ever to come before the courts. Yet as The New American pointed out, state legislatures are regularly tasked on 
important and sensitive investigations. And the County Grand jury? Is that not "a panel of local citizens," the same as the Federal Grand jury 
that originally "investigated" the bombing? 

839. (**) It is interesting to examine the attitudes of the Tulsa World and Daily Oklahoman in light of their sister papers in Nebraska and 
Arkansas, two other corruption-ridden states. Former Nebraska State Senator John DeCamp investigated a shocking pattern of financial 
improprieties, child abuse, and murder in his home state. In his book. The Franklin Cover-Up, DeCamp exhorts the media to honestly report 
the facts. But, as DeCamp notes, "...the World-Herald's long-standing pattern of behavior is just the opposite. If it has an editorial attitude on 
a story, its news coverage and every other aspect of the newspaper are mustered to accentuate the preferred side of the issue and suppress 
opposing views.... "Why all this effort? Because, tragically, the people who control the l/l/or/of-Hera/of appear to have a strong vested interest 
in suppressing the truth...." As The Clinton Chronicles notes with regard to Arkansas: "First, the Clintons have very cleverly manipulated and 
compromised the press in Arkansas, a small state with only one major newspaper, the Arkansas Democrat-Gazette.... Despite revelations of 
scandal after scandal regarding the Clintons, the Arkansas press has been in a state of denial, portraying most of the revelations as attacks 
on the people of Arkansas themselves." [John W. DeCamp, The Franklin Cover-up: Child Abuse, Satanism, and Murder in Nebraska 
(Lincoln, NE: AWT, Inc., 1996), p. 95; Patrick Matrisciana, The Clinton Chronicles, (Hemet, CA: Jeremiah Books, 1994), p. 21.] 

840. (627) Nolan Clay and Penny Owen, "'Wacky Theories' Unfair, McVeigh Attorney Says," Daily 0/c/a/?OA77aA7, 10/29/96. 

841 . (*) Shortly after Key and Wilburn drew up their petition to impanel the grand jury, a bill was introduced in the State Legislature to change 
the grand jury petitioning process. 

842. (628) Mark Sanford, interview with author. 

843. (629) Even Palmer admitted that the statutes were limited as to what Judge Owens could do or how he could interpret the law. 

844. (*) The County didn't possess the resources and funds. Palmer replied, to pursue such a big case. Besides, she pleaded, the 
"investigation" was already "complete," being a "thorough investigation" from "several different federal agencies. "( Palmer claimed a County 
Grand Jury would "jeopardize the Federal case." The federal gag order prevents interviewing prospective witnesses, she claimed. Sanford 
countered that there would be no interference with the federal case as long as they were interviewing witnesses and suspects that federal 
prosecutors ignored, which seem to be in abundance. 

845. (630) Moore, Op Cit., p. 140. 

846. (631) District Attorney Bob Macy, interview with author. 

847. (632) Rep. Charles Key, interviews with author. 

848. (633) Diana Baldwin and Judy Kuhlman, "Court Filings Stop Bombing Testimony of Postal Worker," Daily Oklahoman, 9/9/97. 

849. (634) Rita Cosby, FOX News, 4/4/97. 

850. (635) Interview with Jayna Davis. Macy's Assistant DAs who handled that case were John Farely and Jane Brown. 

851. (636) Daily Oklahoman, 8/14/97. 

852. (**) "They're coming up with a substitute for proof," said Denver defense attorney Larry Pozner. "They're softening the jury up with 
emotional testimony about the bombing and McVeigh's politics. They're saying, 'We'll give you every reason in the world to hate Tim 
McVeigh.'" (Kevin Flynn, "Softening the Jury," Rocky Mountain News, 5/8/97.) 

853. (637) "The CIA & The Media," Rolling Stone, 10/20/77, cited in Mark Zepezauer, The CIA's Greatest Hits, 1994. 

854. (638) Mark Sanford, interview with author; William Jasper, "OKC Investigator Under Attack, " New American, 6/23/97. 

855. (639) Brian Ford, "Fund-Rasing Probed: Jury Looks into Efforts of Rep. Charles Key," Tulsa World, 5/6/97. 

856. (640) Jasper, Op Cit. 

857. (*) Just as the letter is a sham masquerading as an honest response from bombing survivors. Drew Edmondson [and Frank Keating] 
are sub-human pieces of effluvia masquerading as human beings. 

858. (*) Nor the rewards of political office and bribes. 

859. i64^) Ibid. 

860. (642) Brian Ford, "McVeigh Placed at Kansas Store"Tulsa World, 9/12/97. 

861 . (*) Fortunately, the smear tacticians weren't successful at disuading everyone from the truth. In a CNN/USA TODAY/GALLUP poll 
conducted in April of 1996, 68 percent of those surveyed said they didn't agree that all of the suspects have been captured. 

862. (*) The building was demolished because officials claimed it was an eyesore, an errie reminder of that tragic day. Yet authorities made 
no effort to remove the charred, twisted, gutted remains of the Athenian Restaurant directly across the street, which to this day still stands as 
a shocking monument to the brutality of the bombing. 

863. (*) According to a 1988 GAO (General Accounting Office) report, the Federal Building was not a "safe" place to install a day care 
center. Allegedly based on the 1983 plot by white supremacist Richard Wayne Snell (CSA member and friend of Robert Millar) to bomb the 
facility, the report concluded that a day care center should not be placed inside the Murrah Building. "No federal law enforcement agents 
who worked in the building, including the BATF, Secret Service, and the DEA, ever had any of their children in the Murrah's day care 
center... ever," said Smith. 

864. (*) Smith complained that when she appears on local radio shows, it seems to her that "more people around here now hate me than like 
me... People that don't want to think that the government would do such a thing." 

865. (643) Glenn Wilburn, interview with author. 

866. (644) Kathy Wilburn and Edye Smith, interview with author. 

867. (645) "Tested by Fire," People magazine, date unknown, quoted in. Gene Wheaton, "Another Bush Boy," Portland Free Press, July 
1995. Keating stated, "The leftists I dealt with would never consider themselves patriots, and they had contempt for the government. The 
right-wing crowd has contempt for the government, and yet see themselves as patriots. It's a curious anomaly, but both of them are very 

868. (*) "Because of my youthful appearance, I did undercover work on the Berkeley campus," Keating said. The assignment dissolved 
shortly after Keating attended a Black Panther rally. A federal informant who later identified people at the protest took one look at a photo of 
Keating and muttered, "That's a pig." {Oklahoma Gazette, 9/26/97) 

869. (*) Keating also presided over the federal prison system. His wife, Cathy, is a consultant to U.S. News & World Report, a magazine that 
often serves as an organ of black propaganda. 

870. (646) Gene Wheaton, "Another Bush Boy," Portland Free Press, July 1995. 

871 . (647) Ace Hayes, letter to author. 

872. (648) Deposition of William C. Duncan, copy in author's possession. 

873. (*) Interestingly, Mena/lran-Contra player Raymond "Buddy" Young, the former Arkansas State Police Captain who told ADFA director 
Larry Nichols he was a "dead man" if he did not drop his suit against Clinton, was appointed director of FEMA's (Federal Emergency 
Management Agency) Region IV post by Clinton. FEMA played a significant coordination role in the aftermath of the Oklahoma City 
bombing. Was Young given the $90,000-a-year job to keep his mouth shut? 

874. (**) In fact, Wheaton suggested that Keating is being groomed for the 2000 presidential [or vice-presidential] candidacy. 

875. (t The same reason for demolishing the Federal Building was given for demolishing the buildings at Waco: "Safety concerns." Yet the 
Waco buildings were miles from anywhere. Furthermore, an architect who inspected the Federal Building soon after the bombing said there 
was no immediate danger. But, according to David Hall, owner of KPOC-TV in Ponca City, Oklahoma, this architect was later "persuaded" to 
change his opinion. 

876. (649) William Jasper, New American, date unknown. 

877. (650) Affidavit of Neil Hartley. 

878. (651) Melissa Klinzing, interview with author. 

879. (652) Ann Domin, interview with author. 

880. (653) Rappaport, Op Git. 

881. (654) Hoppy Heidelberg, interview with Jon Rappaport. 

882. (*) In fact, many times that I have spoken to Heidelberg, I could hear the distinctive clicks of a tapped phone. 

883. (**) "They sent another team out on October 20," added Heidelberg. "Agents Marry Judd and Dave Swanson. "They said 'do you know 
how much trouble you're in?', and I said 'well, apparently not,' and I just laughed at them like I'm laughing now (bursts out laughing). And 
they don't know what the hell to do with that. What do you do with a guy that just laughs at you?" 

884. (655) Hoppy Heidelberg, interview with author. 

885. (656) Timothy McVeigh's Petition for Writ of Mandamus, 3/25/97, pp. 71-72. 

886. (*) Jim Garrison, On the Trail of the Assassins (Warner Books, 1988), p. 252. In 1993, shortly before Vince Foster's body was found at 
Fort Marcy Park, Patrick Knowlton saw a car with a suspicious looking character. He informed the FBI, but later complained that the their 
rendering of his testimony was inaccurate. After he was subpoenaed by Kenneth Starr's Whitewater committee, he was stalked and 
intimidated by cars with license plates registered to the U.S. government. 

887. (657) A/evi/svi/ee/c reporter, confidential interview with author. 

888. (658) Debra Burdick, interview with author. 

889. (659) Deposition of Jane C. Graham, 7/20/97; Statement of Jane Graham, 11/15/96. 

890. (660) Sharon Cohen, Associated Press, 4/26/95; Brian Duffy, "The Manhunt: Twisting Trail," U.S. News & World Report, 5/8/95. 

891. (661) Bill Jasper, interview with author. 

892. (*) Mackey also accused Davis of telling a bartender in Denver that McVeigh was in the room. Davis denied it. 

893. (662) Testimony of John Jeffrey Davis, U.S. v. McVeigh. 

894. (663) Timothy McVeigh's Petition for Writ of Mandamus, 3/25/96, p. 36. 

895. (*) During the Pan Am 103 investigation, authorities attempted to coerce a civilian searcher into signing a statement that he had 
discovered a piece of microchip on which the government's theory hinged. In fact, the searcher was brought a bag of various unidentified 
components and asked to sign the statement, eventhough he wasn't sure he had found the items. 

896. (664) J.D. Cash, McCurtain Gazette, quoted in B.C. Specht, "Ministry of 'Slick Justice' Scores Big Coup," posted on Internet, 5/26/97. 

897. (665) Ryan Ross, "Final Witness Before Explosion — Two Men in Truck, Neither was McVeigh?" Digital City Denver News, 5/23/97; 
Adrian Croft, "Oklahoma City Bombing Trial Takes Dramatic Twist," Reuter, 5/23/97. 

898. (666) Diana Baldwin and Ed Godfrey, "Sighting Accounts Differ — Grand Jury Witnesses Put Bomber in 2 Places," Daily Oklahoman, 

899. (667) Rep. Charles Key, interview with author, account of interview with Gary Lewis. 

900. (*) Heath called the agent's supervisor and complained, then, when he asked how he could fill out a Freedom of Information Act request 
to see what the FBI had said about him, was told they didn't know where he could get one. When he went to the FBI office, he was rebuffed 
once again. After he finally got the FOIA filled out, he received word 60 days later that his request was denied. 

901. (668) Dr. Paul Heath, interview with author. 

902. (669) David Keen and Connie Hood, interview by J.D. Cash, tape transcribed by author. 

903. (*) This was originally reported on the major networks, then retracted as a "radar anomaly." 

904. (670) Roberts, Op Cit., p. 31 1 . Part of Roberts' current assignment as a liaison officer to an Air Force Reserve fighter squadron entails 
analyzing surface-to-air threats. 

905. (671) ABC World News Sunday, 07/21/96. 

906. (672) New York Daily News, 11/09/96, quoted in Ibid. 

907. (673) Elftherotypia, Athens, 08/23/96. Ian Williams Goddard, "The Veracity of the Russell Report," 11/20/96, posted on Internet. 
Goddard is the author of the book. The Downing of TWA Flight 800. 

908. (674) Ibid. 

909. (675) David Fulghum, "ANG Pilot: Jet by Object," Aviation Week & Space Technology, 3/10/96, quoted in Goddard, "TWA 800 Missile 
Theory: Stonger Than Ever," © 1997. 

910. (676) "Report: Pilot Saw Projectile Near Jet," Associated Press, 7/29/97. 

911. (677) E. Phillips, P. Mann, "Terrorist Fears Deepen with 747's Destruction," Aviation Week & Space Technology, 7/22/96, quoted in 
Goddard, Op Cit. 

912. (678) Associated Press, 7/20/97, quoted in William F. Jasper, "What Happened to TWA 800?" The New American, 10/8/96. 

913. (679) David Fulghum, "ANG Eyewitnesses Reject Missile Theory," Aviation Week & Space Technology, 7/29/96, quoted in Goddard, 
Op Cit. 

914. (680) Joe Sexton, "Behind a Calm Facade Investigation Embodied Chaos, Distrust, Stress," New York Times, 8/23/96, quoted in 
Goddard, Ibid. 

915. (*) Lt. Comdr. Rob Newell, a Navy spokesman at the Pentagon, said the Navy's only aircraft in the area was a P-3 Orion anti-submarine 
plane, which does not carry missiles. 

916. (681) Letter to David Hendrix, Riverside, CA, Press Enterprise from CINCLANTFLT (Commander in Chief Atlantic Fleet), Public Affairs 
office, 8/30/96, quoted in Roberts, Op Cit., p. 324-25. 

917. (682) Pat Milton, "Salinger Sticks By Missile Theory While Feds Shoot It Down," Associated Press, 1 1/9/96. 

918. (683)Minton, Op Cit. 

919. (684) Bo Gritz, Center For Action Monthly Newsletter , Vol. 6 No 11, June, 1997. 

920. (685) "Sonar Finds Underwater Wreckage," Lexington Herald-Leader, 7/21/96, quoted in Ian Williams Goddard, "TWA 800 Investigation 
Cover-Up: The Proof," 7/26/97, posted on Internet. 

921. (686) Ronald W. Lewis, "Uncivil Air War" (The Shootdown of TWA Flight 800)," Air Forces Monthly, No. 104, November 1996, quoted in 
S.A.F.A.N. Internet Newsletter, No. 213, 12/21/96. 

922. (*) Another story that circulated among the press for a time reported that the DEA, along with Customs, the National Guard, and the 
Coast Guard, were practicing how to shoot down drug-smuggling planes with SAMs (surface-to-air missiles). The P-3's job was to drop white 
phosphorous flares, called Willie Peters, to use as targets. According to some reports, the C-130 was seen dropping white phosphorous 
parachute flares before TWA 800 went down. If this is true, were the flares being dropped as part of a target exercise for heat-seeking 
missiles? Or had C-130 been alerted to a possible missile threat and dropped flares to divert missiles from targeting it and other aircraft in 
the area? 

923. (687) Jasper, Op Cit. 

924. (688) W. Michael Pitcher, "Fax Gives Glimpse of Crash lnvestigation,"r/7e Southampton Press, 7/24/97, quoted in Ian Williams 
Goddard, "Navy Missile Drone Debris Found at TWA Crash Site?" 07/28/97, posted on Internet. 

925. (689) Indeed, a major terrorism summit sponsored by Tehran in June of 1996 saw delegates from Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iraq, Saudi 
Arabia, and other Mid-East and African states, as well as Bosnia-Herzegovina, Germany, France, Britain, Canada, and the U.S. come 
together to form a joint working committee under the command of the new HizbAllah International — transforming that group into "the 
vanguard of the revolution" of the Muslim world. 

926. (690) Murray Weiss, "TWA Probers: Missile Witnesses 'Credible,'" New York Post, 9/22/96. 

927. (691) Michael D. Towie, "Missile Unlikely, but not Ruled Out in Crash," Fort Worth Star-Telegram, 7/20/96. 

928. (692) "U.S. Worries Over Missiles it Gave Afghan Rebels: U.S. Concerned that Stinger Anti-aircraft Missiles Could Get into the Wrong 
Hands," New York Times, 4/27/92; "As Afghan War Funding Dries Up, Weapons Flood Pakistani Market," Christian Science Monitor, MS/92; 
"Afghan Rebel Bars Return of U.S. Stingers" (Islamic Party of Yunis Khalis), New York Times, 3/14/89; numerous other articles reported this. 

929. (693) Letter from Rodney Stich to Senator Arlen Specter, 10/20/95, posted on Internet. 

930. (694) In the late 1970s, two Rhodesian airliners were reportedly shot down by Russian SA-7s. In 1986, a Sudan Airways jet was shot 
down by a SAM. And in September of 1993, Abkhazian separatists of the ex-Soviet republic of Georgia shot down three Tu-134 and Tu-154 
airliners using shoulder-fired SAMs from boats out on the Black Sea. The FBI was advised that small missiles such as the Russian SA-14 
Gremlin, SA-16 Gimlet and SA-18 Grouse, are equipped with "proportional convergence logic" systems sensitive enough to home in on 
airframe radiation once it nears its target. 

931.(695)Towle, Op Cit. 

932. (696) Jasper, Op Cit. 

933. (697) Weiss, Op Cit. 

934. (698) Wasiiington Times, 12/17/96. 

935. (699) Allen, Op Cit. 

936. (700) William Jasper, New American, date unknown. 

937. (701)/ib/d. 

938. (*) He said they made up a bogus complaint about him threatening a reporter. I spoke to that reporter and discovered the complaint was 

939. (702) Paul Queary "Oklahoma Hero Commits Suicide," Associated Press, 5/13/96. 

940. (*) According to Rivera, the recalcitrant police officer was forced into making a public service announcement with Governor Keating. 
"He was told he'd make that or he was fired," said Rivera. The officer they sent to Washington to accept an award on behalf of the OCPD, he 
told Rivera, wasn't even at the site! 

941 . (*) Yeakey was also angry because he couldn't get access to his own report about the bombing (which numbered between 9-10 pages). 
"He was in a full-fledged rampage over the report," said Rivera, whom he wouldn't even show it to. 

942. (703) Cpt. Ted Carlton, interview with author. 

943. (*) Interestingly, Yeakey's superiors. Major Upchurch and Lt. Randall, according to Rivera, were claiming Yeakey was "delusional" from 
the back injury he sustained during his fall in the Murrah Building on April 19. 

944. (704) Oklahoma City Medical Examiner's Report, copy in author's possession; Dr. Larry Balding and Dr. Fred Jordan, interview with 
author. They said the drug test costs between $400 and $500 dollars. 

945. (705) Report of ME investigator Jeffrey A. Legg, CME-1 Report, copy in author's possession. 

946. (*) Several Medical Examiners explained that it is not uncommon for an individual to attempt suicide by one method, then continue to 
take additional measures until they are dead. San Francisco's ME told me about a man who, upon discovering he had AIDS, tried to hang 
himself, then threw himself off the balcony. Perhaps Terrance Yeakey was not satisfied with his alleged attempts to slash himself. As Dr. 
Fred Jordan, Oklahoma's Chief Medical Examiner explained, "It hurts, and nothing much is happening." 

947. (706) This was verified by school officials. 

948. (707) The harassment and surveillance on Rivera and the rest of the family was confirmed by Vicki Jones, and her husband. Reverend 
Glenn Jones. Reverend Jones told me that Rivera had come to them several times "frantic" that she was being tailed and harassed. Vicki 
saw evidence of the break-ins at Rivera's apartment. 

949. (708) Taylor recalled the incident for this author. "There's only a few times in my life that I remember that somebody had done 
something weird like that, and that's why I wrote it down." 

950. (709) Tonia-Rivera Yeakey, interview with author. They had at one time been friends, she explained, but had a falling-out in 1992, and 
had remained apart ever since. Rivera attempted to hire an attorney to bring a Slander suit against Jim Ramsey, based on the false 
allegations of his death. No local attorney would accept it. 

951. (710) OCPD Detective Mullinex, interview with author. 

952. (711) Regarding Rivera's source, she claimed he knew things about her that no one could possibly have known. "He sat there and told 
me about stuff I hadn't told anybody," which included break-ins at her apartment. 

953. (712) Officer Mike Ramsey, interview with author. 

954. (713) This finding is based on the testimony of a former police officer and Marine sniper. 

955. (*) This funeral home, curiously enough, has been mixed up in some rather strange incidents. 

956. (714) Karen Von T., letter to author. 

957. (715) The author knows the name of this individual, but cannot release it at this time. 

958. (716) Shaun Jones, interview with author. 

959. (717) FAA report, copy in author's possession. Investigators and pilots I've talked to indicated various ways a plane can be rigged to 
crash, including tampering with the fuel gauge so it reads full when empty, and putting a corrosive acid on the control cables. 

960. (718) Mike Evett, interview with author. 

961. (719) Clint Boehler, interview with author. Interestingly, Boehler would later discount the murder scenario of police officer Terra nee 
Yeakey, despite overwhelming evidence that Yeakey was murdered. 

962. (720) Christopher C. Lyons, "The Whitewater FAQ: Deaths & Injuries," 1996, posted on Internet. 

963. (721) John De Camp, The Franklin Cover-Up; FAA report, copy in author's possession. 

964. (722) Medical Examiner's report, 8/5/97, by Dr. Fred Jordan, copy in author's possession. 

965. (*) He was wearing a t-shirt inscribed: "Nameless Saints We Give Our Thanks — The hundreds of people that give it their all without 
personal individual acknowledgment, April 19, 1995, Oklahoma City, OK" 

966. (723) Dan Richardson, interview with author. 

967. (**) His partner was ATF agent Harry Eberhardt. 

968. (724) John Michael Johnston, interview with author. 

969. (725) Al Martin on the Tom Valentine show, date unknown. The author has interviewed Martin extensively. 

970. (726) Craig Roberts and John Armstrong, JFK: The Dead Witnesses (Tulsa, Oklahoma: Consolidated Press Int'l, 1995), pp. iii-vii, 173- 

971. (727) D'Ferdinand Carone, interview with author. Carone was subsequently threatened by anonymous telegram after I interviewed her 
on my radio show, KHNC, Denver, American Freedom Network. 

972. (*) The only mainstream media who have made some effort to report the truth have been CNN, the Dallas Morning News, the Denver 
Post, FOX News, and ABC 20/20. Unfortunately, the information 20/20 presented only covered limited aspects of prior knowledge by the 
government. KFOR, the only station that has covered the Middle Eastern connection, ceased their reporting when they were bought out by 
the New York Times Broadcasting Company. 

973. (*) Potts was later taken off the case due to the heat from the Ruby Ridge incident. 

974. (*) As a sideline, the FBI and DOJ occasionally arrest and prosecute real criminals. 

975. (728) Rael Jean Isaac, "Abusive Justice: Janet Reno's Dirty Secret," National Review, 6/30/97. 

976. (*) In 1984, Reno prosecuted Grant Snowden, Miami's 1983 Police Officer of the Year, whose wife ran a day-care center. Snowden had 
threatened to report a father whose son showed up with bruises. The man retaliated by accusing Snowden of the abuse. The case was 
finally dropped when the psychiatrist examining the boy revealed that the father had coerced the child into perjury. Reno pervservered. 

however, bringing in two self-styled child-abuse experts — Joseph and Laurie Braga — to elicit the required testimony from the latest victim 
that Reno's office had turned up. Snowden was acquitted. Making good on her promise to try Snowden one child at a time until there was a 
conviction, Reno pushed ahead. While the latest child was not even able to identify Snowden in court, the judge allowed the testimony from 
the previous two children (eventhough Snowden was found to be innocent), excluded testimony of Snowden's flawless record, and 
sentenced him to secure five consecutive life sentences. ( These cases, although highly manipulated by government prosecutors, should not 
be taken as an inference that child-abuse, including ritual child abuse, does not occur, as some media pundits have tried to suggest. 

977. (**) Reno had previously displayed her concern for children when several days earlier, two men who had driven all day and all night 
from Indiana to bring baby food to the children at Waco were arrested. 

978. (729) Thompson, Op Cit. 

979. (**) Letter from Rep. James Traficantto members of Congress, 4/15/97, copy in author's possession. Traficant introduced a bill (H.R. 
692) that seeks the appointment of an independent counsel to investigate cases of DOJ misconduct. The bill is pending as of this writing. 

980. (*) As the Congressional committee probing the Inslaw affair later wrote: "The enhanced PROMIS software was stolen by high level 
Justice officials and distributed internationally in order to provide financial gain to Dr. Brian and to further intelligence and foreign policy 
objectives of the United States." 

981 . (730) Ratiner was then paid $120,000 over the next five years on the condition that he not practice law during that time. Former Mossad 
agent Ah Ben-Menashe claimed he personally saw a cable from Israel's Joint Committee to the U.S., requesting that $600,000 be 
transferred from the CIA-Israeli slush fund to Hadron to pay Rariner. Former National Security Advisor Robert "Bud" McFarlane had sold 
PROMIS to the Israelis. 

982. (731) Rodney Stich, Defrauding America (Alamo, CA: Diablo Western Press, 1994), pp. 371-97. 

983. (732) Barron's, 3/21/88. As Judge Bason wrote, "I have come to believe that my non-reappointement as bankruptcy judge was the 
result of improper influence from within the Justice Department which the current appointment process failed to prevent." 

984. (733) Stich, Op Cit, pp. 377-78. 

985. (*) Ibid., pp. 394-95. Sherman Skolnick and Mark Sato of Chicago's Citizens Committee to Clean Up the Courts filed a lawsuit against 
Bua and Knight, charging them with obstruction of Justice. They informed Bua that they were going to circumvent the special prosecutor and 
present evidence to the grand jury themselves. Bua replied that he would hold them in contempt. "I do not intend to prosecute anyone," he 
told them. 

986. (*) Those within the DOJ who had an interest in covering up Casolaro's death were quick to point out that the investigative reporter 
suffered from Multiple Sclerosis, and was therefore despondent. Interestingly, Hartzler also suffers from Multiple Sclerosis. In his letter to 
Dwire, he adds: "The more the implicit connection between Mr. Casolaro's Multiple Sclerosis and his suicide may create too dire a picture of 
Multiple Sclerosis. That linkage invites readers to cluck with pity and nod knowingly about the presumably devastating effect of Multiple 
Sclerosis. ... I trust that if Ms. Reno, Ms. Gorlick and Mr. Smith are not already familiar with MS, you will offer them this note of balance and 
assure them that Multiple Sclerosis flourishes even in the Justice Department and expects no pity." 

987. (734) Robert Schmidt, "Low Key, High Pressure," Legal Times, 9/2/96. 

988. (*) Leighton was the secret attorney for Lee Harvey Oswald. 

989. (735) "An Irrestibale Case," Newsweek, 8/14/95. 

990. (736) Schmidt, Op Cit. Justice Department officials say Hartzler's disability played no role in his selection. 

992. (738) Sherman Skolnick, Conspiracy Nation, date unknown. 

993. (*) It has also been speculated that Richardson was the Assistant U.S. Attorney who was providing information to Tenia Rivera-Yeakey 
about the murder of her ex-husband, through an intermediary. According to Richardson's brother Dan, Ted had a stable, loving relationship 
with his wife, Julie, and adored his children. Dan told me his brother had no reason to commit suicide. He was allegedly suffering from "work 

994. (739) The committee noted: "Riconosciuto stated that a tape recording of the telephone threat was confiscated by DEA agents at the 
time of Riconosciuto's arrest... the timing of the arrest, coupled with Mr. Riconosciuto's allegations that tapes of a telephone conversation 
he had with Mr. Videnieks were confiscated by DEA agents, raises serious questions concerning whether the Department's prosecution of 
Mr. Riconosciuto was related to his cooperation with the committee. 

995. (740) The government also attempted to destroy William Chasey, author of The Lockerbie Cover-Up. 

996. {74^) Ibid. 

997. (742) John Ashton, "US Government Still on Ropes Over Lockerbie," Tiie Mail on Sunday, 6/9/96. 

998. (743) Kevin Flynn, "Testimony Blocked at Trial of McVeigh," Rocl<y IVIountain News, 7/14/97. 

999. (*) "My thought was that it was our government," said Carone. "I honestly believe that." According to one account of the conversation, 
Shackley was elated. 

1000. (744) D'Ferdinand Carone, interview with author. 

1001. (745) Paul Hudson, head of U.S. Pan Am survivors group, interview with author. 

1002. (*) North contacted Meese through Admiral Poindexter. Meese informed Revell, who called Deputy Assistant Attorney General for the 
Criminal Division Mark Richard, and told him: "[p]lease get on top of this; Jensen is giving a heads up to the NSC. Deposition of Mark M. 
Richard before the Joint Congressional Committees, 8/19/87, quoted in Christie, Op Cit; Jensen is Deputy Attorney General Lowell Jensen; 
Kellner is Attorney General Leon Kellner. The rest of the conversation went as follows: "Call Kellner, find out what is up, and advise him that 
decision should be run by you"; Cockburn, Op Cit., p. 136. 

1003. (*) As investigative journalist Joel Bainerman writes: Officials said that Al-Kassar maintained offices in Warsaw and was a major 
broker of the Polish-owned weapons company, Cenzin. The first arms purchase by North from al-Kassar totaling $1 million was sent by boat 
to an unidentified Caribbean port in the Fall of 1985 and was later distributed to the Contra fighters. In April of that year, a second shipment of 
Polish arms was sold to the CIA as part of this transaction. {Los Angeles Times, 7/17/87, quoted in Joel Bainerman, "Bush Administration's 
Involvement in Bombing Pan Am 103," Portland Free Press, May/June, 1997. See Bainerman's book. The Crimes of a President, SPI Books, 
1992, regarding the illegal deals of George Bush). In another part of the deal, more than $42 million was laundered through BCCI accounts 
in the Cayman Islands. Al-Kassar earned more than $1 million. Private Eye, 10/25/91, quoted in Ibid.) 

1004. (746) Administration officials who discussed these deals said Al-Kassar had clear business links with Abu Nidal's organization, Los 
Angeles Times, 7/17/87. 

1005. (**) These were the same hostages that sparked the Iran-Contra arms-for-drugs scandal. 

1006. (747) Jim Berwick, a Pan Am security consultant in London, told Francovich, "An HM Customs officer involved in the investigation of 
narcotics, left a message for me. I subsequently contacted him and met with him and he advised me that he had been in Frankfort and had 
been at a meeting of drug enforcement agents in Germany, America and Britain, and that it was well known and discussed at that meeting 
that Pan Am was the airline that was being used as a drug conduit." 

1007. (t As former Iranian president Abulhassan Bani Sadr observed, "The people of Iran saw this as a crime... shooting down an airplane, 
killing almost 300 people is a crime.... Had it involved another country, there would have been legal proceedings. A lot of fuss would have 
been made all around the world. But here they destroyed the aircraft, and then congratulated themselves. "( (Allan Francovich, The Maltese 
Double-Cross, 1992) 

1008. (*) U.S. investigators traced a wire transfer of several million dollars from Teheran to a bank account in Vienna controlled by the PFLP- 
GC. {U.S. News & World Report, 11/25/91). 

1009. (748) One interesting piece of evidence was a call to Damascus, Syria, intercepted by authorities, in which Khreesat stated: "I have 
made some changes to the medicine. It is better and stronger." 

1010. (749) Pritchard, Op Cit. 

101 1. (*) This also raises the issue of whether Abraham Ahmed, who was released from custody after his mysteriously-timed departure from 
the U.S. after the Oklahoma City bombing, was an operative of the U.S. Government. 

1012. (750) According to a special report in Time (April 27, 1992), COREA used the following front companies for its overseas operations: 
Sevens Mantra Corp., AMA Industries, Wilderwood Video and Condor Television Ltd. The report revealed that Condor did its banking 
through the First American Bank, a subsidiary of BCCI. (Bainerman, Op Cit. ) 

1013. (751) Donald Goddard and Lester Coleman, On the Trail of the Octopus {London, Bloomsbury Publishing, LTD., 1993), pp. 143,201. 

1014. (*) PBS Frontline investigators believe that the intelligence officers were "a strong secondary target." 

1015. (**) Aviv believes the original target of the attack was American Airlines. When a Mossad agent tipped off the airline, the target was 
switched to Pan Am. 

1016. (*) Also aboard flight 103 was Bernt Carlsson, the Swedish UN diplomat who had just completed negotiating the Namibian 
independence agreement with South Africa. He was due in New York the next day to sign the agreement. 

1017. (752) Two separate eyewitnesses remember General Crosby ordering the "immediate bulldozing of the crash site." 

1018. (*) The passengers were members of the 101st Airborne Division, part of a UN peacekeeping force (MFO) in the Egyptian Sinai. While 
officials sought to bamboozle the public with claims of "wing icing," four members of the Canadian Aviation Safety Board disagreed. The 
flight engineer and ground refueller saw no signs of ice on the wings moments before the plane took off and crashed. With the help of Oliver 
North, Vince Cannistraro, and CIA Deputy Director [for European Operations] Duane "Dewy" Clarridge (along with Bud McFarlane and 
Richard Secord) North had been negotiating with Iran for the release of the hostages. In exchange. North was selling the Iranians TOW anti- 
tank missiles and other equipment for use in its war with Iraq. Upon delivery and testing of one of the HAWKs, the Iranians realized they had 
received an older version, and felt double-crossed. North was told by one of his advisors that there was a "good chance of condemning 
some or all of the hostages to death in a renewed wave of Islamic Jihad." North's insouciant response: the deaths of the hostages would be 
our "minimum losses." Given what happened next, his words may have proved prophetic. While the plane was being loaded, the captain 
noticed that the Egyptian guard stationed on the ground outside the aircraft would "disappear from his post several times, sometimes for as 
long as an hour." The baggage handlers also got into a fist fight, which struck him as odd since Arabs rarely touch one another due to 
religious beliefs. Finally, someone pulled a power cord on the tarmac, cutting all light around the plane. Had someone used these diversions 
to plant a bomb? Given the suspicious train of events, it seems highly likely. Yet if the downing of the plane was a simple act of terrorism, 
why the elaborate cover-up? Another question that has never been satisfactorily answered is why there were approximately 20 members of 
an elite Special Forces unit known as Task Force 160 on the plane. This is significant, considering that the role of the MFO is peacekeeping. 
In contrast. Task Force 160's main objectives are covert missions and rescues. Had North, realizing his position after double-crossing the 
Iranians, planned a covert rescue? North reportedly knew the exact position of the hostages, down to the very room they were being held. If 
the rescue attempt failed, did the 20 mysterious coffin-sized boxes on the plane contain dead servicemen? Or did they contain the 18 
rejected HAWKs? Despite attempts to identify the cargo through Army files, no records of the boxes has ever been found. Either way, the 
Iranians were sure to be angered. A bomb on board a military transport would send a message to the Americans that the arm of Islamic 
Jihad had a long reach. 

1019. (*) This assertion was backed up by NBC News when it reported, on October 30, 1990, that the DEA was investigating a Middle East 
based heroin operation to determine whether it was used by the terrorists to place a bomb on the flight 103. Naturally, the DEA denied any 
connection to the sting operation {Barron's, 12/17/90). Original quote, Francovich, Op Cit. 

1020. (**) Polygraphs conducted on baggage handler Tiling Kuzcu by James Keefe, a polygraph examiner with 30 years experience with the 
Army's C.I.D., revealed that Kuzcu was not telling the truth when he stated that he did not know who switched the suitcase, and further when 
he stated that he did not switch the suitcases himself. He also lied when he said that Roland O'Neill, the loadmaster, had not told him to 
switch the bags. O'Neill also failed his polygraph. A second polygraph examiner brought in to review the results agreed with the findings 
concerning Kuzcu, but thought the results on O'Neill were inconclusive. 

1021. (753) Interfor report, copy in author's possession; PBS Frontline believes the suitcase belonging to Gannon was switched in London. 
According to their investigators, Gannon's was the only piece of luggage not accounted for from the flight. 

1022. (t The fact that the team was onboard made it, in the words of PBS Frontline, "a strong secondary target." The fact that the team was 
onboard made it, in the words of PBS Frontline, "a strong secondary target." 

1023. (*) As British journalist David Ben-Aryeah reported: "Very strange people were at work very early on. Within a matter of three hours 
there were American accents heard in the town. Over that night there were large numbers, by which I mean twenty, twenty-five, thirty people 
arrived...." (Franckovich, Op Cit.) 

1024. (**) As investigator and former law-enforcement officer Craig Roberts points out in The Medussa File: "The unusual activity of this 
alleged "FBI" agent is striking, but not quite as odd as the fact that Lockerbie is over 350 miles from London, which is the nearest point an 
American FBI agent might be. To reach Lockerbie that night from London, even if traveling by air, would have taken far more than one hour 
considering the sequence of events that would have had to occur. Assuming a timely notification, an American agent in London would have 
had to have been tracked down considering the late hour, notified to pack up for an investigation, rush to Heathrow, board a waiting airplane, 
fly immediately to the nearest airport that could land a jet transport, obtain ground transportation from there to Lockerbie, then locate the 
command center. An effort that would require four to six hours at the minimum." 

1025. (754) Debra Burdick, interview with author. 

1026. (755) J.D. Reed, "Wednesday, April 19, 1995: A Black Day for All of Us," Worl<in' Interest, Vol. 96, Issue No. 3. 

1027. (756) /ib/d. 

1028. (757) /ib/d. 

1029. (758) /ib/d. 

1030. (759) Allen, Op Cit. 

1 031 . (760) The Jaffar clan had been at the center of the opium production in the Bekka Valley for years. 

1032. (761) "Files Before Victims," New York Daily News, 5/1/95. 

1033. (762) Tulsa Fire Captain, confidential interview with Craig Roberts. 

1034. (*) While Sheriff Deputy Melvin Sumtner told me he had found the axle, an Oklahoma City Policeman, Mike McPherson, claimed that 
he had in fact discovered it, as did an FBI agent. These three accounts were contradicted by Governor Frank Keating, who claimed that he 
had actually found the axle. 

1035. (*) Although Thatcher acknowledged the conversation took place, she denied that she and Bush sought to interfere with the 

1036. (*) Interestingly, some of these same players worked with CIA Director Bill Casey and Vice President George Bush to build Iraq 
(whose president, Saddam Hussein, Bush called "worse than Hitler") into a major military power. This policy perfectly illustrated the Reagan/ 
Bush administration's propensity to cuddle up to whatever dictator or terrorist was in favor at the time. 

1037. (*) Yet they were still left with the problem of proving how the microchip had been traced to Al-Megrahi and Fhima. The FBI claimed it 
had traced the chip to Mebo, a Swiss manufacturing firm in Zurich run by Edwin Bollier. Agents showed Bollier a photograph of the chip, and 
asked if it was from their MST-13 0-series. "I immediately recognized from the photo that the fragment found in Lockerbie was without a 
doubt from a timer that we ourselves had made," stated Bollier. Yet they still hadn't proven is how the timer had come to be in the possession 
of Fhima and al-Megrahi. Stasi (East German secret police) files showed that Bollier had not only sold timers to the Libyans, but to the 
Palestinians, the Red Army Faction, and Arabs in both Germanies. The Stasi concluded that Bollier was a triple agent, probably working for 
the CIA as well, since he seemed to easily be able to get very special American equipment for them. Yet when Bollier asked the FBI to see 
the actual fragment, they said they didn't have it; the Scottish police had it. When Bollier approached the Scottish police, they refused to 
show it to him. Nor was he was given a satisfactory explanation of how either the FBI or the Scotts managed to trace it to the Libyans. 

1038. (*) OIlie North served on the planning committee that selected the targets for the Libyan raid. 

1039. (*) When the new allegations were first made public, Libya formally offered to submit the matter to the International Court of Justice, or 
to an international arbitration tribunal. Their plea falling on deaf ears, Libya finally invoked Article 14 of the Montreal Sabotage Convention, 
which states that in the event of a dispute over the interpretation or application of the convention that cannot be resolved by means of 
negotiation, any party has the right to submit the matter to an international arbitration tribunal. All of the offers were just rejected unilaterally 
and summarily by the U.S. and the U.K., which subsequently rammed a UN Security Council resolution through that was highly critical of 

1040. (*) U.S. officials also tried to blame the murder of three IBEX executives in August of 1976 on "Libyan-trained Islamic Marxist 

1041. (763) Jeffrey Steinberg, "CIA Man: Iran, Syria Bombed Pan Am 103," The New Federalist, 7/2/93. 

1042. (*) U.S. Attorney General Robert Mueller told the public, "We have no evidence to implicate another country (other than Libya) in this 
disaster." Gene Wheaton described it as "OPSEC" (operation security), providing layers of deniability and disinformation, false leads and 

1043. (764) In August 1991 , Larry Cohler, a writer for the Washington Jewish Week, reported on a set of secret negotiations which took place 
between Syria and the U.S. over the release of the hostages and which led to a number of covert trips by Bush to Damascus; Regarding the 
announcement of the Libyan theory, see: New York Times, 1 1/15/91; Time, 4/27/92. 

1044. (765) Coleman/Goddard, Op Cit., pp. 201, 256, 275; James Shaughnessy said that he "had also been advised separately by four 
investigative journalists" that they had "evidence" of these intercepts, one having claimed to have actually heard the tapes. "Finally, I was 
told that Mr. Lovejoy used a number of aliases, including Michael Franks." 

1045. (766) This wasn't difficult, as the McKee team (via Gannon) had made its travel arrangements through the DEA's travel agent in 

1046. (767) A May 1989 report in the Arabic newspaper /A/-Dtys^tyr reported on the situation involving Lovejoy/Franks/Schafer. Lester 
Coleman, a trained DIA agent, claims he warned Hurley repeatedly about the compromised situation. Hurley would later seek to dismiss 
Coleman's claims as unsubstantiated, and seek to discredit Coleman. 

1047. (*) One person familiar with the case believes it was Shackley himself. 

1048. (*) In 1984, Cannistraro, newly transferred to the NSC, oversaw covert assistance to the Mujahadeen. 

1049. (768) Dave Emory, Pacifica Radio Network, WBAI-FM, date unknown. 

1050. (769) Mike Levine, interview with author. 

1051. (*) "NBC News on February 7 carried a somewhat different version of the revelations that later appeared in the McCurtain Daily 
Gazette, ambiguously suggesting that although Howe gave the government information regarding 'alleged threats' prior to the bombing, 
there is 'no evidence' that she reported 'specific threats' against the Murrah Building until two days after the bombing." (Edward Zehr, 
"Oklahoma City Cover-up Exposed: But the Mainstream Media are Still in Denial," Washington Weel<ly, 2/17/97.) 

1052. (*) I managed to partially confirm this by speaking to Judge Babcock, and his neighbor, both of whom said that extra security was 
provided the judge at that time. 

1053. (770) Dave Hogan, "If He'd Been at Work... Former Portlander Says," Portland Oregonian, 4/20/95. 

1054. (771) Glenn Wilburn, interview with author. 

1055. (772) Press conference, 1/14/98. 

1056. (773) J.D. Cash and Jeff Holladay, "Day of Blast 'an Amazing Coincidence,'" McCurtain Gazette, 12/1/95. 

1057. (774) Tom Jarriel, ABC 20/20, 1/17/97. 

1058. (775) Ian Williams Goddard, "Federal Government Prior Knowledge of the Oklahoma City Bombing," 5/26/97, posted on Internet. 

1059. (776) Sherry Koonce, Panola Watchman, 4/23/97. 

1060. (777) Allen, Op Cit. 

1061. (778) KFOR, Jayna Davis reporting, 11/21/96; WNBC Extra, Brad Goode reporting, 3/19/97. 

1062. (779) J.D. Reed, "Wednesday, April 19, 1995: A Black Day for All of Us," Workin' Interest, Vol. 96, Issue No. 3. 

1063. (780) /ib/d. 

1064. (781) ABC EXTRA: Prior Knowledge, 11/20/96. 

1065. (782) "Indictment: Inside the Oklahoma City Grand Jury, The Hoppy Heidelberg Story," Equilibrium Entertainment, 1996. 

1066. (*) As previously mentioned, Guy Rubsamen, the Federal Protective Services guard on duty that night, said that nobody had entered 
the building. Yet Rubsamen took off at 2:00 a.m., and claimed that nobody was guarding the building from 2:00 a.m. to 6:00 a.m. 

1067. (783) V.Z. Lawton, interview with author; "Diana Baldwin and Judy Kuhlman, "Elevator Accounts Questioned — Inspector Talks of 
Bomb's Effect," Daily Oklaho;man, 7/16/97. 

1068. (784) William Jasper, "Prior Knowledge: Powerful Evidence Exists that Federal Agents were not Surprised by OKC Blast," New 
American, 12/11/95. 

1069. (785) "Since his story was made public, Shaw said he and his wife have taken a lot of flak over it, and it has created a hardship for 
them. 'There's us that knows the truth and those who hate us. The ones that hate us are the ones trying to cover it up,' Shaw said." ("Some 
Witnesses Leery Of Bombing Grand Jury," Daily Oklahoman, 8/10/97.) 

1070. (786) William Jasper, New American, date unknown. 

1071. (787) J.D. Cash, "ATF's Explanation Disputed," McCurtain Sunday Gazette and Broken Bow News, 7/30/95. Schickedanz won the 
National Policeman of the Year Award for his "heroic" role. 

1072. (*) The author confirmed the story with Oscar Johnson, owner of the elevator company. According to Johnson, the freight elevator's 
doors were blown outward. If the sole blast had come from outside the building, how could this be? 

1073. (788) Ed Godfrey and Diana Baldwin, "Bombing Grand Jury Calling 6 Witnesses This Week, " Daily Oklahoman, 7/13/97. 

1074. (789) "Diana Baldwin and Judy Kuhlman, "Elevator Accounts Questioned — Inspector Talks of Bomb's Effect," Daily Oklaho;man, 

1075. (790) Rick Sherrow, interview with author. 

1076. (791) David Hall, interview with author. 

1077. (792) Gordon would not return the author's calls. The interview conducted by the other reporter was early on, before the cover-up got 
into high gear. 

1078. (793) Ames Yates, interview with author. 

1079. (794) Rick Sherrow, interview with author; Don Webb, interview with author. 

1080. (795) Letter of Terrance Yeakey to Ramona McDonald, copy in author's possession. 

1081. (796) Federal agent, confidential interview with author. 

1 082. (797) List of attendees of Sheriffs golf tournament, copy in author's possession. 

1083. (*) In kind of a bizarre twist to the story, they said that at one point one of the men rolled a hoop across the road to the team on the 
other side. A witness who saw the black-garbed team operating hoops by the Murrah building called the FBI's special 800 number to report 
what he saw. Afterwards he began noticing that his phone clicked constantly, and a mysterious black car began appearing outside his 
house. By the time State Representative Key and I drove to Dallas to interview him, he was too afraid to talk, and we had to get the 
information through a friend. 

1084. (798) Pritchard, Op Cit, p. 90. 

1085. (*) Strassmeir told the author in an interview from his home in Berlin that Pritchard misquoted him — that Strassmeir relayed the 
preceding statement from another BATF agent. Pritchard disagrees, and stands by his story. 

1086. (799) Edward Zehr, "Turning Point: Resolving The Enigma of Oklahoma City," Washington Weekly 11/18/96. 

1087. (800) J.D. Cash, "Agents Probe OKC Bombing Links To Bank Robberies," McCurtain Daily Gazette, 7/16/96. 

1088. (801) Pritchard, Op Cit., p. 90. 

1089. (802) Harry Eberhart interviewed by Tom Jarriel, ABC 20/20, 1/18/97. 

1090. (803) Dewy Webb, interview with author. 

1091. (*) As for Eberhardt, his name showed up on an ATF report concerning Carol Howe's activities at Elohim City. The report indicated 
that an "irate" Eberhardt expressed his concern that Howe's cover had been "severely compromised" due to the release of a report by FBI 
agent James R. Blanchard II. Although the report was prepared almost a year after the bombing, the fact that Eberhardt's name appeared 
prominently on the report suggests that his office was involved, along with the Tulsa office, on the Elohim City investigation. 

1092. (804) Richard Sherrow, interview with author. 

1093. (805) Charles, Op C/^; William F. Jasper, "Undercover: The Howe Revelations," The New American, 9/15/97. 

1094. (806) David Hall, interview with author; Rick Sherrow, interview with author. 

1095. (*) Luke Franey claimed at McVeigh's trial that the only sting they were working on involved a narcotics case with the Norman Police 
Department. Yet Norman Police Chief Phil Cotten could give me no details of that operation, nor could anyone there remember any specifics 
as to which ATF agents were working on that case. Cotten said most of the officers had retired. 

1096. (807) David Hall, interview with Tom Valentine. 

1097. (*) Franey claims that agent Darrell Edwards was at home, talking on the phone to Franey. Bruce Anderson was on his way to a 
compliance inspection, and agent Mark Michalic, who had worked late with Franey the night before, was on his way to the office. 

1098. (808) David Hall, interview with author. 

1099. (809) David Hall, interview with author. 

1100. (810) Jon Rappoport, Oklahoma City Bombing: Tiie Supressed Trutii (Santa Monica, CA: Blue Press, 1995), pp. 75-76. 

1 101. (81 1) Conversation between informant and Rep. Charles Key, copy in author's possession. A voice stress analysis we ran on this 
individual's interview tape indicated he was being truthful. 

1102. (812) David Hall, interview with author. 

1103. (813) Pritchard, Op Cit, p.90. 

1 104. (*) Notice how the caller depicts McVeigh as the sole target of the sting, and attempts to distance himself from the operation by talking 
of it in the third tense. 

1105. (814) Statement of Jane Graham, 11/15/96. 

1 106. (*) Recall that Sheriffs Deputies Don Hammons and David Kachendofer signed sworn affidavits that Rep. Istook told them of the 
government's prior knowledge of the attack. Istook told bombing investigator Pat Briley that he was very close to the FBI's investigation of 
the bombing, and made it his business to know the details. "There is nothing you can tell me and the FBI about the bombing that we don't 
already know," Istook said. 

1107. (815) Bill Jasper, Tiie New American; The author also heard one of the Cancemi tapes, but with a slightly different account. 

1108. (816) Lana Padilla, interview with author. 

1 109. (*) According to former C.I.D. investigator Gene Wheaton, Salem worked for the TRD — Egypt's version of the CIA, controlled by the 
CIA. Salem admitted to being a double-agent for the U.S. and Egypt. 

1110. (817) Ralph Blumenthal, "Tapes Depict Proposal to Thrawr Bomb Used in Trade Center Blast," New Yorl< Times, 10/28/93. The 
transcripts, which are stamped "draft" and compiled from 70 tapes recorded secretly during the last two years by Salem, were turned over to 
defense lawyers, in the second bombing case, by the government under a judge's order barring lawyers from disseminating them. A large 
portion of the material was made available to the New Yorl< Times. 

1 1 1 1 . (81 8) Waldman and McMorris, Op Cit. 

1112. (819) Jim Dwyer, David Kocieniewshi, Deidre Murphy, and Peg Tyre, Two Seconds Under the World, 1994, quoted in William Jasper, 
"Evidence of Prior Knowledge," New American, 5/13/96. 

1113. (820) J.D. Cash, "The Rev. Robert Millar Identified As FBI Informant," McCurtain Daily Gazette, 7/1/97. 

1114. (*) Craig Roberts, a 20-year Tulsa police officer, concurrs: "[The Tulsa ATF office] did surveillance, took photos, used informants 
(Howe) and yet no matter what they did, they couldn't get any cooperation out of D.C. They knew something was wrong, but couldn't get a 
handle on it. I think it's because Strassmeir was working as an infiltrator at the D.C. level, and they were protecting him without tipping off the 
local office — which they obviously didn't trust to keep a secret from the local police. This in not unusual. In fact, the field agents with the 
ATF and FBI often do not get along well with the D.C. officials — and vice/versa." 

1115. (821) Citizens Research and Investigations Committee and Louis Tackwood, The Glass House Tapes (New York, NY: Avon Press, 
1973), p. 5, quoted in Alex Constantine, Blood, Carnage, and the Agent Provacateur, 1993, p. 13; "King Aftermath Rekindles Police Spying 
Controversy, Los Angeles Times, 6/18/91, quoted in Ibid., pp. 16-18. 

1116. (822) /ib/d. 

1117. (823) In fact, the Pepsi bottling plant in Marseilles was used as a cover for heroin production. 

1118. (*) General John Singlaub, a former OSS agent, has the distinction of being the first U.S. officer to pay his indigenous personnel at 
Kinming, China with five pound bags of opium. Ray Cline (Iran-Contra) was a member of Singlaub's team at the time. (Wall Street Journal, 

1119. (*) After the Contra torture manual scandal, McFarlane was fired, then kicked upstairs to the NSC to become Armitage's Deputy. 
Among those who participated in the original to plan "privatize" the Contra operation were: Gen. John Singlaub (Ret), Andrew Messing, then 

of the Conservative Caucus, Ted Shackley, Harry (Heinie) Aderholt, Edward Luttwak, Gen. Edward Lansdale (Ret.), Seal Doss, and Col. 
John Waghelstein, former head of the U.S. military groups in El Salvador. 

1 120. (824) Andrew Eiva, former Green Beret, part of lobby effort for Mujahadeen, interview with author; Christie, Op Cit. Reagan's March, 
1981 decision was formalized in November as National Security Decision Directive 17, and hidden from Congress. 

1121. (825) Levine, Op Cit. 

1122. (826) Roberts, Op Cit. 

1123. (827) Bo Gritz, Called to Serve, 1991. 

1 124. (*) The real reason that Britain went to war against the Chinese (The Boxer Rebellion) was to prevent the emperor of China — 
concerned about the spread of drug use among his people — from destroying China's opium crop. The British, who were making huge 
profits from the opium trade, had Parliament declare war against the Chinese for interfering with their profitable "commerce." One of the 
spoils of that war was that Hong Kong became British territory, resulting in a port controlled by England for the transshipment of drugs. 

1 125. (828) Speech given to the Arizona Breakfast Club in Phoenix in 1989, quoted in Craig Roberts, The Medussa File: Crimes and Cover- 
Ups of the U.S. Government (Tu\sa, OK: Consolidated Press, 1996), p. 200. 

1 126. (829) Jack Colhoun, "The Family That Preys Together," Covert Action Quarterly, date unknown. President Bush later appointed former 
Florida Governor Bob Martinez as head of the U.S. Office of National Drug Control Policy. Martinez had accepted campaign donations from 
drug trafficker Leonel Martinez (no relation). Bush's son Jeb also had links with the Contra drug supply line through Leonel Martinez; In 
November 1984, two years after Reagan announced his "bold, confident plan" promising to "be on the tail" of drug traffickers, cocaine 
imports had jumped 50 percent and heroin was more plentiful than at any other time since the late 1970s. An estimated 63 tons of cocaine 
glutted the U.S. market in 1984. (James Mills, The Underground Empire, p. 1125.) 

1127. (830) Dennis Bernstein and Robert Knight, "DEA Agent's Decade Long Battle To Expose CIA-Contra-Crack Story," Pacific News 
Service, 10/96; "Will Whitewash Of CIA-Cocaine Connection Continue? Revelations Of CIA's Connection To Crack Shouldn't Come As A 
Surprise," The Birmingham News, 9/29/96. "Richard Gregorie, one of the country's top narcotics prosecutors in Miami... had aggressively 
pursued big-time cocaine bosses and drug-corrupted officials in and out of the United States. But as he began going up the drug-business 
chain of command, he targeted foreign officials friendly with the U.S. government, and the State Department started interfering with his 
investigations, telling him to stay away from certain sensitive areas. Gregorie's operations were subsequently stopped at the request of the 
State Department and he quit in protest." -Project Censored, 1989. NSC memos discovered during the Iran-Contra investigation revealed 
that Bush's NSC advisor Donald Gregg was aware early on of Contra involvement in the drug trade. Could ex-CIA chief George Bush, at that 
point Vice President and Drug Czar, be unaware of such goings-on when his reporting subordinate was quite aware of Contra involvement in 
the drug trade? 

1128. (831) Celerino Castillo III and Dave Harmon, Powderburns: Cocaine, Contras and the Drug lVar(Oakville, Ontario: Mosaic Press), 
1988. As ex-CIA field officer John Stockwell noted: "We cannot forget the Senate Kerry Committee findings of cocaine smuggling on CIA/ 
Contra aircraft, the DEA reports on the number of prosecutions in which the CIA has intervened to block prosecution of drug smugglers, the 
note that escaped Lt. Col. Oliver North's shredder that $14 million of drug money had gone to the Contras, or the CIA's 20-odd year 
relationship with Manuel Noriega. "( {Austin American-Statesman, op-ed editorial) 

1129. (832) Mike Levine, interview with author. 

1130. (*) Shackley's main contact was Richard Armitage. 

1131. (*) Edward G. Lansdale, working with Shackley, headed a subset of JM/WAVE called "Operation Moongoose." The assassination 
team was called "Operation 40." Shackley's later partners in the "Enterprise," Tom Clines and Edwin P. Wilson, also worked on JM/WAVE 
and Operation 40. Roselli and Giancana were murdered only days before they were to testify before Congress regarding their alleged roles 
in the Kennedy assassination. 

1 132. (*) Shackley and Clines also directed an assassination program to eliminate Vang Pao's heroin competition. A CIA officer addressing 
a group of Green Berets in Vietnam claimed that Shackley had been responsible for 250 political murders in Laos. Shackley would later 
become CIA Station Chief of Saigon. 

1133. (833) Wall Street Journal, March, 1983; quoted in Cockburn, p. 103. Michael Jon Hand was a U.S. Green Beret who served under 
Shackley in Laos. 

1 134. (**) In fact, Nugan Hand rented adjoining offices with the DEA in its Chiang Mai, Thailand branch, even sharing the same secretary! 
The overall operation resulted in the huge heroin epidemic that swept the country in the late 1960s and '70s, not to mention the U.S. troops 
in Vietnam who became addicts. 

1135. (834) Although Congress declared Phoenix unlawful in 1971, and ordered the military to prosecute the guilty parties, the 

assassinations continued until 1975. One operative — a Mr. Reaux — was ultimately arrested and hung out to dry. 

1 136. (*) As Marchetti stated regarding William Colby, "Colby is a very dangerous man. I think he's got the mentality of a Heinrich Himmler. 
He would have made — and might still from the way he's going — a very good Communist. I mean that he's the kind of guy who is best 
qualified to run a concentration camp, not an agency like the CIA." 

1 137. (835) Michael Parenti, Inventing Reality: The Politics of the Mass Media (New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 1986), p. 178. Also 
responsible for the squelching of trade unions in Chile was the American Institute for Free Labor Development (AIFLD), a CIA front, 
supported by corporations like W.R. Grace and ITT. 

1138. (*) Col. H. Norman Schwarzkopf, Sr., the father of 'Storm in' Norman Schwarzkopf, was an intelligence operative in Iran in the 1940s 
and 50s, and helped set up the dreaded Savak. 

1 139. (*) It is rumored that he was looking forward to inheriting the Italian Fascist P2 account. 

1 140. (**) It is interesting to note that Bush had been implicated in "October Surprise," the backdoor deal with Iranian terrorists to hold the 66 
American hostages seized by pro-Khomeini forces until after Carter's defeat. It is therefore not surprising that Shackley and Bush — both 
groomed for CIA directorships, but forced to resign — would work together on covert and illegal deals such as October Surprise and Iran- 

1141. (836) Weiner, Op Cit. 

1 142. (837) Gene Wheaton, interview with author. 

1 143. (*) Victor Marchetti aptly summed up this philosophy by examining former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger: "He's power-mad, a 
manipulator of events. I don't think he does it for any ideological reason, just out of instinct. I don't think he understands what this country is 
all about. To him, everything is a deal..." 

1144. (*) As Al Martin, an Iran-Contra player, said, "Oklahoma City begins with Iran-Contra. If you want to understand Oklahoma, start with 

1145. (838) Affidavit of Colonel Edward P. Cutolo, commander of the 10th Special Forces Group (Airborne), 1st Special Forces, 3/11/80, 
copy in author's possession. 

1 146. (839) Maas, p. 286. The C-4 came from J.S. Brewer & Associates. 

1147. (**) On July 3, 1976, Israeli commandos raided the Ugandan airport at Entebbe after one of their airliners had been hijacked by the 
PLO. McKenzie was instrumental in helping the Israelis, who had used Kenya as a staging area. In his book. Manhunt, Peter Maas 
describes what McKenzie got for his efforts: "Although he had been counseled not to, McKenzie went to Uganda as part of a Kenya trade 
mission to patch up relations with Idi Amin. The warnings seemed unnecessary. Amin himself was on hand to bid McKenzie good-bye, 
presenting him with the traditional Ugandan friendship gift, an African Antelope's head. Soon after McKenzie's plane took off, it blew up. 
Inside the Antelope head was a bomb, placed there by Frank Terpil." 

1148. (t Gene Wheaton, IBEX;s subsequentdirector of security who investigated the murders, claims Shackley, Clines, Hakim, Rafael "Chi 
Chi" Quintero, and Secord are all linked to the murders. John Harper would later show up in Honduras training the Contras in the use of 

1149. (840) Kwitny, Op Cit., p. 103. 

1150. (841) Hoppy Heidelberg and Ted Gundersen, interviews with author. Recall that Heidelberg heard McVeigh's sister Jennifer read the 
letter into testimony. 

1151. (*) Dewy Clarridge and Oliver North were in charge of the harbor mining operation. Moore's friend Don Aranow, owner of Magnum 
Marina, which had the original contract to build the boats, gave the contract to Moore. Aranow was killed one day before he was to testify at 
the Iran-Contra hearings. 

1 152. (**) My source told me that Moore's FBI contact was Tom Ross out of Hot Springs, Arkansas, one of OIlie North's "damage control" 
men. " 

1 153. (842) Nolan Clay, "Robbery Victim's Alliances Promise Drama in Nichols' Trial," Daily Oklahoman, 1 1/9/97. 

1 154. (843) AEI articles of incorporation. The president of AEI, Harry Huge, was a partner in the law firm of Rogovin, Huge, and Schiller. 

1155. (844) Cliff Lewis, interview with author. Mujeeb Cheema, interview with author. 

1 156. (*) Interestingly, some of Khalid's workers were spotted in a Tulsa nightclub, The Ocean Club, which is curious, since Tulsa is 100 
miles from Oklahoma City. McFarlane would not return repeated calls. 

1 1 57. (845) Indeed, a major terrorism summit sponsored by Tehran in June of 1 996 saw delegates from Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iraq, Saudi 
Arabia, and other Mid-East and African states, as well as Bosnia-Herzegovina, Germany, France, Britain, Canada, and the U.S. come 
together to form a joint working committee under the command of the new HizbAllah International — transforming that group into "the 
vanguard of the revolution" of the Muslim world. 

1158. (846) Timothy McVeigh's Petition forWrit of Mandamus, 3/25/97, p. 81. Jones points out, given the issue of the credibility of the 
information, that the head of Saudi Intelligence is the King's own son. 

1 159. (*) As former high-ranking CIA official Victor Marchetti explained, "They're smart enough always to work through other parties. 
Generally, the dirtier the work is, the more likely it is to be farmed out." 

1160. (**) Some of the members of ZR/RIFLE, such as Felix Rodriguez (AKA: Max Gomez), and the leader of CORU, Frank Castro, would 
go on to form the nucleus of the Contra drugs-for-guns operation. 

1161. (847) Scott and Marshall, Op Cit, p. 16. 

1162. (848) Deirdre Griswold "Cuba Defended Itself, Washington Is The Terrorist," Workers World, 3/7/96; Jack Calhoun, "The Family that 
Prays Together," Covert Action Quarterly, Summer, 1992; also see Thomas & Keith. 

1 163. (*) This is not surprising, as it has been alleged by former CIA agents that Bush allowed the Agency to use his off-shore oil drilling 
company, Zapata Oil, as a front for numerous CIA operations, including the Bay of Pigs invasion. 

1164. (849) Friedman, Op Cit. 
^^65. (850) Ibid. 

1166. (851) Mary Ann Weaver, "Blowback," The Atlantic Monthly, May, 1996. 

1 1 67. (*) Recall that another one of the CIA's "valuable assets," Mir Aimal Kansi, opened fire with an AK-47 outside of CIA headquarters in 
January, 1993, killing two Agency employees. Like World Trade Center bomber Ramzi Yousef, he fled to Pakistan. 

1168. (852) Friedman, Op Cit. 

1 169. (*) Egyptian President Hosani Mubarak claimed that Sheik Rahman was connected to the CIA. {Las Vegas Sun, 8/1/93) 

1170. (853) Peter Waldman and Frances A. McMorris, "The Other Trial: As Sheik Omar Case Nears End, Neither Side Looks Like a 
Winner," Wall Street Journal, 9/22/95. 

1 171. (**) As William Norman Grigg, writing in the New American points out, "The FBI engaged in a curiously timed fit of incompetence when 
the opportunity arose for a preemptive strike against Sheik Omar's network. Following the shooting of Rabbi Meir Kahane in November 
1990, the FBI seized and impounded 49 boxes of documents from Nosair's New Jersey apartment; the cache included bomb-making 
instructions, a hit list of public figures (including Kahane), paramilitary training materials, detailed pictures of famous buildings (including the 
World Trade Center), and sermons by Sheik Omar urging his followers to 'destroy the edifices of capitalism.'" 

1 172. (854) National Review, 7/10/95, quoted in Ibid.; Curt Gentry, J. Edgar Hoover: The Man and the Secrets (New York, NY: W.W. Norton, 
1991), p. 484. 

1 173. (*) Not only was Rowe never prosecuted, the FBI paid his medical bills and gave him a $125 bonus for "services rendered." 

1174. (855) Donner, Op Cit., p. 365 

1 175. (856) Frank Donner, Protectors of Privilege: Red Squads and Police Repression in America, (Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA, 
University of California Press: 1990), p. 360 

1176. (857) Ward and Churchill, Op Cit., p. 181; Washington Post, 7/15/80; New York T/'mes' 5/1 5/80, quoted in Ibid. 

1 177. (858) Gene Wheaton, interview with author. 

1178. (*) Using such individuals would also prove far easier than attempting to recruit American operatives, even hardened killers. The 

potential recruits willing to kill American men, women and children would be far more numerous among foreigners with a vendetta against 
the U.S. 

1179. (859) Intelligence Newsletter (France), April 1993; Unclassfied, National Association of Security Alumni, date unknown. 

1 180. (*) Kansi's original target was believed to have been CIA Director Robert Gates. 

1181. (860) Ben Maclntrye, London Times, 4/21/95, quoted in Keith, Op Cit., p. 154. 

1 182. (**) Curiously, Robert Jerlow, KFOR's private investigator, spotted the FBI watching al-Hussaini at the same time he was. Would this 
subsume that Hussaini was not part of an FBI-sanctioned operation? 

1 183. (**) It is also curious why one prominent alternative investigator ignored the Middle Eastern lead altogether, focusing solely on Elohim 
City. What this alleged reporter consistently missed is the dismembered military leg found in the rubble, the numerous witnesses who saw 
Middle Eastern suspects, and the APB on the brown pick-up driven by al-Hussaini. This reporter even went so far as to suggest that the men 
in the pick-up were Dennis Mahon and his comrades dressed up as Arabs! Given the scenario of a "second-level damage-control" operation 
steering critics of the government's case solely onto Elohim City, it can be surmised that at least some of the real bombers were part of the 
Middle Eastern contingent, and were CIA/FBI controlled, supplied and activated. This would explain why Gagan's involvement in the Middle 
Eastern cell was apparently ignored by the FBI. It would explain why Gagan was asked by an covert operative to deliver a Leiy mixer to 
Junction City. And it would explain why the FBI cleared Hussain al-Hussaini, and why Sam Khalid acted so non-chalant when confronted 
with evidence of his involvement. 

1184. (861) Statement of Jane Graham, 11/15/96. 

1185. (862) Jane Graham, video deposition of 8/20/97 and interview with author. 

1 186. (*) As previously mentioned, representatives of the electric, telephone and gas companies, as well as local contractors bidding ona 
GSA renovation project, all denied having workmen who fit the mens' description at that location. 

1 187. (**) Also recall that on the same day or the following Monday, VA employees Dennis Jackson and Craig Freeman saw a suspicious 
group of Arabs inside the building after hours. One of them closely matched the description of the suspect seen with "McVeigh" by Phyliss 
Kingsley at the Hi-Way Grill that Sunday. They exited, said Freeman, towards the underground parking garage. 

1 188. (t Moreover, why would he do it so conspicuously, running a red light, attracting the attention of the police? This makes about as 
much sense as flying down the highway at 80 mph without a license plate. 

1189. (863) Jane Graham, interview with author. Graham is a friend and co-worker of Johnston's. 

1 190. (*) How interesting that McVeigh and his co-conspirator would be loitering around the scene of such a heinous crime, right next to his 
readily identifiable yellow Mercury. 

1191. (864) Statement of Jane Graham, 11/15/96. 

1 192. (**) When Francis Gary Powers' U-2 spy plane was discovered and shot down over Soviet air space, he failed to pull the destruct ring. 
Powers suspected that the CIA had it hooked to a zero-delay fuse — so he bailed out without activating the self-destruct. Unfortunately, he 
had a fatal helicopter crash the week before he was supposed to testify before the House Select Assassination Committee. 

1 193. (*) It has been well-documented that the FBI and ATF illegaly leveled the crime scene at Waco, which was supposed to be under the 
jurisdiction of Texas Rangers; destroying evidence that ATF helicopters had indiscriminately fired into the roofs of the building at the 
beginning of the raid killing several people; had fired at the front door well before any shots had been fired in return, and had set explosive 
charges on top of a concrete vault in which women and children were hiding to escape the fire set. The front door (a metal door) which would 
have proved the second allegation was later found to be mysteriously "missing." 

1 194. (865) Tim Weiner, "Aging Shop of Horrors: The C.I.A. Limps to 50," New York Times, 7/20/97. As Milt Bearden, the Agency's last chief 
of Soviet operations, said, "The collapse of our enemy ensured our own demise." "We're a confused group, dying for stability," the Agency's 
Inspector General, Fred Hitz, said in a May speech. 

1 195. (*) It is interesting to examine this from the perspective of the German BND, the intelligence organization founded by Reinhard Gehlen 
at the behest of the CIA after WWII. Gehlen had been Hitler's senior intelligence officer on the Eastern Front, commanding the Fremde 
Heere Ost or "Foreign Armies East." The U.S. Government absorbed the Gehlen Org into its emerging intelligence apparatus (the CIA) in its 
entirety, in the belief that Gehlen's still largely intact network of spies would prove invaluable in America's fight against the Soviets. Walter 
Schellenberg, ex-head of Nazi foreign intelligence, claimed to author William Stevenson that Gehlen's organization was primarily a front for 
escaping Nazi war criminals. It was ultimately proved that approximately 90 percent of the "intelligence" coming out of the Gehlen Org 
regarding the Soviet threat, which led to the rise of the Cold War, was false, but was used by Gehlen and his Nazi comrades to perpetuate 

his organization. 

1 196. (*) Iron Mountain is supposedly a nuclear corporate hideout in Hudson, NY, similar to Mt. Weather in Virginia. It is also a reference to 
the town of Hudson, N.Y. where, at the Hudson Institute, war games and studies on future life were developed under the direction of Herman 
Kahn for governmental and private agencies. Kahn did not claim authorship however. As for Leonard Lewin, who finally claimed authorship 
of the report in 1972, "as a hoax," said that his intent was "to caricature the bankruptcy of the think-tank mentality by pursuing its style of 
scientistic thinking to its logical ends." Interestingly, the New York Times wrote "Many analysts believe that the report reflects a grasp of the 
Washington scene as well as an understanding of social psychology, ecology, economics and sociology that is beyond the ability of most 
satirists." Arthur I. Waskow of the Institute for Policy Studies told the Times he was surprised to see one of his privately circulated reports 
mentioned in the book. Waskow added that only about 60 people in Washington saw the report, "[so] if it's a hoax, it must involve somebody 
high up," he said. {New Yorl< Times, 11/1/67) 

1 197. (866) Leonard C. Lewin, Report from Iron IVIountain on the Possibility and Desirability of Peace (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster/ 
Free Press, 1996); Victor Navasky, "Anatomy of a Hoax," The Nation, 6/12/95; Robert Tomsho, "A Cause for Fear; Though Called a Hoax, 
'Iron Mountain' Report Guides Some Militias," Wall Street Journal, 5/9/95, quoted in "Report from Iron Mountain: A Fraud?" Conspiracy 
Nation, Vol. 5 No. 8. 

1 198. (**) In much the same way as George Orwell's 1984 seems to be coming to pass today. 

1199. (*) Emphasis mine. 

1200. (867) Lewin, Op Cit, pp.94-96. 

1201. (*) Emphasis mine. 

1202. (868) Foreign Affairs, June/July, 1995. 

1203. (869) Rappaport, Op Cit. 

1204. (870) DeCamp, Op Cit, p. 380. 

1205. (*) As Report from Iron Mountain states: "War supplies the basis for the general acceptance of political authority" which "has enabled 
societies to maintain necessary class distinctions," and "ensured the subordination of the citizen to the state...." 

1206. (871) Noam Chomsky, Alternative Press Review, Fall, 1993. 

1207. (872) David P. Hamilton and Bill Spindle, "Tokyo's Threat Was Just in Jest, But Some Call It a U.S. Backlash," The Wall Street 
Journal, 6/25/97. As the Journal noted: "offering to sell even a portion of that amount would likely send the Treasury market into a free 

1208. (873) The majority of militia members are nonviolent and some have assisted the bureau in its investigations, he said. 

1209. (874) William Jasper, "Enemies of World Order," The New American, 6/23/97. 

1210. (875) DeCamp, Op Cit., p. 382. 

121 1. (*) As another famous politician once declared: "The streets of our country are in turmoil. The universities are filled with students 
rebelling and rioting. Communists are seeking to destroy our country. Russia is threatening us with her might. And the Republic is in danger. 
Yes, danger from within and without. We need law and order. Without law and order our nation cannot survive." The politician who made that 
famous statement was Adolph Hitler. 

1212. (**) George Mintzer, the director of criminal investigations of the U.S. Southern District Attorney's Office from 1926 to 1931, 
maintained files on over 32,000 "subversive" Americans at the behest of his boss. Treasury Secretary Henry Morgenthau, a man who had 
close links with the ADL. Mintzer's files were made available to the Office of Naval Intelligence, the State Department, and to the FBI. In the 
mid-1950s. New York publisher Lyie Stuart exposed how the ADL was actually financing a rag-tag "neo-Nazi" group, which would engage in 
loud demonstrations outside synagogues at precisely the same time that the ADL was engaging in anti-Nazi fund-raising efforts. What is also 
interesting is that the ADL played a large role in protecting Mob figures such as Meyer Lansky, smearing potential law enforcement 
opponents as "Anti-Semetic." {Dope, Inc.: The Book That Drove Kissinger Crazy, (Washington DC: Executive Intelligence Review, 1992). p. 
582; The Spotlight, 5/26/97) 

1213. (876) "The Truth Steps Out: End of Blind Trust in the Media," Relevance, April, 1997. 

1214. (877) Daniel Brandt, "The 1960s and COINTELPRO: In Defense of Paranoia," NameBase NewsLine, No. 10, July-September 1995. 

1215. (*) A recent Scripps Howard News Service and Scripps School of Journalism poll of "conspiracy fears" revealed that 40% of 
Americans think it is very likely or somewhat likely that the FBI deliberately set the fires at Waco; 51% believe federal officials were 
responsible for the Kennedy assassination; 52% believe that it is very or somewhat likely that the CIA pushes drugs in the inner-cities; 39% 
believe it is very likely the U.S. Navy accidentally or purposefully shot down TWA Flight 800. 80% believe that the military is withholding 
evidence of Iraqi use of nerve gas or germ warfare during the Gulf War. Yet in the wake of the Oklahoma City bombing, 58 percent of 
Americans surveyed by the Los Angeles Times indicated they would trade some civil liberties if it would help thwart terrorism. Another poll, 
taken after the bombing by the Associated Press, revealed that 54 percent of Americans were willing to trade off some of their rights to 
prevent more Oklahoma City-style attacks. A poll taken during the Bush administration revealed that 60 percent of the population said that 
they would give up their rights to win the drug war 

1216. (878) Rep. Steve Stockman, letter to Attorney General Janet Reno, 3/22/95, copy in author's possession. 

1217. (879) /ib/d. 

1218. (*) Foster had allegedly used Pollard, a low-level naval intelligence analyst, on behalf of Reagan, Bush, and Casper Weinberger, to 
convey data to the Israelis. The favor was in return for Israel's help in trans-shipping U.S. weapons to Iran, as a pay-off for delaying the 
release of the American hostages, thereby defeating Jimmy Carter's bid for re-election. That scandal was known as "October Surprise." A 
federal judge, a Clinton crony, has kept the indictment sealed to this day. 

1219. (*) The C-21 Lear Jet is a highly reliable aircraft. This particular plane was part of the presidential fleet based at Andrews Air Force 
base. According to military sources, the pilots who fly them are the best of the best. Clark Fiester, an assistant Air Force secretary for 
acquisitions, served on the NSA advisory board. Other ranking personnel were Maj. Gen. Glenn Profitt II, and Col. Jack Clark II. ("Rescuers 
Find Recorders in Military Crash," Washington Pos^ (Reuters), 4/18/95; "The Eight Who died in Ala. Crash," Air Forces IVIonthly, date 
unknown; Alexander City Outlook, 4/18/95; Joe L. Jordan, National Vietnam P.O.W. Strike force; other information from confidential sources.) 

1220. (**) The downing was suspiciously similar to the U.S. Air Force plane carrying Commerce Secretary Ron Brown that crashed in Bosnia 
on April 3, 1996, killing all 35 people. While the major news media attributed the crash to foul weather, the Air Force investigation report 
concluded that "the weather was not a substantially contributing factor to this mishap." The pilot had nearly 3,000 flight hours, and the co- 
pilot had even more. Five other planes had landed at the airport without difficulty in the minutes before the crash, and none experienced 
problems with the navigation beacons. The Air Force also skipped the first step of its investigative process, known as a safety board, in 
which all crashes are treated as suspicious, and went imediately to the second phase, an accident investigation. Two military pathologists at 
the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) — Air Force Lt. Col. Steve Cogswell and Army Lt. Col. David Hause — were quoted in the 
[Pittsburg] Tribune-Review as saying Brown suffered a head wound that could have been caused by a gunshot. "Essentially... Brown had 

a .45-inch inwardly beveling circular hole in the top of his head, which is essentially the description of a .45-caliber gunshot wound," said 
Cogswell. Cogswell said that the original X-ray of Brown's head showed metal fragments in Brown's brain consistent with a disintegrating 
bullet. Forensic pathologist Dr. Cyril Wecht concluded there was "more than enough" evidence that Brown was assassinated. No autopsy 
was conducted, and all of the original head X-rays of Brown are now "missing" from Brown's case file. The sole survivor, stewardess Shelly 
Kelly, who had only minor cuts and bruises, mysteriously bled to death from a neat 3" incision above her femoral artery upon arrival at the 
hospital (the official story was that she died of a broken neck). Brown's law partner at Patton, Boggs and Blow died in a mysterious car wreck 
within one hour of the crash. Three days later, Niko Jerkuic, the maintenance chief at the Tulsa airport, who had guided the plane to its fatal 
rendezvous, "committed suicide." Brown, who was under investigation for bribery at the time [linked to the DNC and the Lippo Group, in turn 
linked to President Clinton], reportedly possessed sensitive information that could have implicated Clinton in a long list of criminal acts, and 
had threatened to blow the whistle. Congresswoman Maxine Waters and Kweisi Mfume, head of the NAACP, have called for an investigation 
into the matter. (Christopher Ruddy and Hugh Sprunt, "Questions linger about Ron Brown plane crash," 1 1/24/97; Christopher Ruddy, 
"Experts differ on Ron Brown's head wound," Tribune-Review, 12/3/97; "Ron Brown conspiracy protest today," UPI, 12/24/97.) 

1221. (*) A conversation with former IRS investigator Bill Duncan (who, along with Arkansas Highway Patrol investigator Russell Welch, first 
uncovered the activities at Mena) shed little light on the matter. Duncan said he was unaware of any files removed from Arkansas to 
Oklahoma, although Duncan and Welch were under intense scrutiny for their courageous efforts. (An attempt on Russell's life was later 
made by poisoning him.) Curiously, long-time Washington correspondent Sara McClendon reported that the CIA was also seen removing 
large quanties of files from their offices on April 19. 

1222. (880) Carol Moore, "Report on 1995 House Waco Hearings," revised. May, 1996. 

1223. (**) Although FBI supervisor Larry Potts claimed there was one. 

1224. (881) Peter Kawaja, interview with author. 

1225. (t Secretary of State Warren Christopher had unveiled a similar plan four months earlier. "International terrorists, criminals and drug 
traffickers pose direct threats to our people and to our nation's interests," Christopher stated, as though he was referring to elements within 
our own government. 

1226. (882) Ambrose Evans-Pritchard, "IRA 'supplied detonator for Oklahoma terror bomb,'" London Sunday Telegraph, 3/30/97. 

1227. (883) Theodore Shackley, The Third Option: An Expert's Provocative Report on an American View of Counterinsurgency Operations, 
(New York, NY: Dell Publishing, 1981), p.17. 

1228. (884) Gene Wheaton, "CIA: The Companies They Keep," Portland Free Press, July-October, 1996. 

1229. (*) As Laventi Beria, Stalin's chief of security, stated in a speech at V. I. Lenin University regarding what he called "Psychopolitics," 
"Our fruits are grown in chaos, distrust, economic depression, and scientific turmoil. At last a weary populace can seek peace only in our 
offered Communist State; at last only Communism can resolve the problem of the masses." 

1230. (885) Portland Free Press, June/July, 1997. 

1231 . (886) William Shirer, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, 

1232. (887) Suzanne Harris, J.D., "From Terrorism to Tyranny: How Governments Use Domestic Terrorism to Promote Totalitarian Change," 
The Law Loft, Los Angeles, CA, 1995. 

1233. (888) Shirer, Op Cit. 

1234. (889) Orville R. Weyrich, Jr., "Reichstag Fire," Weyrich Computer Consulting, 1995; William Jasper, "A Post-Oklahoma Kristallnacht," 
The New American, 5/129/95. 

1235. (890) Jonas Bernstein, "U.S., Russia Sign Anti-Gangster Pact," Washington Times, 7/6/94; quoted in Namebase Newsline, 
"Organized Crime Threatens the New World Order," Jan-March, 1995; "FBI Chief: U.S. 'Under Attack' by Terrorists," U.S. News & World 
Report, 8/1/96. 

1236. (891) USA TODAY, 3/11/93. 

1237. (892) MTV, 3/22/94. 

1238. (893) The Bill appropriates $114 million dollars for the FBI for fiscal year 1997 and $166 million for 1998. The White House, Press 
Briefing By Under Secretary of the Treasury For Enforcement Ron Noble, Deputy Attorney General Jamie Gorelick, and Deputy Assistant to 
the President for Domestic Policy Bruce Reed, 4/26/95. 

1239. (894) Ace R. Hayes, "G-Men Cop Plea on Ruby Ridge," Portland Free Press, September/October, 1995. "The third sub-unit of this 
division is the "Special Detail Unit" which is designated to keep Gen. Reno from harm." 

1240. (895) HR 97's sponsor is Rep. Barbara Kennelly (D-CT). The Senate's version is S. 1581, introduced in 1993 by Senator Joseph 
Lieberman (D-MA). Page 5 of the bill states: Members of the Rapid Deployment Force who are deployed to a jurisdiction shall be deputized 
in accordance with State law so as to empower such officers to make arrests and participate in the prosecution of criminal offenses under 
State law. "On The Fast-track To Fascism," Relevance magazine, February, 1995. 

1241. (896) Joe Hendricks, Chief of Police, Windsor, Missouri, "Police Chief Rejects Trend Toward National Police," The Idaho Observer, 
June, 1997. 

1242. (*) Recent rules in certain counties in Wyoming have changed this policy, and legislation is pending as of this writing in Montana to 
require federal agents to seek authorization of the local sheriff before conducting a raid. 

1243. (897) In a nationwide survey of 690 police departments in cities with populations of 50,000 or more, researchers found that 90 percent 
now have active SWAT teams, compared to 60 percent in the early 1980s. 

1244. (898) Soldier of Fortune, August, 1995. 

1245. (899) William Booth, Washington Post, 6/17/97. 

1246. (900) To obtain a copy of these hearings call (202) 224-3121 and ask for the House Judiciary Subcommittee on Crime and Criminal 
Justice, or call your Congressman. 

1247. (901) Associated Press, 12/24/94. 

1248. (902) "Hard Landing by Army Copter Hurts Two," Houston Chronicle, 10/29/96. 

1249. (903) Mike Blair, The Spotlight, 11/14/94; Miller, Op Cit. 

1250. (904) Lori-Anne Miller, "Bombing Sounds Rattle Neighborhood," The Detroit News, 10/2/94; Mark Spencer, posted on AEN 
Newsgroup, 10/02/94. 

1251. (*) It seems that President Clinton suspended the law restricting the use of military force within U.S. borders in a little-known codicil of 
PDD-25, a Presidential Decision Directive that is an "open secret" in the military and Congress, but is largely unknown to the American 

1252. (905) "The Pentagon Brings its Wars Home," Sources Ejournal, Volume 2, Issue 1, January, 1997. Army Lt. Gen. J.H. Binford Peay 
points out in an Army publication titled. Tomorrow's Missions, that "military forces [today] are required to provide domestic national 
assistance, such as internal peace-keeping and anti-drug operations and support of civil authorities to maintain stability in a rapidly changing 

1253. (906) Jonathan Volzke, "Urban Combat Training: Marines Hit the Rooftops," Orange County Register, 3/19/93, quoted in Terry Cook, 
The Mark of the New World Order (Springdale, PA, Whitacker House, 1996), p. 81. 

1254. (907) Major General Max Baratz, "New shape of Army Reserve Supports New Missions," Army Reserve, Summer, 1994. 

1255. (908) William F. Jasper, "Fact and Fiction: Sifting Reality from Alarmist Rumors," New American, 10/31/94. 

1256. (*) Now, with the Crime Bill, the FBI can be "deputized" in local areas to enforce local laws upon demand by the FBI. In other words, if 
the FBI wants to work locally and use state and local laws, they can demand the local sheriff deputize them — then they are not constrained 
by federal limitations. 

1257. (*) In February, 1982 President Ray-Gun signed a series of National Security Decision Directives (NSDDs), which provided for 
increased domestic counterintelligence efforts and the maintenance of law and order in a variety of emergencies, including terrorist 
incidents, civil disturbances, and nuclear emergencies. 

1258. (909) "Could It Happen Here?" Mother Jones, April, 1988. "Packard's directive says turning over law enforcement to the army will 
'normally' require a Presidential Executive Order, but that this requirement can be waived in 'cases of sudden and unexpected 
emergencies... which require that immediate military action be taken.'" 

1259. (910) Keenen Peck, "The Take-Charge Gang," The Progressive, May, 1985; Reynolds, Op Cit. 

1260. (*) Former Attorney William French Smith blocked the expansion of FEMA's jurisdiction in 1984, but after Smith left office. North and 
his FEMA cronies came up with the Defense Resource Act, designed to suspended the First Amendment by imposing censorship and 
banning strikes. 

1261. (911) Michael Levine with Laura Kavanau, Triangle of Death, (New York: Delacorte Press, 1996), p. 353. 

1262. (912) Mike Levine, interview with author. 

1263. (*) The Los Angeles riots resulted in 11,113 fires, 2,383 injuries, and 54 deaths. There were 13,212 arrests. The damage was 
estimated at $717 million. 

1264. (913) "Police May Have Ignored Basic Riot Plan," New York Times, 5/7/92, quoted in Ibid. 

1265. (914) "Riot Found Police in Disarray — Officers Kept from Flash Point Despite Pleas," Los Angeles Times, 5/6/92, quoted in 
Constantine, p. 33. 

1266. (*) In 1979, five Communist Workers Party members were murdered by neo-Nazis and Klansmen in Greensboro, NC during a protest 
march. The KKK and Nazi groups were infiltrated and led by FBI provocateur Edward Dawson and ATF informant Bernard Butkovich. 
Interestingly, two police other officers responding to a domestic call in the area just prior to the shootings noted a suspicious lack of patrol 
cars in the area. Officer Wise subsequently reported being asked by police dispatch how long they anticipated being at their call, and were 
then advised to "clear the area as soon as possible." (See Chapter 15) 

1267. (**) Alex Constantine (Blood, Carnage, and the Agent Provocateur), who interviewed local residents, discovered that some of the 
arsonists were clearly not locals. 

1268. (915) Parker and Bradley Clash at Riot Inquiry, Los Angeles Times, 9/15/65, quoted in Ibid., pp. 65-66; Ibid., p. 53. 

1269. (916) Ibid., p. 69. McCone testified before the Warren Commission that Lee Harvey Oswald's connections to the Agency were "minor." 

1270. (917) "The Kent State Shootings," KPFK-FM, Los Angeles, 5/3/89, quoted in Constantine, p. 25. 

1271. (918) Tackwood, Op Cit., quoted in Ibid., p. 61. 

1272. (919) William Mendel, Colonel, USA, (retired), "Combat in Cities: The LA Riots and Operation Rio," Foreign Military Studies Office, 
Fort Leavenworth, KS, July 1996. 

1273. (920) Ace R. Hayes, "G-Men Cop Plea on Ruby Ridge," Portland Free Press, September/October, 1995. 

1274. (921) Mark Riebling, Wedge: The Secret War Between the FBI and CIA, p.429. 

1275. (*) During the 1994 elections. House Judiciary Committee chair Jack Brooks was overheard joking about the massacre: "Horrible 
people. Despicable people. Burning to death was too good for them. They'd like a slower method." 

1276. (*) PBS Frontline did a piece in 1995 showing victims of torture which occurred in one Chicago police district. It was claimed that 
torture was often used on suspects in that district so as to obtain confessions. 

1277. (922) Shackley, Op Cit., p. 13. 

1278. (**) U.S. Army psychological warfare expert Lt. Col. Michael Acquino, who wrote a manual on mind control for mass populations, was 
fascinated by the Nazis and their relationship to the occult. Acquino traveled to Weiselsburg Castle in Germany where Hitler and Himmler 
performed their occult rituals in order to control their SS puppets to slay the population. 

1279. (*) Acquino is the leader of the Temple of Set. He was accused by a Presidio Army Chaplain of molesting the Chaplain's 3-year-old 
daughter, and was investigated by San Francisco police. The Army buried the case, and my Freedom of Information Act requests went 
unheeded. Acquino, his satanic powers apparently on the wan, threatened to sue the author. 

1280. (923) Ivan Sharp, "Presidio Satanist a Scarey Enigma," San Francisco Examiner, 1 1/2/98. 

1281. (924) The New American, 3/18/96, Vol. 12, No. 6. Apparently, Schumer felt that Militia hearings were more important than an 
investigation of the murder of 82 innocent people by the Federal Government at Waco. Fortunately, most of his fellow Congressmen did not 

1282. (*) Emphasis in original. 

1283. (925) Marchetti, O p Cit. 

1284. (926) Frank Donner, The Age of Surveillance: The Aims and Methods of America's Political Intelligence System, (New York, NY: 
Vintage Books, 1981), quoted in Connolly, Op Cit. 

1285. (*) Nichols had arranged a joint venture between Wackenhut and the Cabazon reservation in Indio, California to manufacture 
machineguns, night-vision goggles, fuel-air explosives, poison gas, and biological weapons, some of which were illegally shipped to the 
Contras. Wackenhut used the tribe's status as a sovereign nation to evade the Boland Amendment prohibiting aid to Somoza's so-called 
"freedom fighters. "Jimmy Hughes, Nichols' former Wackenhut bodyguard, claims to be in possession of documentation linking Cabazon 
operatives to a hit list of political targets, including Swedish Prime Minister Olof Palme, murdered in 1986, reportedly for interfering in a 
similar covert arms operation in his country, involving Israeli intelligence agent Amiram Nir, and Cyrus Hashemi, both high-level operatives in 
the Reagan/Bush arms-for-hostages-for-drugs network.( (Thomas and Keith, Op Cit., pp. 28-34.) 

1286. (927) Daniel Brandt, "Organized Crime Threatens the New World Order," NameBase NewsLine, No. 8, January-March 1995. 

1287. (*) Interestingly, William Northrop is a good friend of George Petrie's, and acted as a middle-man between the CIA, the Israelis, and 
the Contras in illegal arms deals. He was prosecuted by former U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York (now Mayor) Rudolph 
Gulliani, who described him as one of the "Merchants of Death." 

1288. (928) Frank Greve, Matthew Purdy, and Mark Fazlollah, "Firm Says U.S. Urged Covert Plots," Philadelphia Inquirer, AI2QIQ1, quoted in 
Christie, Op Cit., and Rodney Stich, Defrauding America (Alamo, CA: Diablo Western Press, 1994), p. 604. "Richard Meadows served for a 
time as Peregrine's president. Charles Odorizzo and William Patton, worked for the group. Peregrine's key contacts were retired Army Lt. 
Gen. Samuel Wilson (former Director of the DIA) and Lt. Col. Wayne E. Long, who as of April 1987 worked as a senior officer in the Foreign 
Operations Group, which is a part of the Army's intelligence support activity office." 

1289. (929) Stich, Op Cit, p. 604; ANV had a contract with U.S. Military Central Command, the influential connection coming through USMC 
Major General Wesley Rice of the Pentagon Joint Special Operations Agency. Rice was a close friend of Bush, Helms, and Shackley, 
Wheaton, Op Cit; Deposition of Sam Hall, 9/9/87, quoted in Christie, Op Cit 

1290. (*) Emphasis in original. 

1291. (930) Gene Wheaton, "Secret Island Spy Base," Portland Free Press, July-October, 1996. Wheaton and Hunt both claims that an ABC 

news helicopter was shot down over the island in 1985, killing a female reporter. The incident was covered up for reasons of "national 

1292. (931) Declaration of Plaintiffs Counsel, U.S. District Court, Southern District of Florida, Tony Avirgan and Martha Honey v. John Hull, 
et al.. Civil Case No. 86-1 146-CIV-KING, filed 3/31/88 by the Christie Institute; It seems Whitlam was about to announce the truth of Pine 
Gap at a press conference. By November 7, 1975, the covers of three more CIA agents had been blown in the press. 

1293. (*) This will be explored more fully in Volume Two. 

1294. (932) Luigi DiFonzo, St. Peter's Banker, (New York, NY: Franklin Watts, 1983); NameBase NewsLine, No. 5, April-June 1994. 
According to Conspiracy Nation publisher Brian Redman, Gelli attended Ronald Reagan's inauguration and the accompanying ball in 1981; 
Mark Aarons and John Loftons, Ratlines (London, Heinemann, 1991), p. 89, quoted in Nexus, February/March, 1996. 

1295. (933) /ib/d. 

1296. (934) "Staying Behind: NATO's Terror Network," Arm Tiie Spirit, October, 1995, (Source: Figiiting TaH<- Issue 11 - May 1995; Thomas 
& Keith, Op at., p. 77. According to Jonathan Vankin, Italian Journalist Mine Percorelli claimed the CIA pulled P2's strings. He was killed 
after publishing the article. 

1297. (*) One early result of this fear on the Right was a failed coup attempt in 1970 by Navy Commander Prince Valeric Borghese, a 
supporter of the main Italian Fascist party MSI. 

1298. (935) Stuart Christie, Stefano Delle Chiaie: Portrait of a Blacl< Terrorist (London: Dark horse Press, 1984), p. 32. 

1299. (936) /ib/d. 

1300. (937) Christie, Op Cit. 

1301. (938) Stuart Christie, "Stefano Delle Chiaie: Portrait of a Black Terrorist," (London: Anarciiy Magazine, Refract Publications, 1984), p. 

^302. (939) Ibid. 

1303. (*) This is similar to the release of Cuban terrorist Orlando Bosch by George Bush. 

1304. (940) David Yallop, In God's Name (London: Corgi Books, 1985), p. 172; "II Gladio," BBC expose, June, 1995, quoted in Ibid. 

1305. (941) Steve Mizrach, "Murder in the Vatican? The attempt on the life of John Paul II," posted on Internet. 

1306. (942) Christie, Op Cit. 

1307. (943) Edward S. Herman, The Terrorism Industry (Ne\N York, NY: Pantheon, 1989), p. 226. 

1308. (*) It was also discovered by the Belgian press that Wackenhut guards had been luring immigrant children into basements and beating 

1309. (944)Reuter, 7/14/96. 

1310. (945) New American, Op Cit. 

1311. (946) Ah Ben-Menashe, Profits of War: Inside the Secret U.S.-lsraeli Arms Network, (New York: Sheridan Square Press, 1992), p. 
122. Eitan was responsible for collecting scientific and intelligence information from other countries through espionage. (Art Kunkin: "The 
Octopus Conspiracy"). 

1312. (947) Patrick Seale, Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire, (New York, NY: Random House, 1992), p. 158. 

1313. (948)/ib/d.,p. 153,214. 

1314. (949) /ib/d., pp. 265-66. 

1315. (*) Abu Nidal did business at the Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI), a CIA proprietary which laundered drug 
proceeds for the North/Secord "Enterprise," the Mujahadeen, and catered to the likes of Manuel Noriega, Saddam Hussein, and Ferdinand 

1316. (950) Mike Levine, interview with author. 

1317. (951) William Jasper, "The Price of Peace," The New American, 2/5/96. 

1318. (952) Uri Dan and Dennis Eisenberg, A State Crime: Tiie Assassination of Rabin, (Paris: Belfond, 1996), quoted in Conspiracy Nation, 
Vol. 8 Num. 02. 

1319. (953) New American, 12/25/95. 

1320. (954) Roberts, Op Cit, p. 395. 
1321.(955)/ib/d.,p. 369. 

1322. (956) //)/d., p. 402. 

1323. (*) In fact, Singlaub is known to control at least one airfield in Arizona. 

1324. (957) "FBI accidentally faxes memo on Amtrak suspect," Associated Press, 9/4/97. 

1325. (*) Chief Superintendent Job Mayo, head of the National Capital Region Command of the police claimed a group called the Paracale 
Gang apparently did the bombings after failing to rob the Citibank on Paseo de Roxas in Salcedo Village, Makati. 

1326. (958) "Grenade blast Rocks Makati — 4 wounded: Rep Arroyo Accuses Military of Bombing to Justify Anti-Terrorist Bill," source: 
Manila dailies. 

1327. (959) Husayn Al-Kurdi, "Libya: The Perpetual Target," News International Press Service, date unknown. Regarding America's reaction 
to Libyan independence, Kurdi notes: "The idea that emancipation from want, ignorance and injustice was to be actually implemented 
somewhere is unacceptable to an entity that foments poverty and dependence everywhere." 

1328. (960) Under the authority of the 1977 International Emergency Economic Powers Act 

1329. (961) John Goetz, "Ten Years Later: La Belle Disco Bombing," Covert Action Quarterly, Spring, 1996. (author's note: The Los Angeles 
Times reported that "Israeli intelligence, not the Reagan administration, was a major source of some of the most dramatic published reports 
about a Libyan assassination team allegedly sent to kill President Reagan and other top U.S. officials... Israel, which informed sources said 
has wanted an excuse to go in and bash Libya for a long time,' may be trying to build American public support for a strike against Qaddafi.") 

1330. (962) Seymour Hersh, "Target Qaddafi," New York Times Magazine, 2/22/87, quoted in Covert Action Quarterly, date unknown. 
^33^. (963) Ibid. 

1332. (964) Goetz, Op Cit. Faysal testified, saying: "I am not of the opinion that the attack against La Belle was done by those Libyans whom 
I know [the Nuri group], but rather by a different group Many of the Libyans behaved suspiciously. That was to hide the group that in reality 
did the attack." 

1333. (965) Rick Atkinson, "US Delays Underlined As Disco Bombing Suspect Freed in Lebanon," Washington Post, 8/3/94; quoted in Ibid. 

1334. (966) Goetz, Op Cit. "A week after the bombing, Manfred Ganschow, chief of the anti terrorist police in Berlin, "rejected the 
assumption that suspicion is concentrated on Libyan culprits." 

1335. (*) Posey denied the allegations in an interview with the author. In an interview with the author. Federal Public Defender John Mattes 
felt the plot wasn't being seriously considered. 

1336. (967) Christie, Op Cit.; Jack Terrell, interview with author. (Also: See the Village Voice, 9/29/87, and 13/30/86.) 

1337. (*) Statements of Jesus Garcia to Federal Public Defender John Mattes; The plot is briefly mentioned in Jack Terrell's book. 
Disposable Patriot (Bet.hes6a, MD, National Press Books, 1992), p. 321; Terrell also confirmed the plot in an interview on NBC nightly news; 
Peter Glibbery, a mercenary operating in Contra camps near Hull's ranch, recalled attempting to transport explosives from the ranch to 
Jones' ranch, and being told it was needed "for the embassy job." 

1338. (968) Jack Terrell, NBC transcript, quoted in Christie, Op Cit. The Octopus would attempt to silence Terrell by informing the FBI that 
he had threatened the life of the President. 

1339. (*) According to Jack Terrell, Contra leader Adolfo Calero complained that Pastora had described the FDN (Contras) as "homicidal, 
Somicista sons of bitches." 

1340. (969) Cockburn, Op Cit. 

1341. (970) Deposition of Gene Wheaton; Deposition of Eden Pastora; testimony of Jack Terrell, quoted in Christie, Op Cit. 

1342. (*) On June 22, 1984, Pastora met with Dewy Clarridge and Vince Cannistraro, who offered to help Pastora find the killers. (Sure.) 
Harper's explosives training was allegedly courtesy of John Singlaub and Robert K. Brown (publisher of Soldier of Fortune ). 

1343. (971) Cockburn, Op Cit., pp. 56-57; Christie, Op Cit. 

1344. (*) GArcia and his family were later threatened with a live 105mm mortar round placed on their front lawn. 

1345. (972) Ibid., John Mattes, interview with author. 

1346. (973) Jack Terrell, Disposable Pa^r/o^ (Washington, D.C: National Press Book, 1992). 

1347. (974) As Col. Dan Marvin notes, that statement, written by White in a letter to a friend, was broadcast on ABC TV in 1979 in a 
documentary produced by John Marks. 

1348. (975) Sara McClendon, interview with author; Debra Von Trapp, interview with author. 

1349. (976) V.Z. Lawton, interview with author. 

1350. (*) Maroney's wife also told me Mickey was seconded to the DEA and FBI in Cyprus, who were investigating a counterfeiting ring 
(probably Iranian). As discussed previously, Cyprus is where DIA agent Lester Coleman worked with the DEA, and where he learned about 
Khalid Jaffer, the courier who allegedly carried the bomb onboard Pan Am flight 103. Maroney worked in Cyprus in 1993. 

1351. (977) Daily Oklahoman, 8/14/97. 

1352. (978) Mike Levine, interview with author. 

1353. (979) Ace R. Hayes, "Sacrificial Goat," Portland Free Press, July/October, 1997. 

1354. (*) "The prosecutors must pare down their case so that it does not bore the jury," legal analyst Kenneth Stern recommended in the 
American Jewish Committee's recent white paper on the trial. "In cases such as these, prosecutors too often present a 'Cadillac' when a 
'Chevrolet' would do much better." (Associated Press, 04/18/97) 

1355. (980) Steven K. Paulson, "Media Object to Sealed Documents in Oklahoma City Bombing Case," Associated Press, 12/1 3/96. 

1356. (*) Also recall that former CIA operative Gunther Russbacher claimed that several Las Vegas casinos, including Binyon's Horseshoe, 
are slush-fund pay-off points through Shamrock Development Corp. The recipients collect their money in the form of gambling chips, which 
they then cash in. It is worth noting that the CEO of Shamrock, Donald Lutz, was on the management staff of Silverado Savings & Loan. "E. 
Trine Starnes, Jr., the third largest Silverado borrower, was a major donor to the National Endowment for the Preservation of Liberty (NEPL), 
directed by Carl "Spitz" Channell, which was a part of Oliver North's Contra funding and arms support network. Wayne Reeder, another 
Beebe associate, a big borrower from Silverado, defaulted on a $14 million loan. Reeder was involved in an unsuccessful arms deal with the 
Contras. (Jack Colhoun, "The Family That Preys Together," Covert Action Quarterly, date unknown.) 

1357. (*) As Jones explained in the Writ: "This issue arrives before the Court at this late date simply because the defense has repeatedly 
gone to the government with information and requests, had to then seek intervention from the district court, and the last district court order 
has been issued within the last two weeks... ." 

1358. (981) Jones' defense team member, confidential interview with author. 

1359. (*) As McVeigh later explained to his hometown newspaper: "In the instant context, you could take [the statement] to reflect on the 
death penalty and the charges leveled against me. I was accused and convicted of killing — they say that's wrong, and now they're going to 
kill me." 

1360. (982) Associated Press & The Hays Daily News, 8/14/97. 

1361. (983) Bill Hewitt and Nickie Bane, "Humble? Forget It," People, 3/31/97. 

1362. (*) Senior partner Brendon Sullivan represented Oliver North during the Iran-Contra hearings. 

1363. (984) Janet Elliott, Mark Ballard, Robert Elder Jr., Gordon Hunter, "Nichols' Lawyers: The Odd Couple," Texas Lawyer, 3/22/96; 
Robert Schmidt, "Representing the Accused Bomber," Legal Times, 5/22/95; Constantine, "The Good Soldier," Op Cit. 

1364. (985) Jim Bellingham, interview with author. 

1365. (986) John DeCamp, The Franklin Cover-Up (Lincoln, NE: AWT, Inc., 1996), pp. 345-46. 

1366. (987) Letter from Stephen Jones to author, 4/21/97. 

1367. (*) As McVeigh's appeal brief stated: "Because the government's counsel attributed Mr. McVeigh's conduct to his anger at the Federal 
Government over Waco, Mr. McVeigh should have been entitled to show that the government had some culpability in provoking that anger," 
his attorneys said. "This evidence and argument would have provided a mitigating explanation for the otherwise inexplicable transformation 
of Mr. McVeigh from the thoughtful, responsible and playful person described by Mr. McVeigh's childhood friends, teachers and families... to 
someone who appeared bent on destruction.'" (AP, 1/16/98) 

1368. (988) General Benton K. Partin, interview with author. 

1369. (989) Stephen Jones, letter to author, 9/9/97. 
^370. (990) Ibid. 

1371. (*) "[Howe] said she saw McVeigh walking with Elohim City security chief Andreas Strassmeir, who had advocated violence against 
the government. One juror didn't at first even recall Howe's testimony. Another, Ouror Chris] Seib, said, "I don't know. We felt there was 
something there. You know, we kind of skimmed through that pretty quick." 

1372. (991) Nolan Clay, "Some Jurors Convinced Others Involved — Nichols Trial Renews Speculation Concerning John Doe 2," Daily 
Oklahoman, 1/11/98. 

1373. (992) Steven K. Paulson, "Jurors leave bombing sentence to judge, criticize prosecution's case, "Associated Press, 1/8/98. 
^374. (993) Ibid. 

^37 5. (994) Ibid. 

1376. (995) Nolan Clay, "Some Jurors Convinced Others Involved — Nichols Trial Renews Speculation Concerning John Doe 2," Daily 
Oklahoman, 1/11/98. 

1377. (*) The first man LBJ met with on Nov 29th, after he had cleared the foreign dignitaries out of Washington was Waggoner Carr, Texas 
Attorney General, to tell him. "No trial in Texas... ever." (Prouty) 

1378. (996) John Greiner, "Court Asked to Ensure Macy Explores All Bombing Angles," Daily Oklahoman, 6/28/97. 

1379. (*) Key's attorney Mark Sanford said the Supreme Court was willing to back Key up, by forcing Macy to do his job properly. 

1380. (997) District Attorney Bob Macy, interview with author. 

1381. (998) George Hansen, interview with author. 

1382. (*) According to Oklahoma Statutes, Title 22, Section 331 (General powers and duties of grand jury). Notes of Decisions: "Grand jury 
functions as an inquisitorial body; once it is convoked by the court, its duty is to investigate law violations [Tweedy v. Oklahoma Bar Ass'n, 
Okl. 624 P. 2d 1049 (1981)]... Investigation by grand jury era preliminatry examination by magistrate is not a trial, and the rules of evidence 
are not to be applied as rigidly as in trial of case before court. [Magill v. Miller, Okl. Cr., 455 P. 2d 715 (1969)]...." 

1383. (*) In a letter hand-delivered to the Grand Jury, Representative Key asked to testify a second time to present evidence that the DA's 
office refused to allow a video of "contemporaneous news accounts" because it was considered to be hearsay. As Mike Johnston, Key's 
attorney, stated in the letter, "The objection or contention that a grand jury cannot use hearsay evidence is not well founded." Morgan 
responded by thereafter refusing to communicate with Key except through his attorney. So much for cooperation. 

1384. (999) "Grand Jury Told Seismic Readings Unclear in Bombing," Daily Oklahoman, 9/19/97. 

1385. (1000) //)/d. 

1386. (1001) KWTV Channel 9 broadcast, 06/16/97. 

1387. (1002) Lynn Wallace, posted on OKBOMB mailing list. 

1388. (1003) Michael Rivero, posted on OKBOMB mailing list. 

1389. (1004) Edye Ann Smith, Individually and on Behalf of Her Minor Children, Chase Smith, Deceased, and Colton Smith, Deceased, 
Plaintiffs, vs. Timothy James McVeigh, Michael Brescia, Michael Fortier and Andreas Carl Strassmeir and Other Unknown Individuals, 
Defendants, Case No. CJ-96-18. 

1390. (1005) KFOR's information is currently in possession of the Congressional Task Force on Terrorism and Unconventional Warfare. As 
of this writing. Rep. James Traficant (D-OH) displayed an interest inholding OKBOMB hearings. 

1391. This statement by Ben Menache about Mohammed Radi Abdullah was proven to be libelous. See the documents to that effect. 

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The Mannlicher-Carcanno Bomb 

"It had to have been mined," said the gruff, gnarly voice on the other end of the line. "It's real simple. You cannot bring down a building like 
that without cutting charges set on the support pillars." 

Bud, an ex-Green Beret who saw heavy combat in Vietnam, should know what he's talking about. Bud had military demolitions training — 
the kind taught to men who need to know how to blow up hardened targets. 

"It couldn't have been done externally like that," added Bud. "Without cutting charges, there's just no way to do it." 

Bud didn't want me to use his full name. He was worried about his VA benefits. 

One man who wasn't worried about government reprisals was General Benton K. Partin. A retired U.S. Air Force Brigadier General, Partin 
had responsibility for the design and testing of almost every non-nuclear weapon device used in the Air Force, including precision-guided 
weapons designed to destroy hardened targets like the Alfred P. Murrah Building. Partin has exhaustively researched the bombing and the 
resulting pattern of damage. 

In a letter dated May 17, 1995, hand-delivered to each member of the Congress and Senate, Partin stated: 

When I first saw the pictures of the truck-bomb's asymmetrical damage to the Federal Building, my immediate reaction was 
that the pattern of damage would have been technically impossible without supplementing demolition charges at some of the 
reinforcing concrete column bases... . For a simplistic blast truck-bomb, of the size and composition reported, to be able to 
reach out on the order of 60 feet and collapse a reinforced column base the size of column A-7 is beyond credulity. 

The full text of Partin's report, reproduced in the appendix, is too complex to elaborate on here, says a truck filled with ammonium nitrate 
could not have caused the degree of damage done to the Alfred P. Murrah building. Not when it was parked at least 20 feet away from that 

building. Without direct contact, the fall-off from the blast would be too great to do any serious structural damage.^ 

Another man who knows a thing or two about bombs is Samuel Cohen, inventor of the Neutron Bomb. Cohen began his career on the 
Manhattan Project at Los Alamos, where he was charged with studying the effects of the atomic bombs that destroyed Hiroshima and 
Nagasaki. During his 40 year career, Cohen worked with every application of nuclear weapons design and testing. 

Cohen stated his position in a letter to Oklahoma State Representative Charles Key: 

It would have been absolutely impossible and against the laws of nature for a truck full of fertilizer and fuel oil. 
much was used... to bring the building down.^ 

no matter how 

Interestingly, the Ryder truck-bomb has earned the nickname the "Mannlicher-Carcanno Bomb" after the cheap Italian-made rifle with a 
defective scope that was allegedly used to kill President Kennedy. District Attorney Jim Garrison joked during the Shaw conspiracy trial that 
the government's nuclear physics lab could explain how a single bullet could travel through President Kennedy and Governor Connally five 
times while making several u-turns, then land in pristine condition on the President's gurney. 

In the Oklahoma bombing case, it appears the government is attempting to perform a similar feat of light and magic. The fact that a non- 
directional, low-velocity fertilizer bomb parked 20 to 30 feet from a modern, steel-reinforced super-structure could not have caused the 
pattern and degree of damage it did is not being widely touted by the government or the mainstream press. The government expects the 
public to believe that two disgruntled amateurs blew up the Oklahoma City Federal Building with a homemade fertilizer bomb. 

Dr. Roger Raubach doesn't believe the government. Raubach, who did his Ph.D. in physical chemistry and served on the research faculty at 
Stanford University, says, "General Partin's assessment is absolutely correct. I don't care if they pulled up a semi-trailer truck with 20 tons of 
ammonium nitrate; it wouldn't do the damage we saw there." 

Raubach, who is the technical director of a chemical company, explained in an interview with The New American magazine: 

"The detonation velocity of the shock wave from an ANFO (ammonium nitrate/fuel-oil) explosion is on the order of 3,500 

meters per second. In comparison, military explosives generally have detonation velocities that hit 7,000 to 8,000-plus meters 
per second. The most energetic single-component explosive of this type, C-4 — which is also known as Cyclonite or RDX — 
is about 8,000 meters per second and above. You don't start doing big-time damage to heavy structures until you get into 

those ranges, which is why the military uses those explosives."^ 

The government is not happy about people like Dr. Roger Raubach. They don't want you to know what Dr. Raubach knows. Sam Gronning, 
a licensed, professional blaster in Casper, Wyoming with 30 years experience in explosives, told The New American: 

"The Partin letter states in very precise technical terms what everyone in this business knows: No truck-bomb of ANFO out in 
the open is going to cause the kind of damage we had there in Oklahoma City. In 30 years of blasting, using everything from 

100 percent nitrogel to ANFO, I've not seen anything to support that story."^ 

In an interview with the author, Gronning said, "I set off a 5,000 lb ANFO charge. I was standing 1 ,000 feet from it, and all it did was muss 
my hair, take out the mud in the creek that we were trying to get rid of, and it shattered a few leaves off the trees around it. It didn't cause 
any collateral damage to any of the deeply set trees that were within 20 feet of it." 

The FBI has a different story to tell. 

The FBI claims that Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols bought several thousand pounds of ammonium nitrate at a farm supply store in 
Manhattan, Kansas, then drove to Geary State Park where they mixed a bomb. The FBI claims that the suspects then hauled their magic 
bomb a distance of over 500 miles, where, nearly 24 hours later, they blew up the Federal Building in Oklahoma City. 

Yet what the FBI — those bastions of truth and justice — don't want you to know, is that fertilizer-grade ammonium nitrate isn't a very good 
blasting agent. As a publication from the Atlas Powder company states: 

...agricultural fertilizer prills when made into ANFO had very poor explosive characteristics. They would not detonate 
efficiently because of their high density, lack of porosity and heavy inert coatings of anti-setting agents.... The ability of an 
oiled prill to be detonated depends greatly upon the density of the prill. Dense prills, such as agricultural grade, often are not 
detonable at all; or if initiated, perform at a very low rate of detonation and may die out in the bore hole performing no useful 


U.S. Army Technical Manual TM 9-1910 states itthusly: 

The grade of ammonium nitrate used in the manufacture of binary explosives is required to be at least 99 percent pure, 
contain not more than 1.15 percent of moisture, and have maximum ether-soluble, water-insoluble acidity, sulfate, and 
chloride contents of 0.10, 0.18, 0.02, 0.05, and 0.50 percent, respectively. 

Moreover, a bomb like that is not easy to mix. According to Gronning, "You'd have to stir and stir and stir to get just the right mixture for 
proper combustibility. And then, if it isn't used immediately, the oil settles to the bottom and the bomb doesn't go off." 

"ANFO is easy to make if you know how to do it," adds Jeffrey Dean, Executive Director of the International Society of Explosives Engineers, 
"but it takes years of experience to work with safely." According to Dean, "It is almost impossible for amateurs to properly mix the ammonium 

nitrate with the fuel oil. Clumps of ANFO would inevitably fail to detonate. "^-^ 

The scenario of two men mixing huge barrels of fertilizer and fuel-oil in a public park also stretches the limits of credulity. Such a spectacle 
would surely have been seen by anyone passing by: hikers, picnickers, fishermen. 

"That would have drawn so much attention," said Rick Sherrow, a former ATF (Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms) agent with 25 
years experience in explosives. "It would have required an area twice the size of a truck just to walk around... that would have not have 

gone okay."^^ 

Naturally, the expert who testified for the government disagrees. Linda Jones, an explosives specialist who has studied IRA bombings in 
Great Britain, "concluded that there was one device. . . in the rear cargo compartment of a Ryder truck. ..." Jones added that it wouldn't be 
difficult to build such a large bomb "provided they had a basic knowledge of explosives and access to the materials — it would be fairly 

simple. One person could do it on their own, but more people could do it quicker. "^^ 

While the government built its case on witness accounts of the single Ryder truck, numerous witnesses, uncalled to testify by the 
prosecution for the McVeigh trial, recall seeing two trucks. Could two trucks — one rented by McVeigh, and one rented by the suspect 
known as John Doe 2 — have been used to transport the huge quantities of material necessary to build such a bomb? 

"I would buy two trucks simply for logistics," said Sherrow. "One truck full of barrels of ammonium nitrate, and you still got to put the fuel into 
it. Because you don't want to put the fuel in and let it settle for days at a time. They would have to have something to bring everything 
together and mix it, and that's going to take more then one truck." 

Two days prior to the Murrah Building bombing — on April 17th — David King, staying at the Dreamland Motel in Junction City, Kansas, 
where McVeigh and John Doe 2 spent time, remembered seeing the Ryder truck with a trailer attached to it. Inside the trailer was a large 
object wrapped in white canvas. "It was a squarish shape, and it came to a point on top," said King. "It was about three or four feet high." 

King said that later in the day, the trailer was gone, but the truck was still in the lot.^^ 

Was this witness describing some sophisticated explosive device? Or was he describing a Leiy farm mixer? A Leiy farm mixer is about four 
feet high with a pointed top. What happened to this trailer? Why did we never hear anymore about it? 

Then around 2:00 a.m. on April 19, a Ryder truck pulled into the Save-A-Trip convenience store in Kingman, Kansas, followed by a light 
colored car and a brown pick-up. Assistant manager Richard Sinnett clearly recalls three men, including McVeigh and a man resembling 
John Doe 2 enter the store. Yet Sinnett was particularly struck by the odd contraption they were towing — a large plastic, semi-transparent 

tank full of clear liquid. ^^ Was this diesel fuel that the bombers intended to add to their ammonium nitrate mixture at the last minute? 

Despite a mountain of evidence against the [government's] ANFO theory, the government has gone to great lengths to convince the jury and 
the public that the Murrah Building was destroyed by a single ANFO bomb delivered by a pair of disgruntled Right-wing extremists. In fact, 
the ATF televised a demonstration of an ANFO truck-bomb detonating in an effort to prove their contention. "They fired the thing off," said 
Gronning. "We saw it — it was on CNN — so what? All it did was set off an explosion and wiggle the trees behind it. It didn't even knock 
them over. 

"My knowledge comes from practical handling of explosives," added Gronning. "And my belief is that 4800 lbs of ANFO wouldn't have 
scuffed the paint on the building!" 

The FBI also changed the size of the bomb numerous times. They originally claimed that it weighed 1,200 pounds, upgraded that figure to 
2,000 pounds, then to 4,000 pounds, and finally, they issued a press release stating that the bomb weighed 4800 pounds. 

"It appears the government keeps up-grading the size of the vehicle and the 'fertilizer' bomb to coincide with the damage," said retired FBI 
SAC (Senior Agent-in-Charge) Ted Gunderson. 

The government also originally claimed the bomb cost less than $1 ,000 to build. Then just before the start of McVeigh's trial, that figure was 
upgraded to $5,000. Their rationale was based on the "discovery," almost two years after the fact, that the suspects had constructed their 
magic bomb with racing fuel, not diesel fuel, which is far less expensive. 

To maintain some semblance of credibility in light of increasingly publicized reports of General Partin and others, the government also 
conceded — right before the start of McVeigh's trial — that the suspects probably hadn't built their bomb at Geary State Park after all.^^ 

If Timothy McVeigh or anyone else with military training wanted to destroy the Alfred P. Murrah Building, it is highly unlikely they would use 
ANFO. As Army demolition manuals clearly state, ANFO is not good for destroying concrete or steel. McVeigh, the consummate soldier who 
studied every conceivable Army manual in his spare time — including Army Manual TM 31-210: Improvised Munitions Handbook — certainly 

would have known this.^^ 

Yet the FBI insists that amateur bomb-makers Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols built this amazing ANFO bomb that killed 169 people and 
destroyed a modern nine-story steel-reinforced concrete building. Of course, that was before the government's damage-control apparatus 
went into effect. Before it did, even the usual government talking-heads were insisting that no amateurs could have done this. 

Vince Cannistraro, ABC News corespondent and former CIA intelligence advisor to the National Security Council stated, "This is something 
professional and it really implies that the person who constructed the explosive device has experience, was trained in the use of explosives, 

and knew what they were doing. "^^ 

Before he began attacking critics of the government's case, Oklahoma Governor and former FBI agent Frank Keating stated, "...obviously 
whatever did the damage to the Murrah Building was a tremendous, very sophisticated explosive device. "^-^ 

The very next day, the government was insisting that a homemade ANFO bomb, made with agricultural grade ammonium nitrate, did the job. 
FBI Special Agent John Hersley contends that traces of a military-type detonation cord known as PDTN (pentadirythri-tetranitrate), 
commonly known as Primadet, were found on McVeigh's clothing at the time of his arrest (In another report it was PETN, or pentaerythritol- 

tetranitrate). PDTN was allegedly used to wire the barrels of ANFO. ^^ 

Senior FBI chemist Frederick Whitehurst conducted a test on McVeigh's clothing but found no residue there, or in McVeigh's car either.^^ 

Whitehurst came forward with allegations that the FBI has been slanting results of its forensic tests for years. Collected in a 30-page 
memorandum, Whitehurst criticized FBI laboratory personnel for incompetence. As a Justice Department memorandum states: "Dr. 
Whitehurst contends that the Explosives Unit and the Chemistry and Toxicology Unit inappropriately structure their conclusions to favor the 


According to the Wall Street Journal, "[Whitehurst's] accusations of bias and even manufacturing evidence have called into question several 
high-profile government cases, including the Oklahoma City and World Trade Center bombings. "^^ 

Whitehurst's allegations were further elaborated on in a highly revealing report issued by the DoJ Inspector General's Office, which 
concluded that "[SSA David] Williams repeatedly reached conclusions that incriminated the defendants without a scientific basis and that 
were not explained in the body of the report." 

Indeed. It appears Williams reached his conclusions based, not on empirical evidence, but on the fact that Terry Nichols allegedly purchased 
large quantities of ANFO. As the OIG (Office of Inspector General) report states: 

Without the evidence of these purchases, Williams admitted he would have been unable to conclude that ANFO was used. 
Indeed, Williams stated that based on the post-blast scene alone it could have been dynamite... . 

Williams claimed "that the initiator for the booster(s) was either a detonator from a Primadet Delay system or sensitized detonating cord." Yet 


as the OIG report states, "No evidence of a Primadet system or sensitized detonating cord was found at the crime scene.'" — ^ 

Controversial scientist and bomb expert Michael Riconoscuito told former FBI agent Ted Gundersen that the theory of drums of ANFO being 
detonated by PDTN-soaked loops of rope or "det" cord is highly improbable, if not impossible. "The only way to obtain blast control is with 
volumetric initiation," explained Riconoscuito. "This takes electronic circuits of similar sophistication as would be required in nuclear 
weapons. This sophistication is not available to the average person," he added, stating that the resultant blast would have been "confused 

and uncontrolled," and the energy would have ultimately "canceled itself out."^^ 

Finally, the OIG report states: "Whitehurst questions Williams' conclusion that none of the structural damage evident within the Murrah 
building was caused by secondary explosive devices or explosions. "^^ 

So why is the government going to such great lengths, in spite of overwhelming evidence to the contrary, to make us believe that the Alfred 
P. Murrah Building was destroyed by an ANFO bomb? Because the government's case is built upon the premise that Timothy McVeigh and 
Terry Nichols built their alleged bomb with ammonium nitrate. The calls allegedly made by McVeigh were to stores that sell racing fuel and 
ammonium nitrate. McVeigh's fingerprint is allegedly on a receipt for ammonium nitrate. And a small trace of ammonium nitrate was 
allegedly found at the scene. The government's case must proceed along those lines. Any evidence that proves the bomb was made of 
anything other than ANFO would not only destroy the government's case, it would open up inquiries about who rea//y bombed the Murrah 

Building... and why.^^ 

The government [also had to stick] with the ANFO theory is because Michael and Lori Fortier agreed to testify in a plea-bargain that their 
friend McVeigh arranged soup cans in their kitchen to demonstrate how to make a "shaped charge." Yet as bomb experts explained, there is 
no way to make a shaped charge out of a collection of ANFO barrels. 

But the [government doesn't want any serious inquiries as to who really blew up the Murrah Building. The] government expects us to believe 
that two lone amateurs with a crude fertilizer bomb, out in the open, twenty to thirty feet away from a hardened target, destroyed eight 

reinforced columns and killed 169 people. As General Partin said, such a scenario is "beyond credulity. "^^ 

Former ATF [agent] Rick Sherrow, who wrote an article for Soldier of Fortune magazine entitled "Bombast, Bomb Blasts & Baloney," 
contends that General Partin's assessment of the bombing is somehow inaccurate. Sherrow claims that the pressure wave that would have 
struck the building from the [rapidly deteriorating] blast of the ANFO bomb (375 p.s.i. according to Partin's figures) would be more than 

enough to destroy reinforced concrete columns, which Sherrow claimed in his article disintegrate at 30 p.s.i. (pounds per square inch).^^ 

To Sam Gronning, such a statement is preposterous: "That's bullshit!" exclaimed Gronning. "Thirty p.s.i. wouldn't take out a rubber tire!" Both 
Partin and Rabauch contend that at least 3,500 p.s.i. is required to destroy reinforced concrete. In a letter to Partin, Rabauch states: 

I took the liberty of checking with the leading concrete supplier in my area in order to confirm the compressive yield figure that 
you used, that being 3,500 p.s.i. What I was told about concrete was very interesting. A 3,500 p.s.i. figure is extremely low for 
structural concrete. A properly mixed and cured structure of the type dealt with in your report would probably have a yield 

strength of 5,600 p.s.i.^^ 

Those who rush to refute the evidence presented by Partin, Raubach and others, cite as evidence the 1982 destruction of the Marine bunker 
in Beirut by a truck-bomb driven by an Islamic terrorist. In that instance, however, the truck was driven directly into the building — a structure 
much smaller and lighter than the Alfred P. Murrah Building. 

In August of 1970, 1,700 pounds of ANFO parked in a van exploded outside the Army Math Research Lab at the University of Wisconsin in 
Madison. Although parked closer than the Ryder truck was to the Murrah Building, the bomb merely blew a hole in the outer wall and took 

out the windows. One person was killed. (See photo) 

In 1989, Colombian narco-terrorists detonated a truck-bomb outside the National Security Department in Bogota, Columbia. The vehicle was 
parked approximately ten feet from the modern high-rise building. The bomb decimated the face of the building, but left the support columns 
intact. Fifteen people were killed. 

In the summer of 1996, an IRA truck-bomb detonated in the heart of Manchester's financial district. The device, constructed of ANFO and 
3,500 pounds of Semtex, a high-velocity, military-grade plastic explosive, caused considerable damage to the surrounding buildings, but left 
them relatively intact. Although the device managed to break a lot of windows and injure 206 people, no one was killed. 

On June 25, 1996, a tanker-trailer packed with RDX plastic explosives blew up outside the Khobar Towers apartment complex at King Abdul 
Aziz Air Base in Saudi Arabia, killing 19 American servicemen and injuring hundreds more. While the blast produced a crater 35 feet deep 
and 85 feet across (the crater in Oklahoma was approximately 6 feet deep and 16 feet across, although the government claimed it was 30 
feet), it didn't do the same amount of damage done to the Murrah Building — a building constructed to much more rigorous codes and 

specifications. Yet authorities claim that the bomb was at least the size as that which blew up the Federal Building.^^ [See photo] 

In an analogy offered by Partin, "It would be as irrational or as impossible as a situation in which a 150 pound man sits in a flimsy chair 
causing the chair to collapse, while a man weighing 1 ,500 pounds sits in an identical flimsy chair and it does not collapse — impossible." 

"But," contends Sherrow in Soldier of Fortune, "the [Murrah] Building was not designed to withstand explosions or earthquakes, and it's 
basically a weak building." 

Jim Loftis, one of the building's architects, told me they were asked to make the building bomb-resistant, due to left-wing radicals who were 
blowing up federal facilities in the early 1970s. Loftis also said the building was designed to meet earthquake standards. "We designed it to 
meet the building codes and earthquakes are part of that code," said Loftis. 

Loftis also said that the north side of the lower level (the area impacted by the truck-bomb) was steel-rebar reinforced concrete without 
windows. He also concurred with Raubach and Partin that the pressure necessary to destroy reinforced concrete is in the 2,500 to 4,000 p.s. 

i. range — a far cry from the 30 p.s.i. cited by Sherrow.^^ 

Yet Sherrow concludes that since there was so much collateral damage (damage to the surrounding buildings) the truck-bomb must have 
been responsible. "The collateral damage just discounts [Partin's] material," says Sherrow. 

Two experts who seem to agree with Sherrow are Dorom Bergerbest-Eilom and Yakov Yerushalmi. The Israeli bomb experts were brought 
to Oklahoma at the request of ATF agent Guy Hamal. According to their report, the bomb was an ANFO bomb boosted with something more 

powerful... and it had a Middle Eastern signature. ^^ 

The Athenian restaurant, which sits approximately 150 feet northwest of the Murrah Building, was almost completely destroyed. Pieces of 
the Murrah Building were actually blown into the Athenian. As video producer Jerry Longspaugh points out, only a bomb inside the Federal 
Building would be capable of projecting parts of the building into another building 150 feet away. 

As Gronning notes in a letter to Representative Key: "Not in your wildest dreams would that much ANFO affect peripheral damage at that 
distance. Which leads me to suspect that another more powerful explosive was used." 

According to a source quoted in the Rocl<y IVIountain News, an ammonium nitrate bomb made with a racing fuel component known as 
hydrazine "would create one of the largest non-nuclear blasts possible." McVeigh had allegedly attempted to procure the substance from a 


dealer in Topeka, Kansas, who refused. In fact, hydrazine is extremely hazardous and difficult to obtain.' — ^ 

While not knowledgeable about hydrazine, Gronning noted that "C-4, for example, would be capable of creating those kinds of pressure 
waves and destroying the local foundation of the Federal Building. 

"If you had 4,000 lbs of C-4 in there," Gronning said, "now you're talking a real high-order explosive at some serious speed. And when that 
goes off, you're liable to take out the thing. But I still have a problem believing even at that distance away from the building, it would create 
that kind of damage. All you have to do to see what I'm talking about is to see what kind of bomb damage you get from a bomb in the [WWII] 

attacks on London. "^^ 

It is precisely this analogy that Sherrow attempts to use in Soldier of Fortune. "For perspective, notes SOF 'demo' expert Donovan, "consider 
that the German V-1 and V-2 missiles that devastated London carried only 1 ,650 pounds of an explosive not dissimilar in brisance and yield. 
In other words, would three V-2s simultaneously striking the first floor of the Murrah Building do such damage? Of course they would." 

Yet the Ryder truck did not impact the Murrah Building at the speed of a rocket, nor did it impact it at all. Even to the layperson, one can see 
that such an analogy is ridiculous. In his article, Sherrow never speculates that C-4 or any other high-velocity military type explosive might 
have been used. 

still, the former ATF man contends that an ANFO bomb parked out in the open could have caused the pattern and degree of damage done 
to the Murrah Building. "Absolutely and without a shadow of a doubt, and I base that on 30 years in the business, and shooting ANFO — 
from a couple pounds to 630 tons in one shot." Sherrow goes on to state that Partin's conclusions were based upon mere "theoretical 
analysis," not hands-on experience. 

Yet Partin spent 25 years in the defense research establishment, including hands-on work at the Ballistic Research Laboratories; 
Commander of the Air Force Armament Technology Laboratory; Air Force System Command, and the Office of the Secretary of Defense 
(OSD) management. Such credentials speak of a man who knows his explosives. 

It is unclear why the former ATF man was trying to discredit Partin, and by association, others who disagreed with the government's theory. 
What is clear however is that Soldier of Fortune, the magazine in which Sherrow's article appeared, is owned by Paladin Press, regarded a 
CIA proprietary. Robert K. Brown, the magazine's publisher, is an associate of General John Singlaub, a key Iran-Contra player who ran the 
genocidal Phoenix Program in Vietnam, and helped train death squads in Central America. Both men reportedly played an ancillary role in 
the 1984 La Penca bombing, which resulted in the deaths of eight journalists. [See Chapter 14] Sherrow admitted to working for the CIA in 


Africa. What he did there wasn't exactly clear.^ — ^ 

If the CIA (or one of its tentacles) were involved, as they invariably tend to be in such cases, they would have a strong motive to cover up 
their involvement and re-direct the investigation. The most common way of doing this is through the use of propaganda and disinformation. 
While Sherrow himself has criticized the ATF, and wrote several articles debunking the government's theory regarding militia groups, this 
particular article appeared to be a "hit-piece" designed to discredit any legitimate analysis of the bombing. 

Yet some critics of the government's story have gone beyond the relatively ordinary explanations of Partin, Gronning and others to suggest 
that the Federal Building was destroyed by a device called an "A-Neutronic Bomb." These advocates cite as evidence the nature of the 
spalling (the disintegration of the concrete into tiny pieces) on the top of the building, and the extent of the damage to surrounding buildings 
that even men like General Partin claim would be impossible for an ANFO bomb. 

Larens Imanyuel, a Berkeley assistant physics professor who has studied the bombing, is one such advocate. Imanyuel's analysis, which 
appeared in Veritas newsletter, indicates that the wide extent of the collateral damage was not consistent with a conventional explosion. As 
Imanyuel writes: 

There was some very sophisticated bomb that was capable of causing a tremendous blast atmospheric pressure wave that 
blew out windows in so many of the surrounding buildings. This had to be some sort of very high-tech dust explosive-like 
bomb — one that creates a widely dispersed explosive mixture in the very air and then detonates it with a secondary charge. 
This last spectacular high-tech bomb served the purpose of convincing the general public that the alleged solitary truck-bomb 

was powerful and "devastating" enough that it could wipe out and collapse a nearby building. ^^ 

Consider the comments of a local structural engineer. Bob Cornforth, "The range of this blast has really impressed me — the extent of the 
damage and the distance out." A mile away, window frames had been pushed back two feet. On the other hand, he inspected two buildings 
just a little over 200 ft. from the so-called crater, the YMCA center and the Journal Record building, which lost part of its pitched concrete 
roof. To his surprise, "The structural frames performed extremely well. We design for 80-mph winds," which he says seems adequate. The 
lack of damage to the frames, despite the massive light-structural damage showed that the shock waves were of short duration. This was 
consistent with a many-point explosion, but not with a single-point explosion large enough to knock out the four heavy columns that had 

collapsed in the Murrah Building. ^^ 

The A-Neutronic bomb, or "Electro-Hydrodynamic Gaseous Fuel Device," was reportedly developed by the young scientist-prodigy in the 
early 1980s while he was working for Hercules Manufacturing in Silicon Valley, CA. The first bomb test at the Pentagon's super-secret Area 
51 in Nevada apparently resulted in the death of a technician and injured several others due to their underestimation of its power. The 
project was reportedly compartmentalized and classified under a "Nuclear Weapons" category by President Reagan. [For a description of 
the device, see Appendix] 

[What does Samuel Cohen have to say about the A-Neutronic bomb? "Well, I'm not expert enough to really vouch for his statements, but I've 
got a hunch that it's technically well-based. I've spoken to Michael Riconosciuto (the inventor of the A-Neutronic Bomb) and he's an 
extraordinarily bright guy. I also have a hunch, which I can't prove, that they both (Riconosciuto and Lavos, his partner) indirectly work for the 

According to Imanyuel, a member of a public watch-dog group that monitors military and nuclear procurement activities, "The design would 
be particularly suitable for use as a cruise missile warhead, where a non-nuclear charge is required that can reliably destroy a hardened 
target despite a several-meters targeting error. Such weapons are designed as part of the Advanced Technology Warhead Program of 
Lawrence Livermore and Los Alamos National Laboratories." 

Ted Gundersen, who has independently investigated the bombing, included numerous letters and memos in his report which pointed to the 
existence of such a device. He reported that the government contract number for the bomb was DAAA-21-90-C-0045, and was 
manufactured by Dyno-Nobel, Inc., in Salt Lake City. Dyno-Nobel was previously connected with Hercules Manufacturing, where 
Riconosciuto worked. The Department of the Army denies that contract DAAA-21-90-C-0045 exists. Dyno-Nobel refused to respond to 

inquiries from Gundersen or the author.^^ 

Curiously, the bomb specialist the government called as its expert witness during the Federal Grand Jury testimony was Robert Hopler. 
Hopler recently retired from Dyno-Nobel. 

Sherrow raised the issue of the Electro-Hydrodynamic Gaseous Fuel Device in his Soldier of Fortune article. According to Imanyuel, 
"Gundersen's bomb model was clearly unworkable as presented in Soldier of Fortune, but contained the essential information that the bomb 


generated an electrostatically charged cloud.'" — ^ 

One victim in the HUD office in the Murrah Building described in a National Public Radio interview on May 23, 1995 how she felt a heatwave 
and a static electricity charge immediately before the windows blew in. 

Daina Bradley, who lost her mother and two children in the bombing, said she felt electricity running through her body right before the bomb 

Another victim, Ramona McDonald, who was driving about block away, remembers seeing a brilliant flash and described the feeling of static 
electricity. "It made a real loud static electricity sound. It sounded like big swarm of bees — you could actually hear it. The next thing was a 
real sharp clap, like thunder...." McDonald also described both gold and blue flashes of light. Interestingly, Riconiscuto has called his device 

"Blue Death. "^^ 

Another survivor of the blast was quoted on CNN as saying, "It was just like an atomic bomb went off. "The ceiling went in and all the 
windows came in and there was a deafening roar..."^^ 

Proponents of the A-Neutronic Bomb conclude that these are all signatures of such a device. ^^ 

While both Gundersen and Riconosciuto have received ridicule for suggesting that a super-secret pineapple-sized device may have 
destroyed the Murrah Building, Cohen cautions: "Look, when I first came up with that concept (the Neutron Bomb, developed in the 1970s), 
the ridicule I took from the scientific community was something awful. And this included scientists at the Nobel Prize level." "Regarding 

Riconosciuto," adds Cohen, "the guy's a madman... but technically, there's no doubt in my mind that he's brilliant."^^ 

Gene Wheaton, a former Pentagon CID investigator, claims that the fuel-air bomb was deployed in the Gulf War, along with other 

experimental weapons responsible for much of the massive devastation inflicted on Iraq.^^ The fuel-air explosive, or FAE, can cover an 
area 1 ,000 feet wide with blast pressures of 200 p.s.i. According to a CIA report on FAEs: 

[T]he pressure effects of FAEs approach those produced by low-yield nuclear weapons at short ranges. The effect of an FAE 
explosion within confined spaces is immense. Those near the ignition point are obliterated. Those at the fringes are likely to 
suffer many internal... injuries, including burst eardrums and crushed inner-ear organs, severe concussions, ruptured lungs 

and internal organs, and possible blindness. ^^ 

Moreover, it seems that Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm supplied Iraq with plans for a fuel-air explosive. The blueprints were allegedly passed 
on to the Iraqis by the Egyptians, and Iraq commenced commercial production of the weapon — the force of which is the equivalent of a 

small atomic explosion. ^^ 

A few minutes before 9:00 a.m. on April 19, a young Arabic man carrying a backpack was seen in the Murrah Building hurriedly pushing the 
elevator button as if trying to get off. A few minutes after he exited the building, the bomb(s) went off. The elevator doors, which were on the 
opposite side of the building from the truck-bomb, had their doors blown outward. 

Another former military source agreed that a device similar to the fuel-air explosive exists. "It's called a Special Atomic Demolition Munitions 
or SADM," said Craig Roberts, a Lt. Colonel in Army Reserve [Intelligence]. According to Roberts and Charles T. Harrison, a researcher for 
the Department of Energy and the Pentagon, this munition has been deployed with artillery units in Europe. The SADM can also be carried 
in a backpack. 

Another source who has monitored top-secret weapons projects confirmed this information: 

I do not know a lot about SADM's, but I have friends — ex British SAS and RAF — who were trained in their use a few years 
ago for behind-the-lines sabotage in the event of a Russian breakthrough in Europe. They believe from their still-serving 
military contacts that the earlier football sized back pack weapons that they were trained on have been significantly microed 
such that a device would now easily fit in a grapefruit and deliver five to ten tons TNT equivalent — or less [i.e: down to one 
ton TNT]. These things easily fit into a 105mm howitzer shell or a briefcase. ... 

Exactly what components are utilized in these weapons is difficult to get as the still serving British officers are reluctant to talk 
about them in detail. One can assume that a mixture of Plutonium 239 (highly refined hence relatively low radioactivity 

emission on detonation), Lithium 6 Deuteride Tritide, Tritium, and possibly Beryllium and Uranium 238 (NOT 235) would be 
involved as a series of lenses in a Bi-Conical shape. I am endeavoring to get more data but this a very touchy area...^^ 

An article in the The Nashville Tennessean insists Iraq's Saddam Hussein has been developing 220 pounds of lithium 6 per year, lithium 6 
can be converted to tritium, an essential ingredient in thermonuclear reactions. ^^ 

Other sources say that 6,000 to 7,000 SADM's were produced, some of which made their way to Israel and other countries. ^^ Sam Cohen 
confirms this information in the Fall issue of Journal of Civil Defense. Cohen, echoing Harrison, charges that the U.S. has purposefully 
underestimated the number of nuclear warheads that Iran, Iraq and North Korea could produce, and deliberately discounted their capacity to 
produce substantially smaller warheads. 

"A couple of years ago," states Cohen, "disturbing statements on advanced small, very low-yield nuclear warheads, began emanating from 
Russia. ^^ Cohen adds that these articles "revealed a massive smuggling ring had emerged where the material was being sold around the 
world to a number of countries, some of which were terrorist nations. "^^ 

[Writing in Nexus Magazine, Australian journalist and military authority Joe Vialls points out that the bombing which destroyed a financial 
center in London in July of 1993, and which almost destroyed the World Trade Center in New York four months later, could not have been 
caused by conventional explosives. In a bizarre coincidence predating Cohen's analysis, theoretical physicist and former Pentagon nuclear 
expert Theodore B. Taylor stated in his book. The Curve of Binding Energy, that someday someone was going to blow up the World Trade 


Center with a nuclear device the size of a stick of gum. Taylor's prediction first appeared in the New Yor/cer magazine in 1973.' — ^ 

Vialls adds that the British government was quick to blame the London attack on an IRA (Irish Republican Army) truck-bomb, in the same 
manner that U.S. authorities were quick to blame the Oklahoma bombing on a truck-bomb constructed by a pair of so-called disgruntled anti- 
government loners. Yet at the same time the British government was issuing these statements, their bomb technicians were exploring the 
bomb site in full nuclear protective suits.] 

Had the Murrah Building been destroyed by a SADM or a backpack nuke, using the truck-bomb as a cover? British bomb experts, with 
extensive experience dealing with terrorist truck-bombs, told McVeigh's attorney, Stephen Jones, that the ANFO bomb could not have done 

all of the damage to the Murrah Building. ^^ 

British bomb expert Linda Jones, testifying for the prosecution in McVeigh's trial, came to the opposite conclusion however. Nevertheless, 
the site was quickly demolished and covered over with concrete; the remains taken to a secure dump and buried. What was the government 
trying to hide? Nuclear Physicist Galen Winsor, General Ben Partin, and KPOC manager David Hall went to the building and disposal sites 
with radiation measuring equipment, but were kept away. They managed to gather some fragments anyway, and when they measured them 

with Winsor's Nal Scintillator detector, they registered radiation levels 50 percent higher than normal. ^^ 

[The specter of radioactive terrorism is not exactly brand new. In Paris, the French secret police foiled terrorists planning to set off a 
conventional bomb designed to spread particles of deadly radioactive plutonium in the air. 

Cohen suggests that if it had been a radioactive attack, and it were made public, it would have panicked a public already frightened about 
terrorist attacks: "If the perpetrators had been able to get their hands on just a traceable amount of radioactivity, and mixed it up with the 
explosive, so that it would virtually assure that it would be picked up by some detecting meter, and this had gotten out, that there was a fairly 
copious amount of radioactivity in the explosive, all hell would have broken loose... . It would scare the pants off a very large fraction of the U. 

S. citizenry, by saying this was used by terrorists, and contaminated an area..."^^ 

Given the government's long history of covering up radiation tests on U.S. citizens, from radiating entire towns downwind of nuclear test 
sites, to slipping radioactive isotopes to crippled children in their oatmeal, it goes without saying that they would also cover this up.] 

"A new class of nuclear weapons could exist which could have an extremely disturbing terrorist potential," said Cohen. "And to admit to the 
possibility that the warheads might be sufficiently compact to pose a real terrorist threat was equally unacceptable [to the government]. "^^ 

So was the Federal Building blown up by demolition charges, a truck filled with C-4, a fuel-air explosive, a miniature nuke, or some 
combination of the above? 

["It really doesn't make any difference," says Cohen. "From the standpoint of practicality... I would lean towards Ben Partin. Because all the 
stuff Partin's put out, it just holds up — it makes eminent sense — he doesn't have to get into this exotica. Partin says using ordinary 

Primacord wrapped around these pillars could have done the job." ^^ 

In fact, it does make quite a bit of difference from an investigative point of view, since the more sophisticated the bomb, the more 
sophisticated the bombers. And Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols weren't that sophisticated.] 

KFOR-Channel 4 reported that the mysterious severed leg clothed in military garb found in the rubble allegedly had PVC embedded [in] it. 

PVC pipe is sometimes used to pack plastic explosives. It increases the shear power. Had this leg, unmatched to any of the known victims, 
belonged to the real bomber?^^ 

[In fact, it does make quite a bit of difference from an investigative point of view, since the more sophisticated the bomb, the more 
sophisticated the bombers. And Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols weren't that sophisticated.] 

Then on March 20, ^ 996, Strategic Investment Newsletter repor{e6 that a Pentagon study had been leaked which backed up General Partin's 

A classified report prepared by two independent Pentagon experts has concluded that the destruction of the federal building in 
Oklahoma City last April was caused by five separate bombs. The two experts reached the same conclusion for the same 
technical reasons. Sources close to the Pentagon study say Timothy McVeigh did play a role in the bombing but peripherally, 

as a "useful idiot." The multiple bombings have a Middle Eastern "signature," pointing to either Iraqi or Syrian involvement.^^ 

Finally, in the Spring of 1997, explosives experts at Eglin Air Force Base's Wright Laboratory Armament Directorate released a study on the 
effects of explosives against a reinforced concrete building similar to the Federal Building. The Air Force's test closely matched the 
conditions under which the government contends the Murrah Building was destroyed. 

The Eglin Blast Effects Study, or EBES, involved a three-story reinforced concrete structure 80 long, 40 feet wide, and 30 feet high. The 
building constructed for the test, the Eglin Test Structure (ETS), while smaller than the Murrah Building, was similar in design, with three 
rows of columns, and six-inch-thick concrete panels similar to those in the Murrah Building. Overall, the ETS was considerably weaker than 
the Murrah, which had five times the amount of steel reinforcing than the ETS, and 10 times the amount of steel in its columns and beams. 
As New American editor William Jasper noted in regards to the EBES: 

If air blast could not effect catastrophic failure to the decidedly inferior Eglin structure, it becomes all the more difficult to 
believe that it was responsible for the destruction of the much stronger Murrah Building. 

The experts at Eglin conducted three tests. They first detonated 704 pounds of Tritonal (equivalent to 830 pounds of TNT or approximately 
2,200 pounds of ANFO), at a distance of 40 feet from the structure, equivalent to the distance the Ryder truck was parked from the Murrah 
Building. The second test utilized an Mk-82 warhead (equivalent to 180 pounds of TNT) placed within the first floor corner room 
approximately four feet from the exterior wall. The third test involved a 250-pound penetrating warhead (equivalent to 35 pounds TNT), 
placed in the corner of a second floor room approximately two and a half feet from the adjoining walls. 

The first detonation demolished the six-inch-thick concrete wall panels on the first floor, but left the reinforcing steel bars intact. The 14-inch 
columns were unaffected by the blast — a far cry from what occurred at the Murrah Building. The damages to the second and third floors fell 
off proportionally, unlike that in Oklahoma City. The 56-page report concluded: 

Due to these conditions, it is impossible to ascribe the damage that occurred on April 19, 1995 to a single truck-bomb 
containing 4,800 lbs. of ANFO. In fact, the maximum predicted damage to the floor panels of the Murrah Federal Building is 
equal to approximately 1% of the total floor area of the building. Furthermore, due to the lack of symmetrical damage pattern 
at the Murrah Building, it would be inconsistent with the results of the ETS test [number] one to state that all of the damage to 
the Murrah Building is the result of the truck-bomb. The damage to the Murrah Federal Building is consistent with damage 
resulting from mechanically coupled devices placed locally within the structure .... 

It must be concluded that the damage at the Murrah Federal Building is not the result of the truck-bomb itself, but rather due 
to other factors such as locally placed charges within the building itself .... The procedures used to cause the damage to the 

Murrah Building are therefore more involved and complex than simply parking a truck and leaving ....^^ 

Even the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) was forced to conclude that 4,800 pounds of ANFO could have not caused the 
so-called crater in Oklahoma City. FEMA's report, published on August 30, 1996, inadvertently concluded that the bombers would have had 

to use approximately three times the amount reportedly used in Oklahoma City.^^ 

Another interesting confirmation came from FBI agent Danny Defenbaugh, who, along with U.S. Attorney Beth Wilkerson, visited General 
Partin in June of 1995. Part of the team that prosecuted McVeigh and Nichols, Wilkerson interviewed Partin on the presumption that he 
would be called as a witness, "...and [Agent Defenbaugh] was going through the report that I did," said Partin, "and he put his finger on that 
picture I had in the report... the designated crater, and he said, 'Suppose I told you that is not the crater?'" 

Partin believes Wilkerson and Defenbaugh (who Partin described as belligerent) interviewed him as part of a ruse to find out what he knew 
about the blast(s), so the government could carefully avoid those issues at trial. While they pretended to be interested in Partin's analysis, 
they never kept their word to follow up the interview. 

"I think what they did," said Partin, "was they looked at my credentials and technical justification of all this stuff, and they felt found that what 
I had was based on some pretty sound footing.... I think that's why they framed the case the way they did."^^ 

Whatever blew up the Alfred P. Murrah Building, one thing's for sure, there was enough ANFO present at the site to leave visible traces. 
Randy Ledger, a maintenance man who was in the building at the time of the blast, claims fellow workers who rushed into the building 
immediately after the explosion "complained of burning eyes, heavy dust and choking lungs. That is right out of the textbook of a diesel- 
fertilizer bomb, because it creates nitric acid," said Ledger. "The guys I work with, they're not going to make it up that their eyes are 

burning. "^^ 

Dr. Paul Heath, a V A psychologist who was on the fifth floor of the building at the time of the blast, said, "I picked fertilizer out of my skin... I 
could see the fertilizer actually exploding in the air; you could see it popping all around you." 

Ramona McDonald, who also survived the blast, concurs with Heath. "There was a bright flash, and then boom! And you could see the 
fertilizer popping in the air." 

Given this scenario, it's reasonable to conclude that the Ryder truck was filled with something more powerful, with just enough ANFO to 
leave a visible trace. 

Cohen agrees. "The damage that resulted could not have occurred from a van parked outside... I don't care how fancy an explosive was 
used. What did in that building... was an inside job." 

It would appear that experts' analysis' are not the only evidence of an inside job. In an interview with a local TV station, a man who escaped 
the building said, "I was sitting at my desk, and I felt a rumbling, a shaking in the building... so I decided to get under my desk.... the glass 
windows blew in and knocked down the ceiling and some of the stuff above the ceiling and it all landed on top of my desk." 

Another man said, "I thought it was an earthquake because I resided in California for many years, and it was almost like it was in slow 
motion. I felt a shake, and then it began shaking more, and I dove under my desk, and then the glass all came flying in." 

A friend of Dr. Ray Brown's, who's secretary was in the building said, "She was standing by a window. The window cracked, then she got 
away from it and then she was blown across the room and landed in another woman's lap. Another woman I know, Judy Morse, got under 
her desk after feeling the building shake, and before the glass flew." 

"Dr. Brian Espe, who was the sole survivor in the Department of Agriculture's fifth floor office, told the author he first "heard a rumbling noise." 

According to these individuals' accounts, if the truck-bomb — the alleged sole bomb — had detonated first, how would they have felt a 
rumbing, had time to think about the situation, then dive under their desks? The resulting blast wave from the truck-bomb would have been 

immediate and total. Such an account could only be indicative of demolition charges placed inside the building. ^^* 

"The inside charges — demolition charges," said Cohen, "may have gone off first, and so the columns now started to collapse. Boy, that 
would produce one hell of a rumble, to put it mildly. . . ."^^ 

A caller to the Oklahoma Radio Network related the experiences of his friend, a Federal Government worker, who had witnessed the blast 
first-hand. "He was approximately five blocks from the building whenever the building went up. He claims that the top of the building went up 
like a missile going through it. The debris was coming back down when the side of the building blew out. He said third and last, the truck 

blew up on the street."^^ 

Notice this witness said the building "blew out." This is contrary to the effect of an explosive blast from the street blowing the building in from 
the street. Candy Avey, who was on her way to the Social Security office when the explosions occurred, was blown away from the building, 

struck a parking meter, and then hit her car.^^ Said Suzanne Steely, reporting live for KFOR, "We could see all the way through the 

building. That was just the force of the explosion — it just blew out all the walls and everything inside. "^^ Ramona McDonald saw a flash 

and smoke rising up from inside the building, "like a rocket had shot out the top of the building. "^^ 

It should be obvious to the reader that it's implausible an ANFO bomb parked out in the street would have the force to blow all the way 
through a huge superstructure like the Alfred P. Murrah Building. 

No matter how hard the government tried to lie, obsfucate, and distort the truth, the evidence would come back to haunt them. 

On April 19, a tape recording made during a conference at the Water Resources Board directly across from the Murrah Building appears to 
indicate a succession of blast events, spaced very close together.^^ 

The tape recorder at the Water Resources Board was not the only instrument recording explosions that morning. The seismograph at the 
Oklahoma Geological Survey at the University of Oklahoma at Norman, 16 miles from the Murrah Building, recorded two waves, or "two 
events," on the morning of April 19th. Another seismograph at the Omniplex Museum, four miles away from the Federal Building, also 
recorded two events. These seismic waves, or "spikes," spaced approximately ten seconds apart, seem to indicate two blasts. [See 

Professor Raymond Brown, senior geophysicist at the University of Oklahoma who studied the seismograms, knew and talked to people 
inside the building at the time of the blast. "My first impression was, this was a demolition job," said Brown. "Somebody who went in there 
with equipment tried to take that building down." 

Not so, according to the U.S. Geological Survey's analysis. The USGS put out a press release on June 1st, entitled "Seismic Records 
Support One-Blast Theory in Oklahoma City Bombing." 

The bomb that destroyed the Alfred P. Murrah Building in Oklahoma City produced a train of conventional seismic waves, 
according to interpretations by scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Oklahoma Geological Survey (OGS). 

Scientists from those agencies said the seismic recordings of the May 23 demolition of the building reproduced the character 
of the original, April 19th seismic recording by producing two trains of seismic waves that were recorded on seismometers 
near Norman, Okla. 

"Seismic recordings from the building's implosion indicate that there was only one bomb explosion on April 19," said Dr. 
Thomas Holzer, a USGS geologist in Menio Park, Calif. Holzer is one of several USGS and OGS scientists who analyzed the 

shock waves created by the April 19 explosion and the May 23 implosion. ^^ 

Holzer added that the two distinct waves from the April 19 explosion(s) were the result of the same wave traveling at two different speeds 
through two separate layers of the earth's crust. The "illusion" of a double explosion was simply the result of the building's collapse, he 
claimed. "So the bottom line then," said Holzer, "is I think these observations are totally consistent with a single explosion. It doesn't require 

multiple explosions to do it."^^ 

Dr. Brown has an honest difference of opinion with folks at the U.S. Geological Survey. "I will candidly say that we are having trouble finding 
that velocity difference," said Brown. "We have not identified a pair of layers that could account for the ten-second difference. 

"Whatever the USGS saw in that data convinced them that the original blast was one bomb," he added. "I find that hard to believe... . What 
was uncomfortable and might be construed as pressure is that they were going to come out with a press release that says we have 
concluded that data indicates one bomb. It puts us in the uncomfortable stance of saying that we, too, have concluded that, and we haven't." 

Yet the USGS press release said that Dr. Charles Mankin of the OGS, Brown's boss, was "pleased with the work performed by Dr. Holzer 
and his USGS colleagues in the analysis of the seismic records." Yet Mankin had actually urged Holzer to delay the press release. 
"Everybody that has looked at the signal has said a refraction (an echo) would really be strange because there's absolutely no loss of energy 
in the recorded seismic signal. The second event has the same amplitude as the first... The arrival time is wrong for a refracted wave... 
We've ruled out reflections, refractions, and the air blast... We determined that these two records of these two events corroborate our 

interpretation that there were two explosions. "^^ 

The mainstream media, of course, jumped on the USGS's findings, with headlines like "Single Bomb Destroyed Building" and "Seismic 
Records Shake Murrah Multiple Bomb Theory." "The news media even reported two bomb blasts initially," said Mankin, "but later changed 
their story." 

"The USGS's conclusions are not supported by either data or analysis," added Brown, who asked that his name be taken off the report. 
Although Brown cautions that his own conclusions are far from conclusive and require "more thorough investigation," the most logical 
explanation for the second event says Brown, is "a bomb on the inside of the building." 

"Even the smallest of those detonations (from the May 23rd demolition) had a larger effect on the recording than the collapse of the 
building," he added, "which demonstrates that the explosives are much more efficient at exciting the ground motion than is the collapse of 
three-fourths of the building. So it is very unlikely that one-fourth of the building falling on April 19th could have created an energy wave 

similar to that caused by the large [truck-bomb] explosion. "^^ 

One of the problems with the two event theory is that the spikes on the seismic readings were ten seconds apart. With that much difference, 
most everybody in the vicinity should have heard two separate blasts. But given the traumatic nature of being in the immediate vicinity of a 
bombing, would witnesses necessarily have heard two explosions? Although the sound of a truck-bomb would certainly have made a loud, 
roaring noise, complete with lots of smoke and flying debris, experts say that the "crack" of a C-4 cutting charge is "downright disappointing" 
to hear. 

One man who works as a parking garage attendant one block north of the Murrah Building told The New American that he was test driving a 
new pickup truck near the building when the bomb went off. "It seemed like one, big, long explosion," he said, "but I can't say for sure. My 

ears were ringing and glass and rocks and concrete were falling all over and around me."^^ 

Dr. Paul Heath, who was on the fifth floor, says he heard only one blast. But fellow VA worker Jim Guthrie stated in an interview with the 
Washington Post 

"I felt a boom and was picked up off my feet and thrown under a water fountain." He heard a second explosion and covered 
his ears. Diane Dooley, who was at a third floor stairwell, also believes she heard a second explosion. ^^ 

P. G. Wilson, who worked in the Murrah Building, told researcher Michele Moore, "A second explosion came after the first one and shards of 
glass began flying in the office. "^^ 

Hassan Muhammad, who was driving for a delivery service that day, had his ears ruptured by the explosions. Muhammad told the author he 
clearly recalled hearing two distinct blasts, "...when I was crossing the street [at 10th and Robinson]... the first explosion went off, and it was 
a loud explosion. And my friend who was coming out of the warehouse asked me what was it, because we thought it was a drive-by 
shooting... and we got on the ground, and by the time we got on the ground, another one went off, and that's when all the windows came 


out." Muhammad recalls that it was about three to four seconds between blasts.' — ^ 

Jane C. Graham, a HUD worker injured in the bombing, also clearly felt two distinct blasts. As Graham stated in a videotaped deposition: "I 
want to specify that the first bomb — the first impact — the first effect, was a waving effect, that you got when the building was moving, you 
might have maybe felt a little waving, perhaps an earthquake movement, and that lasted for several seconds. 

"About 6 or 7 seconds later, a bomb exploded. It was an entirely different sound and thrust. It was like it came up right from the center up. 
You could feel the building move a little.... But there were two distinct events that occurred. The second blast not only was very, very loud, it 

was also very powerful. And as I said, I just felt like it was coming straight on up from the center of the building — straight up."^^ 

Michael Hinton, who was on a bus near NW 5th and Robinson — one block away — also heard two explosions. "I had just sat down when I 
heard this violent type rumble under the bus," said Hinton. "It was a pushing type motion — it actually raised that bus up on its side. About 
six or seven seconds later another one which was more violent than the first picked the bus up again, and I thought that second time the bus 


was going to turn over." ' — ^ 

What Hinton is describing is consistent with a two-bomb scenario. The first, smaller explosion being the more subdued blast of the 
demolition charges. The second, larger explosion being the blast of the truck-bomb — the blast pressure wave of which almost tipped the 
bus over. 

In an interview with Media Bypass magazine, attorney Charles Watts, who was in the Federal Courthouse across the street, described 
hearing, and feeling, two separate blasts: 

Watts: I was up on the ninth floor, the top floor of the Bankruptcy Court, with nothing in between the two buildings. We were 
on the south side, out in the foyer, outside the courtroom. It was nine o'clock, or just very, very shortly thereafter. Several 
lawyers were standing there talking and there was a large explosion. It threw several of the people close to me to the floor. I 
don't think it threw me to the floor, but it did move me significantly, and I threw myself to the floor, and got down, and about 
that time, a huge blast, unlike anything I've ever experienced, hit. 

Media Bypass: The blast wave hit? 

Watts: A second blast. There were two explosions. The second blast made me think that the whole building was coming in. 

Watts, a Vietnam veteran, has experienced the effects of bombings, including being within 100 feet of B-52 air strikes. Watts told Media 


Bypass he never experienced anything like this before.' — ^ 

Another veteran who heard the blast is George Wallace, a retired Air Force fighter pilot with 26 years in the service. Wallace, who lives nine 
miles northwest of the Federal Building described the blast as a "sustained, loud, long rumble, like several explosions." Wallace likened the 

noise to that of a succession of bombs being dropped by B-52s.^^ 

Taken together, the evidence and witness accounts appears to indicate that there were at least two blasts on the morning of April 19. 

General Partin, along with Senator Inhoffe, Representative Key and others, asked Congress that the building not be demolished until an 
independent forensic team could be brought in to investigate the damage. 

"It is easy to determine whether a column was failed by contact demolition charges or by blast loading (such as a truck-bomb)," Partin wrote 
in his letter to Congress. "It is also easy to cover up crucial evidence as was apparently done in Waco. I understand that the building is to be 

demolished by May 23rd or 24th. Why the rush to destroy the evidence?"^^ 

Cohen echoed Partin's sentiments: "I believe that demolition charges in the building placed at certain key concrete columns did the primary 
damage to the Murrah Federal Building. I concur with the opinion that an investigation by the Oklahoma State Legislature is absolutely 
necessary to get at the truth of what actually caused the tragedy in Oklahoma City." 

Yet the feds in fact did demolish the Murrah Building on May 23, destroying the evidence while citing the same reason as they did for quickly 
demolishing the Waco compound: "health hazards." In the Waco case, what was destroyed was evidence that the feds had fired from 
helicopters into the roof of the building during the early part of the raid, killing several people, including a nursing mother. In the Oklahoma 

case, what was destroyed was evidence that the columns had been destroyed by demolition charges. ^^ 

The rubble from the Murrah Building was hauled by Midwest Wrecking to a landfill surrounded by a guarded, barbed-wire fence, sifted for 
evidence with the help of the National Guard, then subsequently hauled off BFI Waste Management and buried. Along with it was buried the 
evidence of what really happened on the morning of April 19. 

"It's a classic cover-up," said General Partin, "a classic cover-up." 

"Everything Short of a T-72 Tank" 

If the bombing of the Murrah Building was the result of an inside job, who is responsible? Was it wired for demolition, and if so, who could 
have wired it? 

Dr. Heath, who has worked in the Murrah Building for 22 years, was present on the day of the bombing. Although Heath personally discounts 
the second bomb theory, he explained that poor security in the building would have permitted access to almost anyone, anytime. 

"The security was so lax in this building, that one individual or group of individuals could have had access to any of those columns," said 
Heath, "almost in every part of the building, before or after hours, or even during the hours of the workday, and could have planted bombs." 

Guy Rubsamen, the Federal Protective Services guard on duty the night of the 18th, said that nobody had entered the building. Yet 
Rubsamen took off at 2:00 a.m., and said that nobody was guarding the building from 2:00 a.m. to 6:00 a.m.^^ 

"It was a building you could have planted a bomb in anytime you wanted to," said Heath. "It was a building that was not secure at all. I've 
gone in and out of this building with a pen knife, just by slipping a knife in the south doors, slide the bolt back, and go in without a key. I've 

done that ever since the building was new. If you wanted into it, you could have gotten into it any time you wanted to."^^ 

Heath also explained that visitors could drive right into the garage, anytime. "There was no guard. You could drive inside the garage — four 
stories — anytime you wanted to, and carry anything you wanted to inside the car."^^ 

It appears that alleged bomber Timothy McVeigh (or someone driving his car) did just that. On the morning of April 19, attorney James 
Linehan was stopped for a light at the corner of NW4th and Robinson at approximately 8:38 a.m. when he observed a battered yellow 
Mercury run the light and drive directly into the underground parking garage. Linehan said the driver had sharp facial features similar to 
McVeigh's, although he thought the driver may have been a woman. 

Referring to the well-publized scene of McVeigh being led out of the Noble County Courthouse, Linehan said, "...that's it! That's the same 
profile." Curiously, one month later Linehan said, "My gut feeling is that it was a female driving. "^^ 

Why did "McVeigh" drive into the garage? Could he have done so to plant additional bombs? Or perhaps someone in McVeigh's car made it 
appear that he was doing so? A fall-guy for the real bombers? 

"If McVeigh was totally outside the law, he certainly wouldn't have snuggled up against them like driving into that basement that morning," 
said David Hall, general manager of KPOC-TV in Ponca City, Oklahoma, who has investigated the ATF's role in the bombing." 

Yet Hall doesn't believe "the ATF or the FBI or anybody went around and wired columns or anything like that. What he (Partin) said was that 
there may have been some explosives stored by some columns that went off. I don't feel that those people set out to kill 168 people in 
Oklahoma City intentionally. But I think that because of incompetence on their part that very well may have happened in two or three 
different ways..." 

Shortly after the bombing, an unidentified witness called Representative Key and told him that she saw two men in the garage who appeared 
to be "sawing" on the pillars. The men were working in almost total darkness. When she asked them what they were doing, they said, "We're 
just putting things right again." 

Were they "putting things right," or were they weakening the support columns just enough to make sure that they'd fail at the appropriate 

Then, on the Friday before the bombing, HUD worker Jane Graham noticed three men in the garage whom she thought were telephone 
repairmen. As Graham stated in her deposition, the men were holding what appeared to be C-4 plastic explosives: 

"It was a block, probably 2 by 3 inches of 3 by 4, in that area, but it was a putty color — solid piece of block — I don't know 

what it was. But they had that and they had this wiring. When they saw me watching them, they were down there and they 
had plans of the building. They were discussing — they were arguing in fact — apparently there was a disagreement, 
because one of the men was pointing to various areas of the garage. They were talking about, I assume, plans of the building. 
I thought maybe they were telephone men at first. 

"When they saw me watching them, they took the wiring — it looked like cord, telephone cord — it was putty colored — they 
took whatever else was in their hand, they put all of that back into a paper sack, they put it in the driver's side, behind the 
passenger seat [of a] pale green, slightly faded station wagon." 

Graham later told me that one of the men was holding a one by two by three inch device that looked like "some sort of clicker, like a small 
TV remote-control," she said. 

The men stopped working abruptly when they saw Graham. "They looked uncomfortable," she said. "They were as intent looking at me as I 
was at them." 

She also stated that the men were not wearing uniforms and were not driving a telephone or electric company truck. They were, however, 
very well built. They "obviously lifted weights" said Graham. 

(Graham's account is backed up by IRS worker Kathy Wilburn, who also saw the trio of men in the garage, as did a HUD employee named 

Although the FBI interviewed Graham, they never showed her any pictures or brought her before a sketch artist. "They only wanted to know 
if I could identify McVeigh or Nichols," she said. "I said it was neither of these two gentlemen. "^^ 

A call to the local electric, telephone, and natural gas companies revealed that the men were not authorized repairmen. Nor were they 
construction workers inspecting the premises for a proposed renovation project by the General Services Administration (GSA). The 20 or so 

contractors involved in that bid stated emphatically that the men were not their employees. ^^ 

David Hall (who stopped working on the case in late 1995 due to an IRS audit) wasn't aware of the Graham deposition, he did drop a 

"We do know that explosives were delivered there without a doubt. We know there were six boxes of 25 to 35 pounds marked 'high 
explosives' delivered to the building two weeks prior to the explosion. We had contact with the truck driver who was involved in that delivery. 
The name of the trucking company is Tri-State, located in Joplin, Missouri." 

Tri-state... is an explosives carrier. 

"We've talked to the driver," said Hall. "We've talked to two drivers. Nobody knows what was in them because they were boxed and marked 
'high explosive.'" 

Then Hall dropped another bombshell. 

"We also know that the ATF had a magazine inside the building, which was illegal. But the floor was blown out of that magazine. And there's 
some question about what was in there too that created that damage, because that was a foot of concrete that was blown out of that 

magazine. "^^ 

While several other unexploded bombs were pulled out of the wreckage, none were widely mentioned. 

One such bomb was a 2 X 2 foot box marked "High Explosives" which had a timer on it. This was confirmed by Oklahoma City Fire Marshal 
Dick Miller. The timing mechanism apparently had been set to detonate at ten minutes after nine. Apparently it had malfunctioned due to the 

initial blast.^^ 

According to Toni Garrett, a nurse who was on the scene tagging dead bodies. "Four people — rescue workers — told us there was a bomb 
in the building with a timing mechanism set to go off ten minutes after nine." According to Garrett, witnesses told her it was an active bomb. 

"We saw the bomb squad take it away."^^ 

This fact was confirmed by an Oklahoma City Police officer who inadvertently began to walk into the building when a fireman yelled, "Hey 
idiot, that's a bomb!" The stunned officer looked over and saw the 2 X 2 box surrounded by police crime tape. He then heard the fireman yell, 
"There's one over there and another over there! We're waiting for the bomb squads to come back from hauling off the others." 

Investigator Phil O'Halloran has Bill Martin of the Oklahoma City Police Department on tape stating that one of the bombs found in the 
building was two to three five-gallon containers of Mercury Fulminate — a powerful explosive — one not easily obtainable except to military 


sources.' — ^ 

Citizens monitoring police radios heard the following conversation on the morning of the 19th: 

First voice: "Boy, you're not gonna' believe this!" 

Second voice: "Believe what?" 

First voice: "I can't believe it... this is a military bomb!" ^^ 

Apparently, the containers, with "Milspec" (military specification) markings clearly visible, were found in the basement. Could this explain 
what McVeigh's car was doing in the underground parking garage? Mercury Fulminate is a highly volatile booster material. Volatile enough 


to create a very powerful explosion.' — ^ 

Shortly thereafter, a fireman up on the third floor of the building noticed two military ambulances pull up to the building, and saw several men 
in dark fatigues carrying stretchers from the building to the waiting ambulances. What were on the stretchers were not bodies, but boxes, 
which appeared to contain documents. One of the stretchers had on it what appeared to be a missile launch tube. The missile, apparently 

part of the Army recruiting office's display, was confirmed the 61st EOD to be inert. ^^°°^^^°^^ 

What is also interesting is that General Partin stated the building's support structures failed primarily at the third floor level. In speculating 
who would have access at that juncture, it may be relevant to note that the Department of Defense (DoD) was on the third floor, adjoining 

column B-3, which Partin believes contained the main detonation charge. ^^^ 

Partin was also informed by an acquaintance in the CIA that several of their personnel who examined the site discovered Mercury Fulminate 

residue on several rooftops near the building. ^^^ 

Around the same time as the Eglin Air Force Base report was being made public, William Northrop, a former Israeli intelligence agent, told 
me that a friend in the CIA's Directorate of Operations informed him that there was plastic explosive residue on the building's columns. 

Adding more fuel to the theory of an inside job was the dismembered military leg found in the wreckage — a leg not belonging to any of the 
known victims. (Although authorities would later attempt to attribute the leg to Airman Lakesha Levy.) 

Nor was the local media attributing the bombing to the work of amateurs. "Right now, they are saying that this is the work of a sophisticated 
group," stated a KFOR-TV newscaster. "This is the work of a sophisticated device, and it had to have been done by an explosives expert. 

obviously, with this type of exp lesion. "^^^^ 

Even Governor Frank Keating told local news stations: "The reports I have is that one device was deactivated, and there's another device, 
and obviously whatever did the damage to the Murrah Building was a tremendous, very sophisticated explosive device." 

Newscasters live on the scene could be heard throughout the day announcing, "We have reports of two other bombs pulled out of the 
building," and "The second two devices were larger than the first," and so on: 

KFOR Channel 4: The FBI has confirmed there is another bomb in the Federal Building. It's in the East side of the building. 
They've moved everybody back several blocks, obviously to, uh, unplug it so it wont go off. They're moving everybody back. 
It's a... it's a weird scene because at first everybody was running when they gave the word to get everybody away from the 
scene, but now people are just standing around kind of staring. It's a very surreal, very strange scene. 

Now, we want to get some information out to people, to people who are in the downtown area. You don't want to stand on the 
sidewalk, and the reason for that is there are gas mains underneath and if there's a second explosion, that those gas mains 
could blow. But, again, we do have confirmation. There is a second bomb in the Federal Building. We know it's on the east 
side. We're not sure what floor, what level, but there is definitely danger of a major second explosion. They're warning 
everybody to get as far back as they can. They're trying to get the bomb defused right now. They are in the process of doing 
it, but this could take some time. They're telling people that this is something to take very seriously, and not to slip forward to 
get a look at this, because this thing could definitely go off. 

KWTV Channel 9: All right, we just saw, if you were watching, there, there was a white pickup truck backing a trailer into the 
scene here. They are trying to get people out of the way so that they can get it in. Appears to be the Oklahoma Bomb Squad. 
It's their Bomb Disposal Unit, is what it is, and it is what they would use if, if, the report that we gave you just a few minutes 
ago is correct, that a second explosive device of some kind is inside the building. They'll back that trailer in there, and the 
Bomb Squad folks will go in and they'll use that trailer. You see the bucket on the back? This is how they would transport the 
Explosive Device away from this populated area. They would try to do something. 

Finally, KFOR announced: 

The second explosive was found and defused. The third explosive was found — and they are working on it right now as we 

speak. / understand that both the second and the third explosives were larger than the first.^^^ 

[Paramedic Tiffany Smith, who was working with other rescue personnel in the Murrah Building that morning, claims she was told by a black- 
suited ATP agent that another bomb had been found attached to a gas line.^^^] 

When Channel 4 interviewed terrorism expert Dr. Randall Heather at approximately 1:00 P.M. he stated: "We should find out an awful lot, 
when these bombs are taken apart. ... We got lucky today, if you can consider anything about this tragedy lucky. It's actually a great stroke of 

luck, that we've got defused bombs. It's through the bomb material that we'll be able to track down who committed this atrocity. "^-^^ 

In fact, it is uncertain if the bombs were taken apart and examined. As stated in a report prepared by the National Fire Protection 
Association: "The device was removed in the sheriffs bomb trailer and exploded in a remote location." ^^°^^^^°^^ 

Incredibly, all these reports were quickly hushed up and denied later on. Suddenly, the additional bombs inside the building became a car- 
bomb outside the building, then a van containing 2,000 pounds of ANFO, then a truck containing 4,800 pounds. 

Governor Keating, who himself had reported a second device, would later reverse his position, leading a statewide cover-up proclaiming that 
Representative Key and others investigating additional bombs and suspects were "howling at the moon," and "off the reservation." 

When J.D. Cash, a journalist writing for the McCurtain County Gazette, tried to interview members of the Bomb Squad, Fire Department and 
Police, he was generally told by potential interviewees, "I saw a lot that day, I wish I hadn't. I have a wife, a job, a family... I've been 

threatened, we've been told not to talk about the devices. "^-^-^ 

When I attempted to interview two members of the Sheriffs Bomb Squad who were first on the scene, they told me there were no additional 
bombs taken away or detonated. When questioned further they became visibly uptight and referred me to their superior. 

One law-enforcement official who had a little more practice at lying was Oklahoma City FBI SAC Bob Ricks, the master propagandist of 

Waco fame, who coolly stated to the press, "We never did find another device.... we confirmed that no other device existed. "^-^^ 

The ATF, who initially denied even having any explosives in the building, eventually recanted their statements and told reporters that the 2 X 
2 foot box was a "training bomb." I asked General Partin if there could be such a thing as an ATF "training bomb." 

"I would certainly not think so," said Partin. "Look, when you have an EOD team — EOD teams are very well trained people. And any 

training device would have to be so labeled — so labeled. And the EOD people who were there were claiming it was explosives. "^-^-^ 

Former ATF man Rick Sherrow had his own thoughts on the issue of training bombs. "All the field offices have that material (training bombs). 
It's 100 percent on the outside — weighs the same, looks the same, but it has no fill — no inert markings or anything else. I can't say 
absolutely that's what was found in the building, but it's more than likely. They had stun grenades too, which are live. They can't contribute or 

anything [to the damage], but they lied about it, and that jams up their credibility."^-^^ 

Cash interviewed GSA workers who helped the ATF unload their arsenal room two weeks after the blast. Cash described in a series of 
Gazette articles beginning on May 4, 1995, how the ATF had stored weapons, explosives and ammunition in the Murrah Building in 
contravention of the very laws they were supposed to enforce: 

Both the Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms Bureau (ATF) and the Drug Enforcement Bureau (DEA) had explosives and weapons 
— including an anti-tank missile — illegally stored in the building when it blew up April 19, the McCurtain Gazette has learned. 
An eyewitness observer told the Gazette recently of assisting federal agents to remove weapons and explosive devices from 

a partially-damaged arsenal inside the Federal Building after the explosion. ^^^ 

Lester Martz, ATF Special Agent in Charge for the region, denied this. "That locker was intact," said Martz in an interview with the Dallas 
Morning News, and with the author. Martz went on to say that the blasted out area between columns B-2 and B-4 was the result of DEA 
ordinance. Yet the DEA offices were on the west side of the building on the seventh floor, nowhere near that area. The ATF offices, 
however, were in close proximity to it, being located in the top rear corner of the building, on the east side. 

ATF officials were adamant in denying that no explosives were stored in the building. But it seems they did have C-4. OCPD Officer Don 
Browning, who viewed video footage taken by Sheriff Melvin Sumter, says C-4 was "definitely" carried out of the building. Browning, a 
Vietnam veteran, described the explosives he saw: "It was in wide blocks, about 3/4" thick, around 10" long, and about 2" wide, wrapped in 


Cash interviewed at least one unnamed witness who described helping ATF agents remove ordinance from their storage locker: 
"One night, up on the ninth floor, where the ATF offices [were], I helped some of their agents load onto an elevator small 

arms, machine guns, several cases of ammunition and even some boxes marked 'Explosives'" he said.^^-^ 

The Gazette interviewed two more witnesses who assisted in the post bombing clean-up. One, a civilian contractor hired by the GSA, told 
the Gazette July 30th: 

"They had everything! ...home-made zip guns, AK-47s, sawed-off shotguns, AR-15s, M-16s — literally hundreds of guns. You 
name it, they had it all... any kind of weapon you could ever want." He also said he recalls seeing an ATF agent with a five- 
gallon bucket of hand-grenades. 

"They carried out every conceivable type of firearm known to man," Cash told video producer Chuck Allen, "including hundreds of thousands 
of rounds of ammunition, boxes marked explosives, hand grenades, everything short of a Russian T-72 tank." Finally, a witness told the 

"What was left of that [ATF magazine] room is in the far south-east end of the ninth floor, but much of it was blown away and 
[apparently] disappeared into the rubble right on top of the America's Kids Day Care Center." 

The area just below the ATF's arsenal room — the coned-in area on the far left (south-east) side of the building seen in aerial photographs 

— is where most of the casualties occurred. This area extends one to two stories below the street level. (See Appendix) 

Apparently, this is not the first time such a "mishap" has occurred. Approximately 10 years ago, some captured Soviet ordinance, including 
rockets with high-explosive warheads, wound up stored at FBI headquarters in Washington, D.C. There was a subsequent fire, and the 
exploding ordinance caused more than a little consternation among firefighters, especially when one rocket took off and blasted a two-foot 
diameter hole in a cinder block wall. When the story leaked out, the ATF reacted by removing more than 30 pounds of explosives from their 

offices down the street. ^^^ 

In Allen's video. Cash makes the assertion that the massive internal damage to the building was the result of secondary explosions caused 
by these illegally stored explosives. The ordinance, which included percussion caps for C-4 (and C-4 itself), had fallen from their ninth floor 
storage area after the initial truck blast. Cash suggests, to one of the lower floors, where it detonated, causing massive internal damage. 
According to Cash's experts, although C-4 is relatively safe to handle, it can be set off with 3500 p.s.i. of pressure. 

General Partin disagrees with Cash's analysis, explaining: "For anything to have tumbled down from up there and done the increased 
damage is technically impossible... If something had fallen after that section had collapsed and caused an explosion that brought down 
[column] B-3, the thing would not have cropped the way it did. If you look up there at the top left hand side, you don't see anything up there 
that would indicate that you had a big blow-out at the top. If it had, it wouldn't of had anything to do with the column collapsing down below 

— they're too far away." 

I asked Partin if C-4 could explode due to the increased air pressure resulting from the truck blast, from the weight of falling debris, or simply 
by falling eight or nine stories. 

"Look," said Partin, "C-4 is kinda' tough to get to go; ammonium nitrate is even tougher. It takes a real intense shock wave to get that kind of 
explosive to go." Partin then added, "I thought I explained it to Cash, but I guess he's persisting with his story." 

Why Cash would persist with his story while largely side-stepping Partin's analysis is curious. Yet if the ATF were responsible for the 

secondary explosion, it would seem they would have reason to lie.^^-^ [Not only were they storing explosives illegally in a public building 
containing a day-care center, but almost the entire contingent of approximately 13 agents was absent on the day of the bombing (more on 
this later).] 

Was the ATF in fact responsible, knowingly or unknowingly, for the explosion that destroyed the Murrah building? Consider the following 
article which appeared in the June 5, 1995 issue of Newsweek: 

For the past year, the ATF and the Army Corps of Engineers have been blowing up car bombs at the White Sands Proving 
Ground in New Mexico. The project, code-named Dipole Might, is designed to create a computer model to unravel terrorist car- 
and truck-bomb attacks. By coincidence, a ATF agent assigned to Dipole Might, happened to be in Oklahoma City on April 
19th, working at the Federal Courthouse, which stands across the street from the Murrah Building. He saw the devastation 
and called the ATF office in Dallas. The Murrah Building had just been hit by 'ANFO' (ammonium material) bomb of at least 
several thousand pounds, he reported. Within minutes, explosives agents trained under Dipole Might were dispatched to the 
scene. They identified the type and size of the bomb almost immediately. 

Just how this agent (Harry Eberhardt) was able to immediately ascertain the building had been blown up by an ANFO bomb, when no 
forensic analysis had yet been conducted, is unclear. When Phil O'Halloran, a freelance journalist, attempted to ask the ATF Public 
Relations Bureau why a Dipole Might expert just happened to be in the courthouse at that moment, and how he could immediately have 

known the exact nature of the bomb, O'Halloran, rather than given a rational explanation, was accused of attacking the agency and was 

promised a fax of agency views on Right-wing conspiracists (which never arrived). ^^^ 

It is also unclear why was the Sheriffs Bomb Squad was in the parking lot between the Murrah Building and the Federal Courthouse at 7:45 
that morning. The Bomb Squad denies being there. But Norma Smith and other Federal Courthouse employees recall seeing the Bomb 
Squad's distinctive white truck. "We did wonder what it was doing in our parking lot," recalled Smith. "Jokingly, I said, 'Well, I guess we'll find 

out soon enough. '"^^^^ 

Oklahoma City attorney Daniel J. Adomitis told the Forth Worth Star-Telegram he also saw the Bomb Squad there that morning. "As I was 
passing the back side of the County Courthouse, I noticed a truck with a trailer and the truck said 'Bomb Disposal.' I remember thinking as I 

passed that , 'Gee, I wonder if they had a bomb threat at the county courthouse?'"^^^^ 

Was the bomb squad alerted that something was in the works? Not according to the ever-controvertful Lester Martz. "I have not come 
across any information that any kind of bomb unit was at the building prior to the bombing," announced Martz with a straight face at the 

same time he lauded the heroism of Luke Franey, the ATF agent who supposedly "karate-kicked" his way through three walls. ^^^ 

What is certain is that the Murrah Building had a bomb threat one week prior to the 19th. Michael Hinton remembers looking out the window 
of his YMCA room a week before and seeing about 200-300 people gathered outside. The incident didn't jog his memory until the local TV 

networks announced on the morning of the blast that the Federal Building had received a threat just a week before. ^^^ 

Nurse Toni Garret recalled talking to several people who said there had been bomb threats two weeks prior to the bombing. "The FBI and 
the ATF knew that these bomb threats were real, and they did nothing about it." 

Terrorism expert Dr. Randall Heather confirmed these reports, adding, "I know that there had been a threat phoned in to the FBI last week, 
but I don't know what the nature of that was."^-^^ 

According to the Oklahoma City Fire Department, the FBI phoned in a warning on April 14, almost a week before the bombing. Assistant Fire 
Chief Charles Gaines told Glenn Wilburn, who lost two grandsons in the blast, that there was never any warning. The grieving grandfather 
then walked down the hall to Assistant Chief Dispatcher Harvey Weathers office. Weathers told Wilburn in no uncertain terms that the Fire 
Department had indeed received a warning on April 14. Relating Gaines' apparent loss of memory to Weathers, he replied, "Well, you asked 

me and I told you. I'm not going to lie for anybody. ... "^-^^ 

[Of course, one person perfectly willing to lie for everybody \Nas FBI SAC Bob Ricks.] When asked during a press conference if the FBI had 
received a warning. Ricks said, "The FBI in Oklahoma City has not received any threats to indicate that a bombing was about to take place." 

Interesting play on words. Was Ricks surreptitiously suggesting that one of the other FBI offices had received a warning? Or was there 
simply no reason for the FBI to receive a warning because they were in charge of the bombing from the beginning? 

The transparent stories of the ATF and FBI are strikingly familiar to those propounded in the wake of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing. 
In that case, the FBI had one of its own informants — former Egyptian Army Colonel Emad Eli Salem — inside the group responsible for the 
bombing. According to Salem, who made secret tapes of his conversations with his FBI handler, Nancy Floyd, her supervisor refused to let 
Salem substitute a harmless powder for the real explosive. The agent then pulled Salem off the case. Soon afterwards, the bomb blew up. 

killing six people and injuring almost a 1,000 more.^^^ 

It also seems that the "coincidence" of the ATF's Dipole Might tests were uncannily similar to the May 24, 1 990 bombing of Earth First! 
activist Judi Bah. The FBI claimed that Bah and her companion Daryl Cherney, who were on their way to a peaceful protest rally, had 
inadvertently blown themselves up with their own pipe-bomb. After Bah sued the FBI for false arrest and civil hghts violations, she found out 
though discovery that the FBI ran a "bomb school" at Eureka College of the Redwoods in AphI of 1990 for both FBI and local police. The 
classes included blowing up cars with pipe bombs, ostensibly to demonstrate the tactics used by terrohsts (the same reason cited in the 
ATF's case). The instructor for this "school of terrohsm" was none other than Frank Doyle Jr., the FBI bomb squad expert who showed up at 
the scene of Ban's car bombing one month later. 

According to Freedom of Information Act records. Project Dipole Might was initiated under the authorization of Clinton's National Security 
Council. One of the stated purposes of the project was to produce computer models of bombings to "be displayed in a courtroom to aid in 
the prosecution of defendants." The Justice Department used the video tapes shot at White Sands during McVeigh's thai to "prove" that an 
ANFO bomb blew up the building. As Lawrence Myers, writing in Media Bypass magazine, asked: 

Why the National Security Council would fund such an ATF project, despite the absolute rahty of the chme, has not been 
explained.... Nor has it been explained as to what specific threat assessment information the government had when it decided 
to engage in such a project, just a few months before a Ryder Truck laden with ammonium nitrate fertilizer exploded in front of 

the Murrah Building.^^^ 
As Myers points out, the last-known case of a truck-bomb exploding in the U.S. was in 1970, when an ANFO bomb exploded in front of the 

Army Math lab at the University of Wisconsin in Madison. Why then, would the National Security Council suddenly feel the need for detailed 
information regarding ANFO truck-bomb attacks? 

Was the ATF expecting such a bombing? Were they in fact responsible for blast or the secondary damage to the building? Or was the 
building wired for demolition as part of a larger plot? 

[Tm firmly convinced that the ATF is guilty of an awful lot of things," said Bud, our ex-Green Beret. "I mean, if you look at what the ATF and 
the FBI did to Randy Weaver (and at Waco), it's just awful. They've gone hog wild and have [become] a power unto themselves." 

Asked if he thought a rogue group or special unit within the military/intelligence community could or would commit such an act. Bud replied 
"It wouldn't really stun me."] 

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"The Face of Terror" 

"Before the Government tries to convict someone, tiiey try first to demonize iiim. " 
— Trial lawyer Gerry Spence 

On May 1st, a stunned America was introduced to "The Face of Terror." The steely-eyed mug of Timothy James McVeigh, superimposed 
over the limp, bloody body of a tiny dead child, stared coldly out at us from the cover of Time magazine. 

Suddenly, there was no longer any doubt who had bombed the Murrah Building. As John Doe No. 1 was led from the Noble County 
Courthouse in handcuffs and leg irons, the scene was something akin to a medieval script. "Baby Killer!" the crowd screamed. "Burn him! 
Burn him!" 

In the pages that followed. Time and others would set out to "reveal the paranoid life and times of accused bomber Timothy McVeigh and his 


Right-wing associates."' — ^ With the ink barely dry on the indictments, the national news media quickly began pumping out story after story 
focusing on the trivial banalities of McVeigh's life, attempting to reinforce the official allegations of his guilt. While the New Yorl< Times set the 
overall tone based on "leaks" from federal law enforcement sources, self-styled experts came crawling out of the woodwork. 

"In deeply disturbing ways, his is a portrait of his generation," quipped Dale Russak and Serge Kovaleski, two sociologists moonlighting for 
the Wasfiington Post.^^^ 

"...his tortured path — is a psychological portrait of his deterioration... ." John Kifner of the New Yorl< Times announced with the authority of 
a Freudian analyst. "First there was McVeigh's own stunted personality and immediate frustrations. He was never able to overcome a sense 

of abandonment by his mother... ."^^^^ 

"Not making the Special Forces was something that was very hard for him to deal with," said an FBI agent training for his Ph.D. in 

n 321 
psychology. "In his mind, much of his life has been one of thinking that he is a kind of Special Forces of his own."' — ^ 

Finally: "He was the quiet one," said McVeigh's former 10th grade English teacher Coleen Conner, throwing a bit of adolescent psychology 

n 331 
on the situation. "A lot of the quiet ones are the ones who have ended up doing scary things....'" — ^ 

There it was — trial by media. Timothy McVeigh must be guilty, after all, they put his face on the cover of Time magazine. 

[Time. As journalist Jon Rappaport put it, "the home of faintly patronizing stories that go nowhere." Like the carefully manufactured image of 
Lee Harvey Oswald, the media would construct a menagerie reality of Timothy James McVeigh, suitable for public consumption.] 

Fortunately, in the avalanche of articles that would follow, small hints of reality would occasionally seep through the mire. 

"That just doesn't ring true to me, as to the person I knew," said Sheffield Anderson, a correctional officer who had gone through basic 
training with McVeigh and served with him in the Gulf. "In that picture of him coming out of the courthouse, he looks like a real mean guy. 
But I didn't sense anything out of the ordinary. McVeigh was a rational type guy, a thinking type person. The bombing thing is totally contrary 

to the person I knew."^^^^ 

"The Timothy McVeigh I talked with didn't seem like a baby killer," said former Army Colonel David Hackworth about his Newsweel< interview 
with McVeigh.^^^ 

During an interview on Prime Time Live, Lana Padilla, Terry Nichols ex-wife, told Diane Sawyer, "It's not the same person. I mean, you 

Sawyer: "The stony face." 

Padilla: "No 


"It became obvious during the hour-long discussion that Timothy McVeigh is neither a monster nor a madman," wrote Lawrence Myers, who 
interviewed McVeigh for Media Bypass magazine. "He left the impression that he is a man with strong convictions and a sense of honor. "^^^^ 

So just who is Timothy James McVeigh? Is he a hardened killer as the press and federal authorities have made him out to be? Or is he an 
ordinary man who became caught up in a complicated web of intrigue and deception? 


Timothy James McVeigh was born in Pendelton, New York on April 23, 1968, a small working class town of 5,000 people just outside of 
Buffalo. Tim was the second child of Bill McVeigh, an auto worker, and Mildred, a travel agent. The elder McVeigh, 55, coached Little 
League and ran bingo night at the local catholic church, spending his free time golfing, or putzing in his garden. A heavily wooded rural area, 
young Tim spent his time hiking or playing sports with the neighborhood boys. 

"He lived a few houses down from me, said boyhood friend Keith Maurer. "We played hockey, baseball and just about every other sport in 
the neighborhood. He wasn't the best athlete in the bunch, but he showed up to play every day and he always played hard." 

The bright and inventive youngster also spent his time engaging in novel activities such as setting up a haunted house in his basement, 
where he charged admission, or holding weekend casino fairs, where he acted as the dealer. 

"He was very advanced for our age, "Maurer said. "I remember saying to myself: I wouldn't have thought of that." 

Pat Waugh, a neighbor, said "I used to think to myself, that kid is going to go somewhere just because he's such a mover and shaker. I 
pictured him growing up to be a salesman, sort of a shyster." 

When Tim's mom moved out in June of 1984, the outgoing young McVeigh became more reserved, as he and his sisters, Patty and Jennifer, 
attempted to deal with the trauma of the breakup. Reverend Paul Belzer of the Good shepherd Roman Catholic Church in Pendelton knew 
the family for 20 years. "People asked me, wasn't Tim crushed? But he didn't seem to be. He lived in the same house, had the same friends. 
Yeah, he'd have to miss his mother, but so many of the anchors were there." 

Yanya Panepento, a classmate of Tim's recalled, He was a quiet boy. He kept to himself. He didn't seem like he was a trouble maker or 
anything like that." 

Yet, nine months after the bombing, the Times John Kifner would write, "As commonplace as this seems, criminologists say, these traits are 
often the stuff of serial killers, terrorists and other solitary murderers." 

To the armchair psychoanalysts of the mainstream/tabloid media, the breakup would be the first of two major events — the second being his 
initial failure to make the Special Forces — that would profoundly and adversely affect the young McVeigh's personality. The first indications 
of this came when reporters discovered in his high school yearbook that Tim had been voted "most talkative" by his senior class. 

"The only thing I can remember is that he was very quite and polite," recalled Cecelia Matyjas, who taught 10th grade geometry. "He didn't 
cause any problems in class. He seemed to be cooperative and attentive. He was on the track team and the cross-country team, so he was 
able to get along with others." 

Brandon Stickney, a journalist contracted to produce an unauthorized biography of McVeigh for Prometheus Books, said "Tim was not the 
most talkative out of his class of 194 students, but he was by no means introverted. He was certainly an outgoing young man who had many 
friends and acquaintances." 

Yet none of these easy to check facts were ever mentioned in the volumous articles which appeared in the Times. Kifner, the Times 
"resident analyst," proclaimed with surety, "He was never able to overcome a sense of abandonment by his mother, who left the family when 
he was a boy; nor could he find a home outside the Army." 

Backing up Kifner was John Douglas of the FBI's Psychological Profile Unit, who claimed McVeigh was "asocial, asexual, a loner, withdrawn, 
from a family with problems, strong feelings of inadequacy from early in life, an underachiever." 

"I think it's a bunch of psychobable if you ask me, if you want to know the truth," said Jennifer, Tim's younger sister. "We were free to live 
with who we wanted. We could visit the other parent whenever we wanted. There was no bitterness between my parents." 

"There's nothing there, added McVeigh himself, responding to the media's analysis of him in a July 3rd interview with Newsweel<. 

Apparently, Douglas and the so-called journalists from the New Yorl< Times never bothered to check on the fact that Tim had many friends, 
including several girlfriends later in life, was close to his Father and his sister Jennifer, and was a Regents Scholar. 

Not to be hamstrung by such minor details [as checking on facts], the Times and the Posf quickly jumped on the idea that Tim was interested 

in firearms. "In a region of hunting enthusiasts, it caused little stir when Tim, at 10, became interested in guns. But a close relative said that 
the family saw this as a bid for attention by a boy who didn't know how else to ask for it." 

"He had a semiautomatic BB gun that could fire 15 rounds with the pull of a trigger," added the Post. "Other boys had only single-shot 
varieties. Tim used to show them at school how he held it, posing police-style with hands clasped together. During boring classes, when 
other students doodled, he drew guns." 

In fact, Tim's father did buy him a .22-caliber rifle, which the young McVeigh would use for target practice in the woods behind his home. Yet 
apparently Tim was not the young blood-thirsty adventurer the media made him out to be. "I remember starting to hunt at age 1 1 ," said his 
friend Keith Maurer, "and Tim never had any interest in this." 

McVeigh was later able to indulge in his interests in firearms as a security guard for Burke Armored, where he worked for a year or so in 
1987. Jeff Camp, McVeigh's co-worker, noted that he had a keen interest in guns, although he didn't find it unusual since most full-time 
security guards and law enforcement personnel owned an assortment of firearms, he said. 

One story eagerly circulated amongst the press is that McVeigh showed up at Burke one day with a huge Desert Eagle pistol and 
bandoleers slung in an "X" across his chest. "He came to work looking like Rambo," recalled Camp. "It looked like World War III." 

Yet McVeigh laughs off the tale, stating that he and some other employees were simply playing a joke on their supervisor, who was sending 
them on a high profile assignment for the day. Apparently, their supervisor was not amused. 

According to the Post, McVeigh also worked as a gun salesman at a sporting goods store in Lockport. 

"Guns were the entire focal point of the 27-year-old Mr. McVeigh's life," wrote the Times' Kifner. 

"This obsession with weapons — a form of power — is an overcompensation for deep-rooted feelings of inadequacy," added the FBI's 
Douglas, attempting to drive another nail into McVeigh's coffin. 

One must wonder if an interest in stamp collecting or bird watching — other legitimate hobbies — could be construed as a "bid for attention." 
The author — much more of a "trouble maker" in his formative years than Timothy McVeigh — personally remembers his own interest in 
guns, and even military armor. Like motorcycles, fast cars or other macho symbols, such interests pass as one matures. Yet federal 
authorities, with the backing of the corporate-owned media, attempted to make this a cornerstone of their psuedo-psychological case against 
McVeigh. He was "obsessed with guns," ergo, he is a mad bomber. I doubt if all the gun enthusiasts in the country would be pleased to know 
they are, by association, being implicated as mad bombers. 

Not to be deterred. Post reporters discovered that young Tim had stockpiled food, camping equipment and weapons in case of a disaster 
" case of a nuclear attack or the Communists took over the country," said an anonymous neighbor in the Post. "Perhaps it made sense 
that a young boy often forced to fend for himself would fantasize about fighting the world all alone," mused the Post. Fighting the world? Or 
developing common sense at a young age? In his Media Bypass interview, McVeigh recalled that one of his most vivid memories was the 
winter blizzard of 1977, which dumped 15 feet of snow on Pendelton, stranding his mother miles away, and knocking out power and phone 
lines for days. The young, inventive McVeigh responded by helping his father store necessities, even recommending that the older McVeigh 
purchase a generator. 

Apparently the armchair psychoanalysts of the mainstream press felt this indicative of early creeping paranoia, rather than the natural 
combination of the active imagination and common sense inherent in a remarkable nine-year old boy. If the youngster was concerned about 
Communists, one only need ask where such fears were incubated. 

The Post, keeping with the propaganda of Timothy McVeigh as underachieves was quoted as saying "Tim's high-school yearbook entry in 
1986 listed no organized activities (he omitted the track team), rather: 'staying away from school, losing sleep, finding it in school.'" 

Yet even the Pos^ admitted that Tim's guidance counselor, Harold Smith, said that he had not missed a day of classes from seventh through 
twelfth grade. Far from being an underachieves his record indicates a young man with remarkable discipline. 

Justin Gertner, who knew McVeigh since second grade recalls, "he hung around with the intelligently elite at Starpoint. Tim was in the 
Regent's program in our school for advanced placement students who planned on attending college. He also created and ran our computer 
bulletin board system." 

In fact, McVeigh excelled in computers, taking every available computer class in high school. He even designed his own computer program. 
"That was the age when there was no software to speak of, and it wasn't user friendly," said a teacher who asked to remain anonymous, 
"But Tim and some other kids went out and did this... . In a way, that was fairly advanced. This demonstrates his bright mind and his ability." 

This bright mind and ability led McVeigh to Bryant & Stratton Business College in Williamsville, N.Y. to study advanced COBOL and 
FORTRAN programming languages. In spite of his abilities, opportunities for decent employment were uncertain in Buffalo in the mid-1980s. 
Buffalo, like the rest of the Rust Belt, was experiencing the worst of economic trends. Several steel and auto plants had shut down, and two 
major banks failed, throwing thousands of white-collar workers out of jobs and causing downturns in real-estate, advertising, law and other 


"There are no jobs around here unless you want to work for $6 an hour or less at a McDonald's or Wendy's," said Bill McVeigh. "It's rough for 
anybody looking for work." 

McVeigh apparently did not feel comfortable that his auto-worker father was paying for most of his college tuition. So in December 1987, he 
took a job with Burke Armored Truck (now known as Armored Services of America) in Cheektowaga, near Buffalo. 

"He was a very alert guard." said Jeff Camp, McVeigh's co-worker. "He worked a lot of overtime and was polite with our customers." 
McVeigh was also moody, ranging from intense to quiet. "If someone was driving badly, cutting us offer interfering with our schedule, he 
could get pretty mad," added Camp. "His face would turn red and he would yell and scream inside the truck, although he calmed down pretty 
fast." (Similar to the way the author drives.) Camp also described an incident where a woman had hit their truck. Although the woman was 
upset, McVeigh calmed her down and told her not to worry, that there was no damage to the truck, and that he would even report it as their 

fault, which it wasn't.^^^ 

McVeigh worked at Burke from April of 1987 till May of 1988. By the time he was 19, McVeigh had built up a substantial savings account and 
he and a friend, David Darlak, acquired 10 acres of land for $7,000 at a hunting and camping retreat north of Olean, N.Y. The two young 

men bought the land as an investment, and to use for camping and for target practice.' — ^ Reported the Post 

"Robert Morgan, who lives nearby, said his father Charlie once called the state police to complain about all the gunfire. 'My 
dad turned him in," he said. "One day it sounded like a war out there. Sometimes he'd come down during the week. 

sometimes the weekend. He had on hunting clothes. Camouflage. '"^-^^ 

While the press made much out of the fact that McVeigh and his friends used the land for target practice, it should be noted that McVeigh 
was law-abiding and did not have a criminal record. 

By the Spring of 1988, the young security guard felt he was going nowhere. He was working in a relatively low-wage job while listening to the 
fate of those who had been laid-off while working other jobs. Tim's father listened with concern as Tim vented his frustration, complaining 
that he was unemployable except at jobs that paid "no money." One night Bill McVeigh and a friend from the auto plant suggested that the 
younger McVeigh enter the service. 

"Bill and I had both been in the service," the friend said, "and one night we said to Tim, 'That's what you ought to do: go in the service.' A 
week later, he had joined." 

"It happened in a split second," said Tim's co-worker Jeff Camp. "He didn't tell anyone he was joining. He just came to work one day and 

said he was going in the Army.^^^ I never saw a guy who wanted to go in the Army that bad. I asked him why the Army, and he said 'You 

get to shoot' He always wanted to carry an M-16."^-^^ 

Keith Maurer said, "I couldn't see him joining the military. He had a lot of options. He was very smart. I didn't see the military as the one he 
needed to take." 

[But to McVeigh, who saw his career options in economically depressed Upstate New York as bleak, the Army made perfect sense.] The 
Army held the possibility of travel and adventure for a boy from a small town. In the Army, he could choose his specialty, indulging his 
interest in firearms or computers. 

On May 24, McVeigh drove the 25 miles to the Army recruiting office in Buffalo, and signed up for a three-year hitch. "In a couple of days he 
was gone," said Camp. 

Sergeant Mac 

McVeigh arrived at Fort Benning, Georgia on May 30, and was assigned to Echo Company, 4th Battalion, 36th Infantry Regiment, 2nd 
Training Brigade. The unit was a COHORT unit, an acronym for "Cohesion Operational Readiness and Training." In a COHORT unit, 
soldiers were supposed to stay together for their entire three-year enlistment period. The COHORT concept originated in 1980, in an attempt 
to correct the problem of sending in raw green recruits for those who had been killed in battle. The Army discovered that many new 
replacements had difficulty adjusting to a new unit in the heat of battle, resulting in a higher number of casualties. Moreover, Pentagon 
studies from the Vietnam War era suggested that soldiers who had developed bonds of friendship were more likely to perform courageously. 
Unfortunately, the Army soon developed a new problem: many of the soldiers became sick of each other after three years, resulting in 
soldiers committing suicide or going AWOL. 

Although McVeigh originally wanted to try out for Army Ranger School, he didn't want to wait for an available opening, and decided to join 
the infantry immediately. As he sound found out, he had been misled by the Army recruiter. Once in the COHORT unit, it was not possible 
for him to enter Army Ranger School. Yet the disappointed young recruit quickly made the best of the situation, scoring a high 126 points on 
his General Technical test score, putting him in the top 10 percentile among new recruits. 

"McVeigh was really motivated to be a good soldier and performed well at everything expected of him," said assistant platoon leader Glen 
"Tex" Edwards. "You could load that boy up with 140 pounds of gear and he would carry it all day on the march without complaining. He was 
thin as a rail but he never fell out of formation," said Edwards, recalling the hot Georgia summer of 1 988. " It was the worst time of the year 
to go through the course, but it did not seem to bother McVeigh one bit." 

Although McVeigh didn't have many close friends during basic training, one person he would develop a close friendship with was Terry 
Nichols. Nichols, 13 years McVeigh's senior, was promoted to platoon leader due to his age and maturity. Despite their age difference 
however, the two men bonded, sharing similar interests. "Terry and Tim in boot camp went together like magnets," said Robin Littleton. 

By the end of basic training, McVeigh was promoted to private E-2, having managed to score higher than anyone in his battalion on his mid- 
cycle and end-of-cycle testing. "Any test, he'd ace it," said David Dilly. "He knew exactly what the Army wanted. It was going to be an easy 
life for him." 

On August 25, 1988, McVeigh was awarded a certificate by his commanding officer, then in September the unit was shipped out to Fort 
Riley, Kansas, where McVeigh was assigned to the 2nd Battalion, First Infantry Division, part of the "Dagger Brigade" of the famous "Big 
Red One" that made the assault on Normandy during WWII. While McVeigh was assigned to Charlie Company, Nichols went to Bravo 

A mechanized infantry unit, 2nd Battalion was equipped with M-2 Bradley Armored vehicles, a more sophisticated version of the famous M- 
1 13 Armored Personnel Carrier used during the Vietnam War. In addition to ferrying troops, the aluminum Bradley has a turret-mounted 
25mm cannon, a 7.62mm machine gun and anti-tank missiles. McVeigh was the gunner on one of four Bradleys attached to Charlie 
Company's First Platoon. Naturally, he scored higher than anyone else in the battalion. In 1989, his commander selected him as gunner on 
the "Division Display Vehicle," used to demonstrate the M-2 system for Pentagon officials and visiting dignitaries. 

"He was without a doubt the best soldier I have ever trained with," said Staff Sergeant Albert Warnement, McVeigh's supervisor at Fort Riley. 

He was motivated and very interested in learning everything he could about being a professional soldier. "^^^^ 

"As far as soldiering, he never did anything wrong," said Todd Reiger, assigned to McVeigh's Bradley. "He was always on time. He never got 
into trouble. He was perfect. I thought he would stay in the Army all his life. He was always volunteering for stuff that the rest of us wouldn't 

want to do, guard duties, classes on the weekend. "^-^^ 

McVeigh studied every conceivable Army manual, including the Ranger Handbook, the Special Forces Handbook, and the Improvised 
Munitions Handbook. But press reports [portrayed] McVeigh as a mad bomber: 

McVeigh's love of guns and explosives stood out even in the Army, where gun lovers abound. In the first weeks of basic 
training, when soldiers learn to make explosives, recalled platoon mate Fritz Curnutte, McVeigh boasted to fellow soldiers that 

he already knew how to make a powerful bomb using a bottle, then told them how to make a Molotov cocktail. ^^^ 

According to Warnement, such knowledge is not unusual for the more serious soldiers, who routinely studied manuals on survival, evasion, 
resistance and escape, and improvised munitions. "You have to remember," said Warnement, "at that time, we were training to fight the 
Russians in Western Europe and it was expected the Red Army would probably break through our lines almost immediately. We were 

encouraged to learn how to improvise. Our survivability on the battlefield would likely depend on our skills in unconventional warfare. "^-^^ 
Although McVeigh's military record makes no mention of formal demolitions training, in her book. By Blood Betrayed, Lana Padilla calls 

McVeigh a "former Army demolitions expert."^ — ^ But Sheffield Anderson, who served with McVeigh since basic training said "He had the 

same training that the rest of the outfit had."^-^^ 

The only thing that differentiated McVeigh from the rest of the outfit was his dedication and commitment to the military. "He played the 
military 24 hours a day, seven days a week," said Curnutte. "All of us thought it was silly. When they'd call for down time, we'd rest, and he'd 
throw on a rucksack and walk around the post with it." 

This "silliness" led to McVeigh making sergeant ahead of the rest of his unit. "It was unusual to have sergeant stripes so soon," said Reiger. 
"The rest of us in the Cohort [unit] were specialists," a non-supervisory rank similar to corporal. 

In fact, after the bombing, when McVeigh's records and test scores were shown to a master sergeant without revealing his identity, he stated 
that the subject "would make a great infantry officer, tanker, artillery officer or combat engineer." His electronic aptitude, said another official. 

qualified him for "repairing satellite communications. "^-^^ "He has a very high IQ," said a federal source familiar with the suspect's military 

record. ^^^ In fact, McVeigh was rated among the top 5 percent in combat arms. 

McVeigh rented a three-bedroom house in the spring of 1991 in Herrington with Corporal John Kelso and Sergeant Rick Cerney. But the 
arrangement was not a comfortable one for McVeigh, and he soon moved into another house which he shared with Sgt. Royal Wilcher, who 
served with McVeigh in the Bradley. 

The Times quoted members of the McVeigh's unit claiming that he had no close friends. "He kept to himself," said Robert Handa. "He was a 
dedicated soldier. He loved being a soldier. I didn't. So after duty hours he'd stay in the barracks while everybody else took off, go out to 
town. I never saw him go anywhere. He always had a highly pressed uniform." Reiger recalls that McVeigh had a TV and a VCR and stayed 
in and watched movies, or occasionally went bowling. 

"The whole thing is," said John Kelso, who shared a house off-base with McVeigh and fellow soldier Richard Cerney, "he couldn't have a 
good time." 

"He was very shy of women — almost embarrassed," said Anderson. "It didn't seem he was gay. He was just awkward." McVeigh disputed 
this analysis in his April 15th Time interview, stating: 

"I don't think there is any way to narrow my personality down and label it as one thing or another. I'm just like anyone else. 
Movies I enjoy, comedies, sci fi. The big misconception is that I'm a loner. Well, I believe in having my own space. But that in 
noway means I'm a loner. I like women, social life...." 

McVeigh became friends with bombing suspect Michael Fortier while stationed at Fort Riley. He and Fortier would occasionally go shooting 
together at a friend's farm near Tuttle Creek Lake, and stop by and visit Terry Nichols at his house near the base. 

The press was quick to pick up on McVeigh owning lots of guns he kept hidden around his house. According to Wilcher, "He had a couple in 
the kitchen, a couple in the living room under the couch. I think there was one in the bathroom, behind the towels. As you go up the steps 
there was a little ledge and he kept one in there too, a .38 revolver." "I don't know if he was paranoid or what," added Wilcher. "Or maybe he 

had some friends that were after him. I don't know."^^^^ 

According to an account in USA Today and the Times, McVeigh and Nichols, who by now were pretty far along in their "anti-government" 
beliefs, attempted to recruit other military personnel for a militia that Nichols was purportedly starting. Nichols reportedly told at least one 
fellow soldier that he'd be back to Fort Riley after his discharge to recruit new men, and McVeigh's co-worker at Burns Security, Carl Lebron, 

would later tell the FBI that McVeigh was always trying to "recruit him into an undescribed group.... "^-^^ 

According to Dave Dilly, one of McVeigh's roommates, McVeigh rented a storage locker in Junction City, stocked with weapons, military 

meals (MREs), and a 1 00-gallon jug of water — in case of disaster or a Communist attack.^^^ 

"He was halfway there when I knew him," said Dilly, referring to McVeigh's Patriot beliefs. During McVeigh's tenure at Burns Security, 
McVeigh would inundate his co-workers with Patriot literature, such as the Spotlight, articles and videos on Ruby Ridge and Waco, and 
books such as Detaxing America. 

For his part, McVeigh says, "If you had to label what I think, then I would say I am closest to the views of the Patriot movement," McVeigh 
told the London Sunday Times. "For a long time, I thought it was best not to talk about my political views, he added, "but millions share them, 
and I believe it is gravely wrong that I should allow the government to try and crucify me just for believing what I do." 

Interestingly, McVeigh would tell his friend Carl Lebron, who shared some of McVeigh's beliefs, "All the reading you do is just a hobby. You 
stamp your feet, but you're not doing anything." 

Another issue the media focused on were race problems in Charlie Company, and with McVeigh in particular. Regiertold the Post that 
McVeigh was criticized for assigning undesirable work to black soldiers, making black specialists sweep out the motor pool, work that would 
have ordinarily gone to privates. Other soldiers said he made derogatory remarks about blacks. "It was pretty well known, pretty much 
throughout the platoon, that he was making the black specialists do that work," said Regier. "He was a racist. When he talked he'd mention 
those words, like nigger. You pretty much knew he was a racist." The black soldiers complained to a company commander and McVeigh 

was reprimanded, the only time he ever got into trouble according to Regier.^^^ 

Dilly said that "Race was an issue, like everywhere in America, but not one that affected anyone's promotion. McVeigh picked the best man 
for the job." 

Yet the McCurtain Gazette discovered that McVeigh held membership in the Ku Klux Klan. Apparently, he boasted that it was personally 
approved by Thom Robb, the KKK's national chaplain. "He was a very racist person," said Wilcher. 

"Charlie Company as a whole had a problem with race," said Captain Terry Guild, who served briefly as McVeigh's platoon commander after 
the Gulf War. "There was graffiti on the walls of the barracks' bathroom: 'Nigger' or 'Honky, Get Out.' They were mild incidents. If a problem 
was identified, a leader in Charlie Company wouldn't let it happen again if he saw it. But it was definitely a problem in the company. And his 
platoon had some of the most serious race problems. It was pretty bad." 

In spite of such interpersonal or racial difficulties, most of the platoon held McVeigh in high esteem for his soldiering abilities. "He could 
command soldiers of his own rank and they respected him," said Barner. "When it came to soldiering, McVeigh knew what he was doing." 

"If we ever went to war," said Edwards, "every one of us wanted to go to war with McVeigh." ^^^ 

During the summer of 1989, after returning from a week-long orientation session in Heidelberg with the West German Army, or Bundeswehr, 
McVeigh decided to try out for the Army Special Forces. To the young sergeant who had long desired to be a member of the Army's elite, 
the Special Forces provided the chance. It also provided McVeigh an opportunity to graduate from the COHORT unit. Yet the physical 
requirements to even qualify for the Special Forces are among the toughest in the military. Requirements include swimming 50 meters with 
full gear; 42 push-ups in two minutes; 52 sit-ups in two minutes; and running two miles in less than 15 minutes 54 seconds. To pass the 
grueling tests, McVeigh began training vigorously in the summer of 1989, working out constantly, and forcing himself to march 10 miles with 
100 pound packs. By the summer of 1990, he had passed the Special Forces physical fitness test, and was ordered to report to Fort Bragg, 
NC on November 17 to begin the Special Forces Assessment and Selection Course (SFAS). Towards the end of 1990, McVeigh reinlisted 

for another four years. ^^^ 

Yet McVeigh's dream of becoming a Green Beret would have to wait. On November 8th, with the conflict in the Persian Gulf coming to a 
head, the Pentagon canceled all leaves and training assignments. McVeigh's unit was activated for deployment. Although he was the 
consummate military man, the gung-ho soldier, McVeigh was against the decision to go to war. "McVeigh did not think the United States had 
any business or interest in Kuwait," said Warnement, "but he was a good soldier. He knew it was his duty to go where he was told, and he 

n 591 
went." He was promoted to sergeant on February 1, 1991.^ — ^ 

Unlike the steely-eyed killer the press have painted him to be, McVeigh was as scared as the rest of the platoon. "The night before the 
ground war kicked off, he was saying he was scared because we were going to be part of the first wave," Anderson recalled. "He was scared 
we weren't going to come out of it. Maybe we would get shot, blown up. It wasn't cowardly. He was just concerned. I was feeling the same 

way, but most people didn't express it."^^^^ 

On February 24, 1990, the 2nd Battalion was ordered across the southern Iraqi desert to punch a hole in Iraqi defenses — a line of dug-in 
infantry supported by tanks and artillery. McVeigh's platoon was attached to the "Ironhorse" tank company, and McVeigh's Bradley was the 
lead track in the platoon. McVeigh, the "top gun," took out an enemy tank on the first day with a TOW missile. 

The "Ironhorse" protected units clearing the trenches. Using tanks and trucks equipped with plows, the U.S. forces would follow behind the 
Bradleys, burying the Iraqis dead or alive, to create a smooth crossing point for the infantry and avoid having to engage the enemy in hand- 
to-hand combat. 

McVeigh's moment of glory came when his platoon encountered a dug-in enemy machine-gun emplacement and came under fire. McVeigh 
brought his 25mm cannon to bear on the chest of an enemy soldier 1,000 yards away, and took his head off with one shot. He followed up 
with a similar shot, which was followed by the raising of a white flag and the raising of more than 60 hands into the air. 

For his role in the battle, McVeigh was awarded an Army Commendation Medal which read in part: "He inspired other members of his squad 
and platoon by destroying an enemy machine-gun emplacement, killing two Iraqi soldiers and forcing the surrender of 30 others from dug-in 
positions." McVeigh also earned a Commendation medal with an upgrade for valor, two Army Achievement medals, and the Bronze Star "for 
flawless devotion to duty." 

This "flawless devotion to duty" resulted in McVeigh's unit being invited to provide personal security for General "Stormin' Norman" 

A much-hackneyed phrase attributed to Sergeant James Ives, which the media like to play over and over again was, "If he was given a 
mission and a target, it's gone." Yet Roger Barnett, who served in McVeigh's Bradley, told the Times that McVeigh never expressed any 

desire to kill troops who were surrendering and never seemed bloodthirsty in any way.^^^ 

[Yet the Times' preordained slant on McVeigh was clearly evident. While others in his outfit "served" during the Gulf War, McVeigh "killed 



One story which appeared in IVIedia Bypass [but predictably never made it into the mainstream press,] recounts how McVeigh saved an 
accident victim's life on a lonely stretch of highway. The man had been ejected from his overturned car and lay semi-conscious and 
bleeding. A passing semi had stopped but was unable to find him as he lay in the darkness 50 yards away. McVeigh, who was on his way to 
his home town of Pendelton, had recently finished a 46-hour medical aid course at Fort Riley. Against regulations, he had taken his Combat 
Lifesaver Pack with him on the 1200-mile drive. As he came upon the scene, McVeigh saw that an EMS (Emergency Medical Service) crew 
had not yet arrived. Trained in night vision techniques, McVeigh the soldier quickly spotted the injured motorist in the grass along the median 
strip. Following is an excerpt from the Media Bypass article: 

The victim recalls that the soldier was confident, quiet and efficient. To centralize his circulation, he elevated the man's 
undamaged limbs and warned him to be calm to avoid going into shock. He checked his pulse and flashed a small penlight 
across his pupils. The man, who only moments earlier was convinced he was going to die, shivered in the dark and started 
laughing. He told the tall young stranger he was never going to buy another Chevy Blazer again. 

The soldier smiled as he rolled up the victim's right sleeve and inserted the needle to start a saline IV into his veins. "You've 

lost a lot of blood and you risk going into shock. This is an IV to help stabilize you and keep your fluids going. Relax. You'll be 
fine," he told him. He placed the clear plastic IV bag under the man's hip and checked his pulse again. 

In the distance, an ambulance siren screamed over the sound of the truck engines as Timothy James McVeigh quickly packed 
up his Army issue trauma kit and disappeared into the night. The responding EMS crew told the state police officer who 
arrived at the accident minutes later that they had never come upon such a potentially deadly crash to find a severely injured 

man relaxed and laughing, neatly bandaged with an IV dangling from his arm.^^^ 

In a flurry of articles, mainstream media painted McVeigh as a psychotic, attention-seeking loner with a grudge against the government and 
a hatred of humanity. A man with "a stunted personality," who led a "tortured path," "obsessed with weapons" and with "deep-rooted feelings 
of inadequacy." When the press couldn't find evidence of overt violence or hostility, his noted politeness and manners suddenly became 
evidence his of his psychosis. "It is a personality that a Seattle forensic psychiatrist, Kenneth Muscatel, has described as the "Smerdyakov 
Syndrome," announced the Times, "after the scorned half-brother in Dostoyevsky's Brothers Karamazov who listens to the other brothers 

inveigh against their father until, finally, he commits patricide. "^-^^ 

McVeigh was painted as a sociopath when Lana Padilla, in her book. By Blood Betrayed, hinting that McVeigh may have been responsible 
for the death of 26-month-old Jason Torres Nichols — Terry and Marife's son — who accidentally suffocated to death in a plastic bag in 

November of 1993.^^^ Yet Padilla included a photo in her book of McVeigh laughing and playing with the little boy. And according to Terry 
Nichols, McVeigh had tried to revive the infant for nearly half an hour, and had called the paramedics — a response apparently out-of- 

character with the actions of a deranged sociopathic killer.^^^ 

Captain Jesus Rodriguez, who commanded McVeigh during Desert Storm, described him as a friend who was "really compassionate" and 

"really cared" when Rodriguez's brother-in-law died in an accident.^^^ 

Further evidence of McVeigh's humanity can be found in a letter he wrote to the Lockport Union-Sun & Journal on March 10, 1992: (See 
appendix for full text) 

To buy your meat in a store seems so innocent, but have you ever seen or thought how it comes to be wrapped up so neatly 
in cellophane? 

First, cattle live their entire lives penned up in cramped quarters, never allowed to roam freely, bred for one purpose when 
their time has come. 

The technique that I have personally seen is to take cattle, line them up side by side with their heads and necks protruding 
over a low fence, and walk from one end to the other, slitting their throats with either machete or power saw. Unable to run or 
move, they are left there until they bleed to death, standing up. 

Would you rather die while living happily or die while leading a miserable life? You tell me which is more "humane." 

Does a "growing percentage of the public" have any pity or respect for any of the animals which are butchered and then sold 
in the store? Or is it just so conveniently "clean" that a double standard is allowed? 

The mainstream press twisted the context of McVeigh's letter. In his [book], A Force Upon the Plain, author Kenneth Stern writes: "McVeigh 
said he thought a human being was, by nature, 'a hunter, a predator.' He also asked: 'Is civil war imminent? Do we have to shed blood to 

reform the current system?'"^^^^ Stern takes two unrelated letters written by McVeigh, then craftily combines them to suggest that the 

humane killing of animals is actually part and parcel of McVeigh's bloodthirsty desire to kill human beings. ^^^ 

Reality paints a much different picture of Timothy James McVeigh however. In February of 1996, Ron Rice and Carol Moore of the American 

Board of Forensic Examiners were asked to produce a profile of McVeigh's personality based on a handwriting analysis. ^^^ Both Rice and 
Moore characterized McVeigh as an introverted person — what they term an "Apollonian" personality — "a steady, unemotional, organized 
individual who [is] not devoid of emotion/passion, but more apt to value reason over passion." Like Sheffield Anderson, who described 
McVeigh as a "thinking type person," the examiners stated that McVeigh was "head-oriented." "They tend to be distrustful of feeling in the 
belief that following one's feelings can lead to trouble," the report stated. "Rarely, will he allow his emotional expressions to be directed at 
another person out of fear of hurting them...." 

The report concluded with the observation that Timothy McVeigh "is a military man... his heart and soul belongs to the military of the U.S. 
Government. In a non-military environment, McVeigh will not undertake any form of overt hostility that will be harmful to others or dangerous 
to himself... . It is not logical that he would undertake any action against our government in which others would be hurt or killed. To do so 

would violate everything he stands for."^^^^ 

In April of 1991 , McVeigh put his heart and soul into his long-awaited dream of becoming a Green Beret. On March 28 he reported to Camp 
McCall, the Special Forces Assessment and Selection (SFAS) training facility west of Fort Bragg, for the grueling 21-day assessment 
course. But McVeigh, who had kept himself in top shape by doing 400 push-ups a day and marching around the post with a 100 pound pack 

was now out of shape and he knew it. The Bradley gunner who had served in the Persian Gulf for four months was also drained from the 
stress of combat. 

As the recruits stood at attention, the instructor asked several of the recently returned war veterans if they wanted to return to their unit to get 
back in shape. One of the soldiers yelled that they were ready, so out of a sense of gung-ho pride, nobody backed out. 

The first day of testing was devoted to psychological screening. McVeigh claims he had no problem with the psychological tests, which 
included the Adult Personality Inventory, the Minnesota Multiple Phase Personality Test, and a sentence completion exam designed by Army 

The second day of tests began with an obstacle course which McVeigh passed with ease. After lunch, the recruits were led on a high-speed 
march with 50 pound rucksacks. Yet new boots tore into McVeigh's feet during the five mile march, and with the worst yet to come, he and 
another recruit, David Whitmyer, decided to drop out. McVeigh signed a Voluntary/Involuntary Withdrawal from the SFAS school. His single 

sentence explanation read: "I am not physically ready, and the rucksack march hurt more than it should. "^-^^ 

The mainstream press jumped on his initial failure to make the Special Forces. He was "unable to face the failure" stated the New York 
Times. "He washed out on the second day."^-^^ 

"There were no second chances," claimed the Washington Post. "His spirit was broken. "^^^^ 

These reports suggested that McVeigh had failed the psychological screening tests. "Military officials said that preliminary psychological 
screening had shown him to be unfit," lauded the ever-wise voice of the New Yorl< Times. "[He] saw his cherished hope of becoming a 

Green Beret shattered by psychological tests. "^^^^ "It was apparently a blow so crushing that he quit the Army and went into a psychic 


Media pundits quickly backed up their armchair analyses' with statements from several of McVeigh's former buddies. 

"Anyone who puts all that effort into something and doesn't get it would be mentally crushed," said Roger Barnett, the driver of McVeigh's 
Bradley. "He wasn't the same McVeigh. He didn't go at things the way he normally did... . He didn't have the same drive. He didn't have his 

heart in the military anymore. "^-^^ 

"He always wanted to do better than everyone," said Captain Terry Guild, "and that (Green Berets) was his way of trying to do it. He took a 

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lot of flak. He was really down on himself."^ — ^ 

McVeigh claimed "That's a bunch of bunk," in response to the allegations. "Any realist knows that if you develop blisters on the second 

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day... you're not going to make it."' — ^ [Still, the self-styled psychoanalysts c 

asserting knowingly that it was the crux of McVeigh's "burgeoning torment."] 

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day... you're not going to make it.'" — ^ [Still, the self-styled psychoanalysts of the mainstream press made much of his disappointment. 

[Apparently, the "psychojournalists" at the Times had never bothered to check with officials at the SFAS school. "McVeigh dropped out of the 
course on the second day," said Colonel Ken McGraw, Information Officer at the Special Operations Command at Fort Bragg. "His 
psychological test work would not have even been graded yet."] 

According to McVeigh's attorney Stephen Jones, his Army records indicate that his SFAS psychological tests weren't graded until April of 
1995. The "military official" who leaked the story about McVeigh's "psychological test failure" turned out to be none other than FBI Agent 
John R. Hersley, who testified to this repeatedly during the Federal Grand Jury hearings. Apparently, Hersley never told the grand jurors that 
he was moonlighting as an Army psychologist. 

Although McVeigh may have been genuinely disappointed by his initial failure, he added that the school's commander had invited the 
decorated war veteran to try out again whenever he felt he was ready. It seems McVeigh was not too disappointed to score a perfect 1 ,000 
points during a Bradley gunner competition six months later at Fort Riley, earning him another Army commendation and the honor of the 
division's "Top Gun," a rare achievement. An Army evaluation also rated him "among the best" in leadership potential and an "inspiration to 

young soldiers. "^-^^ 

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Yet in spite of McVeigh's achievements, "a bit of doubt started to surface" in his mind about a potential for a career in the military.' — ^ 

Although a friend said "I swear to God he could have been Sergeant Major of the Army — he was that good of a soldier," McVeigh 

apparently was having second thoughts. Most of these, his Army buddies said, stemmed from the military's downsizing then in progress. He 

also confided to his friend Dave Dilly that without being a Green Beret, the Army wouldn't be worth the effort. "I think he felt he got a raw 

deal, and wanted out," said Littleton. 

Given McVeigh's achievements — his quick rise to sergeant, his medals of commendation, the distinction of being "Top Gun," and the 
extremely high praise of his superiors, one has to wonder what his real motives were. It seems highly unlikely that given the massive effort 
he put into his military career, he would take an early out on such presumptive pretenses. McVeigh was a spit and polish soldier with a top 

notch record. He was totally devoted to the military. He had served in combat, earning several medals. If anything he was due for his next 
promotion. The commander of the Special Forces school had even invited him to try out again in a few months. As Sheffield Anderson said, 
"He seemed destined for a brilliant career in the military." 

These observations were backed up by McVeigh's sister Jennifer. "I thought it was going to be his career. He was definitely a career military 
type. That was his life, you know. His life revolved around that." 

It hardly seems likely that the ambitious soldier who had recently signed on for another four year hitch would opt out so easily. Yet, on 
December 31, 1991, Sergeant McVeigh took an early discharge from the Army, and went back to his home town of Pendleton, NY. 

The Manchurian Candidate 

To fulfill his military obligation, McVeigh signed on with the Army National Guard in Buffalo, where he landed a job as a security guard with 
Burns International Security. McVeigh was assigned to the night shift, guarding the grounds of Calspan Research, a defense contractor that 
conducts classified research in advanced aerospace rocketry and electronic warfare. 

In a manner mirroring his conduct in the service, McVeigh became the consummate security guard. Calspan spokesman Al Salandra told 
reporters that McVeigh was "a model employee." Yet according to media accounts, McVeigh had lost his confidence... and his cool. 

"Timmy was a good guard," said former Burns supervisor Linda Haner-Mele. "He was "always there prompt, clean and neat. His only quirk," 
according to Mele, "was that he couldn't deal with people. If someone didn't cooperate with him, he would start yelling at them, become 
verbally aggressive. He could be set off easily. 

According to an article in the Post, co-workers at a Niagara Falls convention center where he was assigned described him as "emotionally 

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spent, veering from passivity to volcanic anger." An old friend said he looked "like things were really weighing on him."^ — ^ 

"Timmy just wasn't the type of person who could initiate action," said Mele. "He was very good if you said, 'Tim watch this door — don't let 
anyone through.' The Tim I knew couldn't have masterminded something like this and carried it out himself. It would have had to have been 
someone who said: 'Tim, this is what you do. You drive the truck... .'" 

Mele's account directly contradicts the testimony of Sergeant Chris Barner and former Private Ray Jimboy, both of whom served with 

McVeigh at Fort Riley, and claimed that he was a natural leader.^^^ Backing up Jimboy was McVeigh's friend and Calspan co-worker, Carl 

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Lebron, who described McVeigh as "intelligent and engaging — the sort of person who could be a leader."^ — ^ 

Mele's testimony also contradicts McVeigh's service record, which rated him "among the best" in leadership potential and an "inspiration to 

young soldiers. "^-^^ "He had a lot of leadership ability inside himself," said Barner.... He had a lot of self confidence." 

Apparently, "Something happened to Tim McVeigh between the time he left the Army and now," said Captain Terry Guild. 

"He didn't really carry himself like he came out of the military," said Mele. "He didn't stand tall with his shoulders back. He kind of slumped 
over." She recalled him as silent, expressionless, with lightness eyes, but subject to explosive fits of temper. "That guy didn't have an 

expression 99 percent of the time," she added. "He was cold."^-^^ 

Colonel David Hackworth, an Army veteran who interviewed McVeigh for Newsweek, concluded that McVeigh was suffering from a "postwar 
hangover." "I've seen countless veterans, including myself, stumble home after the high-noon excitement of the killing fields, missing their 

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battle buddies and the unique dangers and sense of purpose," wrote Hackworth. "Many lose themselves forever.'" — ^ 

Although such symptoms may be seen as a delayed reaction syndrome resulting from the stress of battle, they are also common symptoms 
of mind-control. The subject of mind-control or hypnosis often seems emotionally spent, as though he had been through a harrowing ordeal. 

While visiting friends in Decker, Michigan, McVeigh complained that the Army had implanted him with a miniature subcutaneous transmitter, 
so that they could keep track of him.^^^ He complained that it left an unexplained scar on his buttocks and was painful to sit on.^^^ 

To the public, unfamiliar with the bewildering lexicon of government mind-control research, such a claim may appear as the obvious rantings 
of a paranoiac. But is it? 

Miniaturized telemetries have been part of an ongoing project by the military and various intelligence agencies to test the effectiveness of 
tracking soldiers on the battlefield. The miniature implantable telemetric device was declassified long ago. As far back as 1968, Dr. Stuart 
Mackay, in his textbook entitled Bio-Medical Telemetry, reported, "Among the many telemetry instruments being used today, are miniature 
radio transmitters that can be swallowed, carried externally, or surgically implanted in man or animal. They permit the simultaneous study of 

behavior and physiological functioning.. 

Dr. Carl Sanders, one of the developers of the Intelligence Manned Interface (IMI) biochip, maintains, "We used this with military personnel 

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in the Iraq War where they were actually tracked using this particular type of device.'" — ^ 

It is also interesting to note that the Calspan Advanced Technology Center in Buffalo (Calspan ATC), where McVeigh worked, is engaged in 

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microscopic electronic engineering of the kind applicable to telemetries.' — ^ Calspan was founded in 1946 as Cornell Aeronautical 

Laboratory, which included the "Fund for the Study of Human Ecology," a CIA conduit for mind-control experiments by emigre Nazi scientists 

[and others under the direction of CIA Doctors Sidney Gottlieb, Ewen Cameron, and Louis Jolyn West]. 

According to mind-control researcher Alex Constantine, "Calspan places much research emphasis on bioengineering and artificial 
intelligence (Calspan pioneered in the field in the 1950s)." In his article, "The Good Soldier," Constantine states: 

Human tracking and monitoring technology are well within Calspan's sphere of pursuits. The company is instrumental in 
REDCAP, an Air Force electronic warfare system that winds through every Department of Defense facility in the country. A 
Pentagon release explains that REDCAP "is used to evaluate the effectiveness of electronic-combat hardware, techniques, 
tactics and concepts." The system "includes closed-loop radar and data links at RF manned data fusion and weapons control 
posts." One Patriot computer news board reported that a disembodied, rumbling, low-frequency hum had been heard across 
the country the week of the bombing. Past hums in Taos, NM, Eugene and Medford, OR, Timmons, Ontario and Bristol, UK 
were most definitely (despite specious official denials) attuned to the brain's auditory pathways.... 

The Air Force is among Calspan's leading clients, and Eglin AFB has farmed key personnel to the company. The grating irony 
— recalling McVeigh's contention he'd been implanted with a telemetry chip — is that the Instrumentation Technology Branch 
of Eglin Air Force Base is currently engaged in the tracking of mammals with subminiature telemetry devices. According to an 
Air Force press release, the biotelemetry chip transmits on the upper S-band (2318 to 2398 MHz), with up to 120 digital 

There is nothing secret about the biotelemetry chip. Ads for commercial [albeit somewhat simpler] versions of the device have appeared in 
national publications. Time magazine ran an ad for an implantable pet transceiver in its June 26, 1995 issue — ironically enough — opposite 
an article about a militia leader who was warning about the coming New World Order. While monitoring animals has been an unclassified 
scientific pursuit for decades, the monitoring of humans has been a highly classified project which is but a subset of the Pentagon's 
"nonlethal" arsenal. As Constantine notes, "the dystopian implications were explored by Defense News for March 20, 1995: 

Naval Research Lab Attempts To Meld Neurons And Chips: Studies May Produce Army of "Zombies." 

Future battles could be waged with genetically engineered organisms, such as rodents, whose minds are controlled by 
computer chips engineered with living brain cells.... The research, called Hippocampal Neuron Patterning, grows live neurons 
on computer chips. "This technology that alters neurons could potentially be used on people to create zombie armies," 
Lawrence Kerb, a senior fellow at the Brookings Institution, said. 

It's conceivable, given the current state of the electronic mind-control art, a biocybernetic Oz over the black budget rainbow. 

that McVeigh had been drawn into an experimental project, that the device was the real McCoy... .^^^ 

The Defense Department newsletter may have been discussing is the successor to the "Stimoceiver," developed in the late 1950s by Dr. 
Joseph Delgado and funded by the CIA and the Office of Naval Research. The Stimoceiver is a tiny transceiver implanted in the head of a 
control subject, which can then be used to modify emotions and control behavior. 

According to Delgado, "Radio Stimulation of different points in the amygdala and hippocampus [areas of the brain] in the four patients 
produced a variety of effects, including pleasant sensations, elation, deep, thoughtful concentration, odd feelings, super relaxation, colored 
visions, and other responses.... One of the possibilities with brain transmitters is to influence people so that they confirm with the political 
system. Autonomic and somatic functions, individual and social behavior, emotional and mental reactions may be invoked, maintained, 
modified, or inhibited, both in animals and in man, by stimulation of specific cerebral structures. Physical control of many brain functions is a 

demonstrated fact. It is even possible to follow intentions, the development of thought and visual experiences. "^-^^ 

As Constantine points out, the military has a long and sordid history of using enlisted men and unwitting civilians for its nefarious 
experiments, ranging from radiation, poison gas, drugs and mind-control, to spraying entire U.S. cities with bacteriological viruses to test 
their effectiveness. The most recent example involves the use of experimental vaccines tested on Gulf War veterans who are currently 
experiencing bizarre symptoms, not the least of which is death. When attorneys representing the former soldiers requested their military 

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medical files, they discovered there was no record of the vaccines ever being administered.^ — ^ 

Timothy McVeigh may have unkowningly been an Army/CIA guinea pig involved in a classified telemetric/mind-control project — a 
"Manchurian Candidate." 

Recent history is replete with cases of individuals who calmly walk into a restaurant, schoolyard, or post office and inexplicably begin 
shooting large numbers of people, as though they were in a trance. What appear like gruesome but happenstance events to the casual 
observer raises red flags to those familiar with CIA "sleeper" mind-control experiments. Such cases may be indicative of mind-control 

experiments gone horribly wrong. 

A recent case occurred in Tasmania, where Martin Bryant calmly walked around a tourist site in May of 1996 methodically shooting and 
killing over 35 people. Interestingly, Bryant was in possession of an assault rifle that had been handed in to police in Victoria as part of a gun 

amnesty program, but mysteriously wound up in Bryant's hands before the massacre. ^^^ 

[An anti-social loner, Bryant had also recently returned from a solitary two-week trip to the U.S., ostensibly to visit "Disneyland." Australian 
Customs agents noticed he carried no luggage, and was acting strangely. They took him to the hospital to be examined as a possible drug 
courier, but found nothing. Had Bryant actually visited Disneyland, or had he visited a different type of playground — one inhabited by the 
mind-control masters of the CIA? 

In the wake of the massacre, Australia underwent wholesale gun confiscation of its citizenry. Not surprisingly, Australia and New Zealand 
have long served as a playground for the CIA, who reportedly played a major role in the overthrow of Australian Prime Minister Gough 
Whitlam, directed from the CIA's super-secret Pine Gap facility. It has also been reported that the CIA has been testing subliminal TV 

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transmissions to influence the outcome of elections.^ — ^] 

As in Bryant's case, many of these bizarre killers meekly surrender to authorities after their sprees. When he was stopped by State Trooper 
Charles Hanger for a missing license plate, McVeigh was carrying a loaded Glock 9mm pistol. Although he could have easily shot and killed 
the officer, McVeigh informed him that he was carrying a concealed weapon, then meekly handed himself over for arrest. Why does a man 
who has just allegedly killed 169 innocent people, balk at killing a cop on a lonely stretch of highway? [This suggests that either McVeigh 
was innocent, was acting under orders by some branch of the government, or was under some form of mind-control.] 

After McVeigh's arrest in Noble County, Assistant Attorney General Mark Gibson stated, "There stood a polite young man who gave polite, 
cooperative answers to every question. It was like the dutiful soldier," Gibson said. "Emotions don't come into play, right and wrong don't 
come into play. What happens next doesn't come into play... his mood was so level, it was unnatural. I looked at him and realized I felt no 
repulsion or fear. It was like there was an absence of feeling. He exuded nothing." 

Charles Hanger, the officer who arrested McVeigh, related his account to Gibson, who told the Times, "And when he grabbed his gun and 

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there was no reaction, no shock, that didn't seem right, either.'" — ^ 

This "absence of feeling" among a man who had just allegedly committed a heinous crime may well have been indicative of a 
psychologically controlled agent — or "sleeper" agent — a person trained to carry out a preconceived order upon command. Such an 
individual could conceivably carry out a horrendous crime, then have no recollection of the event. Far from the stuff of spy novels or 
conspiracy theories, sleeper agents have been developed and used by intelligence agencies for decades. 

[The CIA's interest in mind control originally dates back to WWII when the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), under Stanley Lovell, 
developed the idea of hypnotizing German prisoners to re-infiltrate the Third Reich and assassinate Adolph Hitler. After the war, the OSS, re- 
formed as the CIA, brought Nazi doctors and scientists to work for them under the cover of Operation PAPERCLIP. Some of these included 
war criminals spirited away through Nazi-Vatican "Ratlines" under the aegis of Operation OMEGA, conveniently missing their day in court at 
the Nuremberg War Crimes Tribunal. Their colleagues wound up in Central and South America, drained from the best of Nazi blood under 
Operation VAMPIRE.] 

The CIA's plunge into the netherworld of mind-control began in 1950 with Project BLUEBIRD, authorized by Allen Dulles after it was 
discovered that recently released Korean War prisoners had been subjected to hypnosis. In 1952, BLUEBIRD was re-named Operation 
ARTICHOKE, under the authority of Deputy CIA Director Richard Helms, and coordinated by CIA Security Officer Shefield Edwards. 

[By the late 1950s, the military was well on its way to investigating the potential for "brainwashing," a term coined by the CIA's Edward 
Hunter to explain the experience of American POWs in Korea. In 1958 the Rand Corporation produced a report for the Air Force entitled 
"The Use of Hypnosis in Intelligence and Related Military Situations," stating that "In defense applications, subjects can ce specifically 

selected by a criterion of hypnotizability, and subsequently trained in accordance with their anticipated military function..."^^^^] 

Taking the Hippocratic Oath on behalf of the CIA for ARTICHOKE was Dr. Sidney Gottlieb, mind-control emeritus of the CIA's Technical 
Services Division (TSS), the real-life counterpart to the mythical "Q-Branch" of Ian Fleming fame. TSS was engaged developing the usual 
James Bond spy toys — miniature cameras, shooting fountain pens, and, under the tutelage of Dr. Gottlieb, poisons that could kill in 
seconds, leaving no trace. With Operation ARTICHOKE however, the CIA broadened its horizons into the realm of psychological warfare. 
ARTICHOKE was one of the CIA's later-day attempts to create an electronically-controlled Manchurian Candidate. 

In the 1950s, under the code name MKULTRA, the CIA set up safe houses in San Francisco and other cities where they performed 
experiments on unwitting subjects using LSD and other drugs. In 1960, Edwards recruited ex-FBI agent Robert Maheu, who approached 
Mob bosses Sam Giancana and John Rosselli to form CIA hit-teams to assassinate foreign leaders using the techniques acquired by 
Gottlieb's TSS. [The first on their list was Cuban leader Fidel Castro, who they planned to assassinate by poisoning his food and even his 
cigars. The work of Gottlieb and his CIA associates can be traced directly back to Nazi war criminals such as Dr. Joseph Mengele of 

By 1963, reported the Senate Intelligence Committee, the number of operations and subjects had increased substantially. But as far back as 
1960, TSS officials, working along with the Counterintelligence staff, had expanded their hypnosis programs to coincide with their MKULTRA 
experiments. According to John Marks in his book The Search for the Manchurian Candidate, "the Counterintelligence program had three 
goals: (1) to induce hypnosis very rapidly in unwitting subjects; (2) to create durable amnesia; and (3) to implant durable and operationally 
useful posthypnotic suggestion." 

By 1966, MKULTRA had spawned Operation MKSEARCH, the use of biological, chemical, and radiological substances to induce 
psychological and physiological changes in the CIA's victims. MKSEARCH spawned Operations OFTEN and CHICKWIT, using biological, 
chemical, and radiological substances to induce psychological and physiological changes. Operations THIRD CHANCE and DERBY HAT 
involved the Army's Military Intelligence Group's (M.I.G.) surreptitious dosing of victims in Europe and the Far East. MKDELTA, an offshoot 

of MKULTRA, involved spraying massive doses of LSD and other drugs by the Army over areas inhabited by Viet Cong.^^^ 

[The preeminent don of the CIA's psychological warfare program was Dr. Louis Jolyn West. As part of his MKULTRA experiments. West 
decided to send an elephant at the Oklahoma City Zoo on an LSD trip. Apparently, the poor creature did not appreciate the effects of Dr. 
West's Magical Mystery Tour. It died several hours later. 

A close associate of Drs. Cameron and Gottlieb, West studied the use of drugs as "adjuncts to interpersonal manipulation or assault," and 
was among one of the pioneers of remote electronic brain experimentation, including telemetric brain implants on unwitting subjects. 

West's good friend, Aldous Huxley, suggested that he hypnotize his subjects before administering LSD, in order to give them post-hypnotic 
suggestions which would orient the drug-induced experience in a "desired direction." 

Interestingly, West was the psychiatrist who examined Jack Ruby, the assassin of Lee Harvey Oswald. Ruby's assertion that an ultra-Right- 
wing cabal was responsible for JFK's murder, and his refusal to admit insanity, led West to conclude that he was paranoid and mentally ill. 
West placed Ruby on anti-depressants, which did little to modify his claims of conspiracy. He died of cancer two years later, claiming to the 
end that he had been injected with cancerous biological material. 

West also examined Sirhan Sirhan, a controlled hypo-patsy who allegedly killed Robert F. Kennedy. Currently chairman of UCLA's 
Neuropsychiatric Institute, West headed the American Psychological Association (APA) trauma response team that rushed to Oklahoma City 
in the wake of the disaster. 

I interviewed Dr. West by phone. While confirming that he had indeed traveled to Oklahoma City with his team, the eminent psychiatrist 
made a curious "Freudian Slip." When asked if he had examined McVeigh, he said, "No, I haven't been asked to do that. I think his lawyer 

wouldn't want someone he didn't trus... pick."^^^ 

West nevertheless told me that someone from the FBI's Behavioral Sciences unit would have interviewed McVeigh. In fact the FBI's 
Behavioral Sciences unit did interview the prisoner. John Douglas of the FBI's Psychological Profile Unit was later quoted in the Times as 
saying, "This is an easily controlled and manipulated personality." What Douglas is unwittingly confirming is that McVeigh was perfect 
material for the CIA's psychological mind-control program. 

By the late 1950s, many German or Eastern European emigres brought to work in the U.S. had been farmed out to universities such as 


Cornell, UCLA, and Stanford... and to people like Dr. Ewen Cameron and Dr. Jolyn West' — ^ 

In the wake of the 1965 Watts riot. West proposed to then California Governor Ronald Reagan a "Center for the Study and Reduction of 
Violence," which was to have included a psychosurgery unit for performing lobotomies, and a seven-day-a-week, around-the-clock electro- 
shock room. Associates of Dr. Cameron's, employed at the time in Nazi-run detention centers in South America, would be called on to 


perform lobotomies on unsuspecting patients, with the full approval of Governor Reagan.' — ^ 

One of the more brazen of the emerging coterie of brainwashing enthusiasts, Cameron received his funding through the Rockefeller and 
Gerschickter Foundations, which was channeled into the innocuous sounding Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology at Cornell. 
Cameron performed hundreds of lobotomies and electroshock treatments at the behest of the CIA on unwitting patients in prisons and 

mental hospitals, and at his beloved Allen Memorial Institute in Montreal. ^^^ 

It is interesting to note that McVeigh claimed he was subjected to psychological torture while in prison. ^^^ He was placed in a cell with a 
guard watching him around the clock, who wasn't allowed to speak to him. The lights in his cell were kept on 24-hours-a-day, depriving him 
of sleep — a standard technique designed to break down a subject's psychological barriers. Eventually, McVeigh called in a psychiatrist to 
help treat his anxiety — a psychiatrist, perhaps, trained by Dr. Cameron.] 

CIA psychiatrist Dr. Ewen Cameron was also the progenitor of "psychic driving," a technique whereby the psychiatrist or controller 

repeatedly plays back selected words or phrases to break down a person's psychological barriers and open up his unconscious.^^^ Such 
techniques would be eagerly incorporated into the CIA's program for creating Manchurian Candidates — programmed hypno-killers who 
could be unleashed at the behest of the Agency to kill upon command. An account of the discussion surrounding the creation of a 
Manchurian Candidate is revealed by JFK researcher Dick Russell in his book. The Man Who Knew Too Much: 

In 1968, Dr. Joseph L. Bern of Virginia Polytechnic Institute questioned authorities on hypnosis about whether the creation of 
a "Manchurian Candidate" was really feasible. As Author Bowart recounted one expert's response to Dr. Bernd: "I would say 
that a highly skilled hypnotist, working with a highly susceptible subject, could possibly persuade the subject to kill another 
human..." Another believed it was even possible, through posthypnotic suggestion, to make a subject unable to recall such an 

act: "There could be a conspiracy, but a conspiracy of which the principal was unaware. "^^^ 

This "psychic driving" appears to have impacted Sirhan Sirhan. Charles McQuiston, a former Army intelligence officer who did a 
Psychological Stress Evaluation of voice recordings of Sirhan, said, "I believe Sirhan was brainwashed under hypnosis by the constant 
repetition of words like, 'You are nobody, you're nothing, the American dream is gone'.... Somebody implanted an idea, kill RFK, and under 

hypnosis the brainwashed Sirhan accepted it."^^^ The accused assassin insisted that he couldn't recall even the murder. 

CIA contract agent Colonel William Bishop explained to Russell some of the rudiments of the CIA's mind-control operations: 

"There were any number of psychological or emotional factors involved in peoples' selection. Antisocial behavior patterns, 
paranoia or the rudiments of paranoia, and so on. But when they are successful with this programming — or, for lack of a 
better term, indoctrination — they could take John Doe and get this man to kill George and Jane Smith. He will be given all the 
pertinent information as to their location, daily habits, etc. Then there is a mental block put on this mission in his mind. He 


remembers nothing about it.'" — ^ 

On March 3, 1964, CIA Director John McCone sent a memo to Secret Service chief James Rowley stating that after his surgery at the 
hospital in Minsk, [Russia], Oswald might have been "chemically or electronically 'controlled'... a sleeper agent. Subject spent 1 1 days 

hospitalized for a minor ailment which should have required no more than three days hospitalization at best."^^-^ 

Even J. Edgar Hoover told the Warren Commission, "Information came to me indicating that there is an espionage training school outside of 
Minsk — I don't know whether it is true — that he [Oswald] was trained at that school to come back to this country to become what they call 

a 'sleeper,' that is, a man who will remain dormant for three or four years and in case of international hostilities rise up and be used."^^-^ 
[According to JFK researchers Art Ford and Lincoln Lawrence in their book. Were We Controlled?, Lee Harvey Oswald was a programmed 

assassin with a malfunctioning electrical implant in his brain. ^^^ Herman Kimsey, A veteran Army counterintelligence operative and former 
CIA official, told JFK researcher Hugh MacDonald, "Oswald was programmed to kill.... Then the mechanism went on the blink and Oswald 

became a dangerous toy without d i recti on."^^^] 

The CIA's interest in producing the perfect programmed assassin took a new bent, when in 1965, the Agency, in cooperation with the DoD, 
set up a secret program for studying the effects of electromagnetic radiation, or microwave (EM) weapons at the Army's Advanced Research 
Projects Agency (ARPA) at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. The project was inspired by the Soviets, who had been dousing the 

American Embassy in Moscow with a lethal dose of microwaves, causing many of its personnel to die from cancer.^^^ 

Yet causing degenerative diseases was not the main goal of the DoD/CIA EM weapons research, code named PANDORA. The spooks were 
interested in the effects of microwaves on controlling a person's behavior. By 1973, both the Americans and the Soviets were far along in 
their mind-control applications, using technology such as pulsed microwave audiograms and acoustical telemetry to create voices in a 

subject's mind, or erase his mind completely. ^^-^] 

Causing degenerative diseases was not the main goal of the DoD/CIA EM weapons research, code named PANDORA. The spooks were 
interested in the effects of microwaves on controlling a person's behavior. By 1973, both the Americans and the Soviets were far along in 
their mind-control applications, using technology such as pulsed microwave audiograms and acoustical telemetry to create voices in a 

subject's mind, or erase his mind completely. ^^^ With the advent of EM technology, scientists could bypass the need for electrodes 
implanted in the brain, and control their subjects directly. Lawrence described a technology called RHIC-EDOM, or "Radio Hypnotic 
Intracerebral Control and Electronic Dissolution of Memory." According to Lawrence: 

It is the ultra-sophisticated application of post-hypnotic suggestion triggered at will by radio transmission. It is a recurring state, 
re-induced automatically at intervals by the same radio control. An individual is brought under hypnosis. This can be done 
either with his knowledge — or without it — by use of narco-hypnosis, which can be brought into play under many guises. He 
is then programmed to perform certain actions and maintain certain attitudes upon radio signal. 

Lawrence went on to state that "through the use of radio-waves and ultra-sonic signal tones... It in effect blocks memory of the moment." 
"Such a device has obvious applications in covert operations designed to drive a target crazy with 'voices' or deliver undetected instructions 

to a programmed assassin," states Dr. Robert Becker.^^^ 

Thane Eugene Cesar, a reported accomplice in the murder of Robert Kennedy, held a vaguely-defined job at Lockheed, a CIA/PANDORA 
contractor. Retired Lockheed engineer Jim Yodertold former FBI agent William Turner that Cesar worked floating assignments in an "off- 

limits" area operated by the CIA.^^^ The parallel is strikingly similar to that of Timothy McVeigh, who worked at Calspan, another high-tech 

military contractor engaged in top-secret telemetric work. 

The preeminent don of CIA's psychological warfare program (MKULTRA), Dr. Louis Jolyon "Jolly" West, sent an Oklahoma City Zoo 
elephant careening on a massive LSD trip, triggering its death hours later. Studying the use of drugs as "adjuncts to interpersonal 
manipulation or assault," Jolly West was among the pioneers of remote electronic brain experimentation on unwitting subjects. Aldous 
Huxley passed on the idea to West that he hypnotize subjects before administering LSD, orienting drug-induced experience toward a 
"desired direction." 

West was given the job of examining Jack Ruby, Lee Harvey Oswald's killer. Ruby's refusal to admit insanity, and his belief that a right-wing 
cabal was responsible for JFK's murder, led West to conclude Ruby was mentally ill, the proper candidate for anti-depressants. Ruby died of 
cancer two years after the exam, claiming to have been injected with malignant biological material. West also examined Sirhan Sirhan, [who 
may have been] a hypno-patsy jailed for murdering Robert Kennedy. 

On March 31, less than three weeks before the bombing, McVeigh appeared at the Imperial Motel in Kingman. For the next 12 days, 
according to owner Helmut Hofer, he just sat there, emerging only for meals or to pay his bill. He had no visitors, made few phone calls, and 


barely disturbed the furnishings. No one ever heard his television, and his car never moved from its spot outside.' — ^ 

"That's the funny thing," said Hofer. "He didn't go out. He didn't make phone calls. He didn't do anything. He just sat up there and brooded." 


["He always had been a brooder..." added the Times, throwing a bit of instant psychoanalysis on the situation.' — ^] 

To Earline Roberts, the housekeeper at the Oak Cliff rooming house where Oswald stayed just prior to the assassination, "Mr. Lee" probably 


seemed like a brooder too, staying in his room, having no visitors and never socializing.' — ^ 

Yet it is unlikely that McVeigh simply rented a room at the Imperial for 12 days to brood. Like Oswald, McVeigh was probably told to wait 
somewhere until he was contacted. Perhaps it was a pre-arranged date; perhaps he was waiting for a phone call; or perhaps McVeigh was 
simply put on ice, waiting to be activated by some sort of signal. It is possible McVeigh's anger at the Federal Government was stoked by a 
more mysterious enemy, one that he couldn't see or feel... but hear. 

One of the most famous documented cases of "hearing voices" was that of Dennis Sweeny, the student activist who shot and killed his 
mentor Allard Lowenstein. Lowenstein, who marched in the 1964 Freedom Summer in Mississippi, had campaigned for Robert Kennedy and 
Adiai Stevenson, and ran the National Student Association before the CIA took over. Lowenstein, who was also friends with CIA 
propagandist William F. Buckley, had attempted to prove that a great conspiracy was responsible for the deaths of Martin Luther King and 

the Kennedys. (At the time he was assassinated, he was helping Ted Kennedy win the 1980 presidential election.)' — ^ 

One fine day. Sweeny calmly walked into the middle of Rockefeller Center and pumped seven bullets into his mentor. He then sat down, lit a 
cigarette, and waited for the police to arrive. "Sweeny claimed that the CIA, with Lowenstein's help, had implanted a telemetric chip in his 
head 15 years earlier, and had made his life an unbearable torment. Voices were transmitted through his dental work, he said, and he 
attempted to silence them by filing down his false teeth. Sweeny blamed CIA "controllers" for his uncle's heart attack and the assassination 

of San Francisco mayor George Moscone."^^^ 

Moscone and City Supervisor Harvey Milk met their deaths at the hands the infamous "Twinkle" assassin — former City Supervisor Dan 
White. White earned the curious title due his attorney's novel defense — that his client was under the influence of a heavy dose of sugar at 
the time of the murders. More likely. White was under the influence of a heavy dose of hypnosis. 

Like McVeigh, White had been in the military, serving a tour of duty in Vietnam. After leaving the police department in 1972, White took an 
extended vacation since known as White's "missing year." 

"He broke all contact with friends and family. He kept no records of the trip, purchased no travel tickets, did not use a credit card. He later 
accounted for his mystery year by explaining that he'd worked a stint as a security guard in Alaska." 

White subsequently moved back to San Francisco, where joined the Fire Department. Like McVeigh, White's work record was untarnished, 
though like the enigmatic soldier, he was known to erupt in embarrassing temper tantrums. As Constantine writes in The Good Soldier: 

While campaigning for the Board of Supervisors, he spoke as if he was "programmed," according to local labor leader Stan Smith. During 


Board sessions, he was known to slip into spells of silence punctuated by goose-stepping walks around the Supervisors' chambers.' — ^ 

One of the more recent cases of murder by suggestion was the assassination of Naval Commander Edward J. Higgins. Higgins was shot 
five times in the Pentagon parking lot by Carl Campbell, who claimed that the CIA had implanted a microchip in him that controlled his mind. 


To those who believe that such electronically-manipulated scenarios are the stuff of fantasy, they should take note that no less than three 
support groups currently exist in the U.S. to deal with the trauma of military and intelligence agency brainwashing. 

Yet the hypnosis and drugging of adults is not by far the worst example of the CIA's nefarious efforts at developing programmed assassins. 
Other efforts involve the use of children, programmed while they are still young (See the "Finders" case), and the use of cults, often run by 
former military and intelligence officers. The use of cults provides a convenient cover for experiments that could not otherwise be conducted 


out in the open. Any resultant behavioral anomalies can then simply be attributed to the peculiarities of the "cult."^ — ^ 

One program for the recruitment of programmed operatives is called Operation OPEN EYES. According to a former Navy Intelligence officer 
and SEAL team leader attached to the CIA, "Clear Eyes" are the programmed victims of OPEN EYES. The operation involves canvassing 
the country for individuals who have few close friends or relatives. They are then put under a progressive series of gradually intensified 
hypnosis, where the subject's personality is "overwritten." 

At level four, diverse programs can be written or overwritten into the brain. Any command is accepted at this level. At that level you can give 
the test subject a complete personality, history and make him/her believe anything the program requires for the accomplishment of any 
desired project. He is then given a new life in a new state and town. Driver's license, car, bank account, passport, credit cards, B.C., and all 
the small things, such as photos of his family (that don't really exist). Subject and patient (one and the same) has now an agenda (that he 
believes is his own) and is prepared for level five hypnosis. At this stage, very carefully a code work or sequence of numbers or a voice 
imprint is etched into his brain. That is commonly known and referred to as the trigger that will activate subject to action. 

He then lives a very normal and sometimes useful life, until subject is required to perform the program implanted/written into level four 
hypnosis at the point of activating the trigger, subject is beyond recall. That's why a level five person can only be approached after his/her 
operation. There is no actual recall in the subconscious program of any of the hypnosis. If an act of violence had been perpetrated, subject 
will not be able to associate with the deed. Only shrinks trained in this particular form of sub mental behavior will find any tracks leading to 
post level one or two mind-control. 

I have personally witnessed level one to five programming, and was myself subject of level three programming. 

Due to the fact that subject has such high IQ (preferably around 130-140 subject is very quick to learn anything fed to him/her. All major 
patriot groups, and normal workers and workers in big [government contract] corporations have at least one or more "sleepers" attached to 

Now it must be clear to you the various levels used by the Intel community to get their job done. Remember Jonestown? It was one of ours 
that went sour because a Clear Eyes was in the group. When he began firing on the runway, it all self destructed. The man (Congressman 
Leo Ryan) who was killed, knew it was a government operation. Clear Eyes was accidentally — through a lone sequence — activated! There 
was no way to stop the killings. They were all programmed to at least level three, the culties themselves. There were only three deaths 


attributable to cyanide, the rest died of gunfire. Now you know a little more about our line of work. I am glad I am out of it' — ^ 

An ex-CIA agent interviewed by researcher Jim Keith claims to have knowledge of biological warfare testing and "special medical and Psy- 
ops (psychological operations) facilities at Fort Riley," where Timothy McVeigh was stationed. (Recall that McVeigh took a Psy-ops course at 
Ft. Riley) This agent stated that experimentation is conducted "in collaboration with the whole range of intelligence agencies, FBI, CIA, NSA, 
the works." The agent also told Keith that he had witnessed special psychological operations performed on the crew of the Pueblo naval 
vessel at Fort Riley, and at Fort Benning, Georgia (where did his basic training), prior to the ship's capture under mysterious circumstances 
by the North Koreans. Fort Benning is also home to the notorious School of the America's, where the CIA and the Special Forces have 
trained Latin American death squad leaders for over three decades. Fort Riley was also home to a mysterious plague of murders and 
shootings right around the time of the Oklahoma City bombing. On March 2, 1995, PFC Maurice Wilford shot three officers with a 12-gauge 


shotgun before turning the gun on himself. On April 6, Brian Soutenburg was found dead in his quarters after an apparent suicide.' — ^ 

Is it possible these incidents were the result of some psychological testing or experiment gone awry? Given the Army's opprobrious history 
of psychological research and covert experiments on its own personnel, it is not inconceivable. The incidents seem indicative of the shooting 
death of Commander Edward J. Higgins by Carl Campbell, who claimed he was implanted with a microchip. 

[It is interesting to note that] after his arrest, McVeigh was taken to Tinker Air Force Base. Why he would be taken to a military installation is 
unclear. Perhaps Dr. West was on hand, waiting to see whether McVeigh's microchip was still snug. Was Timothy McVeigh in fact 
manipulated through the use of a subcutaneous transceiver, implanted in him without his knowledge? Was he a "sleeper agent," 
programmed to do a dirty deed and have no memory of it afterwards? Interestingly, Richard Condon's classic play. The Manchurian 
Candidate made its debut in Oklahoma City exactly one year after the bombing. It is possible the real Manchurian candidate made his debut 

on April 19, 1995. Given the long and sordid history of Pentagon/CIA mind-control operations, such a scenario is certainly possible.' — ^ 

What's also possible is that McVeigh was simply lied to. Someone — whom McVeigh thought was working for the government, gave him a 
cover story — convinced him that he was on an important, top secret mission. McVeigh's seeming indifference upon his arrest may simply 
have been indicative of his understanding that he was working for this agency, had simply delivered a truck as he was told, and had not, in 
fact, killed anyone. 

[It is possible that] McVeigh was concerned about military cut-backs when he quit the Army in December of 1991. It is possible that his 
increased job duties were the reason he quit the National Guard in June of 1992. It is also possible, highly probable in fact, that he was 
secretly offered a more lucrative career — one that promised more excitement, adventure, and money... in the intelligence services. 

To the intelligence community, Timothy McVeigh would have been exactly what they were looking for — a top-notch but impressionable 
young soldier who is patriotic and gung-ho to a fault. A taciturn individual who follows orders without hesitation, and who knows when to 
keep his mouth shut, a prerequisite of any good intelligence operative. 


According to former CIA agent Victor Marchetti, the CIA currently does its most "fruitful" recruiting in the armed forces.' — ^ Intelligence 
agencies regularly recruit from the military, and military files are routinely reviewed for potential candidates — those who have proven their 
willingness and ability to kill on command and without hesitation — those whose combat training and proficiency with weapons make them 
excellent candidates for field operations. McVeigh had already taken the Psychological Operations (PSYOPS) Course while he was at Fort 
Riley. Whether he knew it or not, McVeigh was well on his was way to a career in covert intelligence. An intelligence agency wouldn't have to 
search hard for a man like McVeigh. His above-average military record, and the fact that he was a candidate for the Special Forces, would 
have made him a natural choice. Especially his try-out for Special Forces. The Special Forces were created as the covert military arm of the 
Central Intelligence Agency. According to Lt. Colonel Daniel Marvin (Ret.), "almost all of the independent operations within the Green Berets 

were run by the CIA"^^^ 

Moreover, McVeigh was just beginning to espouse militia-type views. This observation, and the fact that he was racist, would have made him 
a perfect operative to infiltrate any far right-wing or white supremacist group. Likewise it would have made him the perfect patsy to implicate 
in connection with any right-wing group. 

[As Dave Dilly told the Post, "The militias really recruit, and he's exactly what they're looking for.... They could catch him easy. He had all the 
same interests as them; they're just a little more fanatical." 

What Dilly is describing to the letter, although he is unaware of it, is the modus operandi of the intelligence community. If McVeigh was 
recruited by one of the intelligence branches, it is possible that he was recruited by someone posing as a militia member. As far as fanatics 
go, there is no one group of people more fanatical than the "lunatic fringe" of the intelligence community. In short, McVeigh] possessed all 
the qualities that would have made him an excellent undercover operative... and a perfect fall-guy. 

In May of 1992, McVeigh was promoted to lieutenant at Burns Security, and wrote his National Guard commander that his civilian job 
required his presence. "But the letter was real vague," said his commander. "It didn't say just what this new job was." Approximately nine 
months later, when McVeigh was going to be promoted to supervisor, he suddenly quit, saying that he had "more pressing matters to attend 

Just what these "pressing matters" were is not exactly clear. According to co-worker Carl Lebron, McVeigh told him he was leaving to take a 
civilian position with the Army in Kentucky painting trucks. He later told Lebron that he became privy to a top-secret project at Calspan called 
"Project Norstar," which, according to McVeigh, involved bringing drugs into the country via miniature submarine. He told his friend that he 
was afraid that those responsible for Project Norstar were "coming after him," and he had to leave. 

While this explanation may strike one as bizarre, McVeigh wrote his sister Jennifer while he was still in the Army telling her that he had been 
picked for a highly specialized Special Forces Covert Tactical Unit (CTU) that was involved in illegal activities. The letter was introduced to 
the Federal Grand Jury. According to former grand juror Hoppy Heidelberg, these illegal activities included "protecting drug shipments, 
eliminating the competition, and population control." While all the details of the letter aren't clear, Heidelberg said that there were five to six 
duties in all, and that the group was comprised of ten men. 

Such units are nothing new. During the Vietnam War, CIA Director William Colby and Saigon Station Chief Ted Shackley (who also ran a 
massive heroin smuggling operation) created what they called Provincial Reconnaissance Units (PRUs), which would capture, torture, and 


kill suspected Viet Cong leaders.' — ^ 

Former Army CID investigator Gene Wheaton also described a covert unit created by the highly secretive NRO (National Reconnaissance 
Office), which used assassination and torture to eliminate so-called enemies of the state. In 1985, Wheaton was approached by "security 
consultants" to Vice President Bush's "Task Force on Combating Terrorism" who were working for USMC Lt. Colonel Oliver North (who 
served under Shackley in Vietnam) and Associate Deputy FBI Director Oliver "Buck" Revell. "They wanted me to help create a 'death squad' 
that would have White House deniability to assassinate people they would identify as 'terrorists,'" said Wheaton. 

Code-named "Zeta Diogenes" in the USAF subset, this secret project, according to Wheaton, "was created in a rage by the covert 
intelligence leadership after the failed Bay-of-Pigs operation against Cuba in 1961." Wheaton claims the program continues to the present 

Anyone who prefers to think that agencies of the U.S. government are above assassinating U.S. citizens, not to mention senior U.S. officials 
where expedient, may wish to bear in mind the following testimony given by Colonel Daniel Marvin, a highly decorated Special Forces 
Vietnam veteran. While going through Special Forces training at Fort Bragg in 1964, Marvin's group was asked if any members would like to 
volunteer to take special assassination training on behalf of the CIA, eliminating Americans overseas who posed "national security risks." 
About six people, himself included, volunteered. 

"The CIA had agents there all the time at Fort Bragg, in the Special Warfare Center Headquarters," said Marvin. "My commanding officer. 

Colonel C.W. Patton, called me up to his office one day in the first week... and he said, "Dan, go out and meet the 'Company' man standing 
there underneath the pine trees, waiting to talk to you." 

Ironically, Marvin had been motivated to join the Special Forces by the death of President Kennedy, who had conferred upon the unit their 
distinctive and coveted green berets. Marvin began his assassination training in the Spring of 1964. "...during one of the coffee breaks, I 
overheard one of the [CIA] instructors say to the other one, 'Well, it went pretty well in Dallas. Didn't it?'" 

Marvin said his group was shown "16 millimeter moving pictures that we assumed were taken by the CIA of the assassination, on the ground 
there at Dallas.... We were told that there were actually four shooters. There was one on the roof of the lower part of the Book Depository, 
and there was one shooter who was in front of and to the right of the vehicle. And I'm not sure whether it was on the Grassy Knoll area that 
they were speaking of, or, as some people have reported, [a shooter firing] out of a manhole to the right-front of the vehicle." 

He also added that there were two additional snipers with spotters stationed on the routes that the motorcade would have used to travel to 
the hospital. If the spotter determined that Kennedy had survived, he was to finish him off. 

["They used the assassination of President Kennedy as a prime example of how to develop the strategy for the assassination of a world 
leader as a conspiracy, while making it look like some 'lone nut' did it... 

"The stronger a patriot you are, the more important it is to you that you do whatever is necessary for your flag, for your country," he adds. "It 
makes you the most susceptible type of person for this kind of training. You are the ultimate warrior. You're out there to do for your country 
what nobody else is willing to do. I had no qualms about it at all."] 

Marvin claimed his "assassination" training was reserved solely for citizens outside the United States, not on U.S. soil. "The Mafia lists were 
the ones being used [to kill Americans] in the continental United States," said Marvin. "We were being used overseas." That was, until he 
was asked to kill an American Naval officer — Lt. Commander William Bruce Pitzer, the X-ray technician who filmed the Kennedy autopsy, 
"as he was, supposedly, a traitor, about to give secrets to the enemy. It turned out that these 'secrets' were the photos of the real autopsy of 


President John F. Kennedy. And the 'enemy' was us!'" — ^ 

When he found out that his assignment was to be conducted in the U.S., he refused, "...that wasn't my mission," said Marvin. "When I took 
my training, I volunteered to do this kind of thing overseas where it could be covered, as far as the family goes. I had a wife and three 
children. If I were to accept that mission to kill Commander Pitzer right here in the United States, I would have been dropped from the rolls 

immediately as a deserter so that it would cover me for taking off and taking care of that mission. . . . "I^^^ll^^ 

Such a "cover" tactic appears to closely parallel that of Timothy McVeigh, who "dropped out" of Special Forces training before embarking on 
his bewildering and mysterious journey (ala: Dan White) prior to the bombing. 

Still another, more well-documented reference to such illegal operations is made by Wall Street Journal reporter Jonathan Kwitny in his best- 
selling book. The Crimes of Patriots. Kwitny describes how rogue CIA agents Edwin Wilson (who reported to Shackley) and Frank Terpil 
were not only illegally selling huge quantities of C-4 plastic explosives and sophisticated assassination gear to the Libyans, but were actually 
hiring anti-Castro Cubans from Shackley's old JMAA/AVE program, and U.S. Green Berets to assassinate Gaddafi's political opponents 
abroad. (See Chapter 14) 

Some U.S. Army men were literally lured away from the doorway of Fort Bragg, their North Carolina training post. The GIs 
were given every reason to believe that the operation summoning them was being carried out with the full backing of the 


Could this be the same group McVeigh claims he was recruited for? Considering the allegations of the Federal Government against 
McVeigh, the fact that he was chosen for such a clandestine and blatantly illegal government-sponsored operation is highly revealing. 

According to Heidelberg's account of the letter, McVeigh turned them down. "They picked him because he was gung-ho," said Heidelberg. 


"But they misjudged him. He was gung-ho, but in a sincere way. He really loved his country.'" — ^ 

In another version of the story reported by Ted Gunderson, an intelligence informant indicated that McVeigh was "trained to work for the CIA 
in their illegal drug operations," then "became disenchanted with the government, and voiced his displeasure." At that point he was sent to 
Fort Riley for discharge, at which point John Doe 2 "was planted on him" and "orchestrated the bombing." According to Gundersen's 

informant, McVeigh was a victim of the CIA's mind-control project. Project MONARCH. ^^^ 

Whether McVeigh turned down this illegal covert operations group, or worked for them for a short time, it is highly likely that he was working 
in some fashion for the government. There is simply no logical explanation for his giving up a hard-earned and brilliant military career, then 
subsequently quitting his security guard job on the eve of his promotion to take a job painting old army trucks, or go tooling around the 
country in a beat-up car hawking used firearms and militia paraphernalia. 

If McVeigh was recruited, his "opting out" of the military was most likely a cover story for that recruitment. Former Pentagon counter- 
intelligence officer Robert Gambert told Kennedy assassination researcher Dick Russell of the mysterious activities of his cousin Richard 

Case Nagell, "Dick played the role of a disgruntled ex-Army officer.... he was really still operational, in an undercover capacity, for the Army 
Intelligence... . They're not gonna' trust anybody who's active military or a friendly retiree. They're gonna trust somebody who's going around 

griping against the military, against the intelligence operations, against the government.... "^^^ 

After McVeigh's mysterious departure from the Army, his friend Robin Littleton received a strange letter from him. On it was illustrated a 

cartoon depicting a skull and crossbones with the caption "so many victims, so little time. "^^^ Whether he meant it as a joke, or whether i1 
contained a hidden message, is unclear. But considering the letter he wrote to Jennifer regarding the CTU, its implications are unsettling. 

A patriotic soldier like Timothy McVeigh didn't have a lot of reasons to gripe against the government. But, said the Post: "McVeigh was by 
now railing at virtually every aspect of American government, and at least beginning to consider a violent solution, as reflected in letters he 

wrote to the Lockport Union-Sun & Journal in February and March 1992, (entitled 'America Faces Problems. ')"^^^ 

Crime is out of control. Criminals have no fear of punishment. Prisons are overcrowded so they know they will not be 
imprisoned long. This breeds more crime, in an escalating cyclic pattern. 

Taxes are a joke. Regardless of what a political candidate "promises," they will increase. More taxes are always the answer to 
government mismanagement. They mess up, we suffer. Taxes are reaching cataclysmic levels, with no slowdown in sight. 

The "American Dream" of the middle class has all but disappeared, substituted with people struggling just to buy next week's 
groceries. Heaven forbid the car breaks down! 

Politicians are further eroding the "American Dream" by passing laws which are supposed to be a "quick fix," when all they are 
really designed for is to get the official re-elected. These laws tend to "dilute" a problem for a while, until the problem comes 
roaring back in a worsened form (much like a strain of bacteria will alter itself to defeat a known medication). 

Politicians are out of control. Their yearly salaries are more than an average person will see in a lifetime. They have been 
entrusted with the power to regulate their own salaries and have grossly violated that trust to live in their own luxury. 

Racism on the rise? You had better believe it! Is this America's frustrations venting themselves? Is it a valid frustration? Who 
is to blame for the mess? At a point when the world has seen Communism falter as an imperfect system to manage people; 
democracy seems to be headed down the same road. No one is seeing the "big" picture. 

Maybe we have to combine ideologies to achieve the perfect Utopian government. Remember, government-sponsored health 
care was a Communist idea. Should only the rich be allowed to live long? Does that say that because a person is poor, he is a 
lesser human being; and doesn't deserve to live as long, because he doesn't wear a tie to work? 

What is it going to take to open up the eyes of our elected officials? America is in serious decline! 

We have no proverbial tea to dump; should we instead sink a ship full of Japanese imports? Is a Civil War imminent? Do we 
have to shed blood to reform the current system? I hope it doesn't come to that! But it might. 

Naturally, an ordinary gripe letter written by a person with above-average intelligence and political awareness was turned into a 
manifestation of suppressed frustrations with attendant violent overtones by the psychojournalists of the mainstream press. Yet, if McVeigh 
was under the influence of some form of mind-control, it is possible the letter, and the one to Littleton, might have been the beginnings of a 

plan to "sheep-dip" McVeigh as a disgruntled ex-military man.^^^ 

It is also possible that McVeigh, tasked with the responsibility of infiltrating the Militia Movement, became genuinely enamored with its ideals 
and precepts. Whether or not this is true, McVeigh's letter to the Lockport Union-Sun & Journal and to Robin Littleton were two more nails 
the government and the press would use to drive into McVeigh's coffin. 

But the major nails in McVeigh's coffin were yet to come. 

The Man Who Didn't Exist 

In September of 1992 McVeigh sold his property in Olean, NY, and in early 1993 traveled to Kingman, Arizona to visit his old Army friend 
Michael Fortier. Apparently McVeigh's father didn't approve of Tim's letters in the local paper. A friend of McVeigh's father told the Post thai 
one of the reasons McVeigh left was because "he wanted to be somewhere he could talk about what he really believed." 

In Kingman, a rugged high-desert town where anti-government sentiments run strong, McVeigh would find like-minded souls. "Arizona is still 
gun-on-the-hip territory, rugged individuals who don't like the government in their business," said Marilyn Hart, manager of the Canyon West 
Mobile Park. 

After spending a brief time living with Fortier at his trailer home on East McVicar Road, McVeigh rented a trailer at Canyon West where he 

lived from June to September of 1993, for $250-a-month. 

The Times, the Post, Time and A/evi/svi/ee/c all reported that McVeigh was a belligerent beer-drinking, loud music-playing slob who stayed at 
the Canyon West Mobile Park and was subsequently evicted. According to the Times: 

Residents of the Canyon West Mobile Park drew a picture of an arrogant loner who worked as a security guard for a now-defunct trucking 
company, lived with his pregnant girlfriend, expressed deep anger against the Federal Government and often caused trouble for his 
neighbors. "He drank a lot of beer and threw out the cans, and I always had to pick them up," Bob Rangin, owner of the park, was quoted as 
saying. He said he had frequent fights with Mr. McVeigh, who often wore Army fatigues, over such things as loud rock music coming from his 

trailer and a dog he kept in violation of his lease. ^^^ 

"Just about any free time, he'd be walking down there, or across the railroad tracks and firing his guns," said Marilyn Hart, nodding at the 
landscape of canyons and mesas around the Canyon West trailer park here that is one of the last known addresses of the man arrested for 
bombing the Oklahoma City Federal Building. "He just plain didn't care. Didn't matter the time of day or night, he'd be out there shooting." 

"Basically he just had a poor attitude, a chip on the shoulder kind of thing," said Rob Rangin, the owner of the trailer park. "He was very 
cocky. He looked like he was ready to get in a fight pretty easy. I'll tell you, I was a little afraid of him and I'm not afraid of too many people. 

Mr. McVeigh brought in a big brown dog in defiance of the camp regulations and left a wrecked car parked by his trailer, Mr. Rangin said, 
and even a nearly totally deaf neighbor, Clyde Smith, complained about the music. Finally, said Mr. Rangin, "he piled up so many violations, 
I asked him to leave." 

"When he did, the trailer was a disaster," he said. "It was trashed. "^^^ 

Yet these accounts of McVeigh in the Times' on April 23 and 24 are totally contrary to their accounts on May 4 and December 31 , which 
describe him as a compulsive neat-freak, highly disciplined, respectful of his elders, and courteous to a fault. Friends and acquaintances 
interviewed also claimed that McVeigh was extremely quiet, never drank, and never had a date, much less a pregnant girlfriend. 

Yet on April 23, the PosMescribed how McVeigh played loud music, terrorized his neighbors, and was evicted from the park. Then on July 
2, the Post wrote: 

When he moved into the Canyon West trailer park outside Kingman in 1993, his first act was to wash the dirty curtains and dust, vacuum 
and scrub the entire trailer spotless, said owner Bob Rangin, who so liked McVeigh that he offered to lower the rent to keep the ex-soldier 
from moving. 

The Post also ran an interview with neighbor Jack Gohn, who said McVeigh was so "quiet, polite and neat and clean" that "if I had a 

daughter in that age bracket, I would have introduced them."^^^ 

Said Marilyn Hart of Timothy McVeigh: "He was very quiet, very polite, very courteous, very neat, very clean, quiet, obeyed all the park rules. 

He worked on the trailer, did some painting, he did some cleaning on it, he bought new furniture, things like that."^^^ 

In fact, what the Times was reporting on was not Timothy McVeigh at all, but a completely different man! According to Hart, the mix-up came 
when reporters from the Times were given information about Dave Heiden, who also was just out of the service, and had lived in trailer #19 
(McVeigh lived in trailer #1 1 ). "They thought it was the man who lived down below," said Hart. "He was a slob. But he was not Tim McVeigh. 
The other guy took his guns out across the way and fired them all the time, he got drunk and got up on top of the trailer and did all kinds of 
noisy things...." 

According to Hart, after the man's girlfriend gave birth he sobered up. "Now they're married, the baby was born, he's straightened up his life," 
said Hart. "He straightened up his act, and he doesn't act that way any more at all." 

Rangin called authors Kifner and McFadden of the Times to correct them. "I tried to tell them that wasn't McVeigh," said Rangin. "I called 

that fellow at the Times who came down here, and told him they got the wrong guy..."^^^ 

According to the Times, it was a "clearly embarrassed" Mr. Rangin who had made the mistake, wrote the Times on April 25: He added that 

the man he incorrectly recalled as Tim McVeigh "was like you would think" a suspect in a mass killing might be.^^^ 

This is clearly interesting considering that for days the Times had been painting McVeigh as a pathological, asexual neat freak who was 
extremely polite. These traits, the T/'mes' psychobabblists claimed, were indicators of a mass killer. 

The Times then claimed on the very next day that McVeigh was a belligerent slob with a pregnant girlfriend, and all of a sudden, tiiese were 
the characteristics of a mass killer. Obviously, to a propaganda screed like the New Yorl< Times, it didn't matter wiiat McVeigh's actual 
personality really was. 

While in Kingman, McVeigh worked at different jobs through an agency called Allied Forces. "He did a number of jobs that way," said Hart. 
"He was a security guard, he did a number of different jobs. But he always went to his job, did them well... any of the people who worked 

with him said he didn't act odd, you know, it was totally out of character. "^^^ 

McVeigh worked for a time at True Value Hardware, on Stockton Hill Road, a job that Fortier helped him get. Paul Shuffler, the store owner, 
said McVeigh "was a young and clean looking person so I gave him a job." According to Shuffler, "If he was a radical around here, I would 


have noticed it pretty quick and I would have fired him. Radicals don't last long around here because they just make a mess of things."^ — ^ 

McVeigh also worked for a spell at State Security. The Times interview with co-worker Fred Burkett took a slightly different slant, painting his 
co-worker McVeigh as an arrogant, gun-toting loner. "He had a very dry personality," Burkett told the Times. "He was not very outgoing, not 
talkative and not really that friendly. He wasn't a person that mingled. He was a kind of by yourself kind of person, a loner." 

Once, Burkett went with McVeigh on a target-shooting course in the desert, where McVeigh "pretty much went crazy," Burkett said. After 
running through the course, picking off targets with a Glock .45, McVeigh began "emptying clips on pretty much anything — trees, rocks, 

whatever happened to be there. "^^^ 

"Other than that, Mr. Burkett said, "he seemed pretty much normal." "The only thing he ever indicated was that he didn't care much for the 
United States Government and how they ran things," Mr. Burkett said. "He didn't care much for authority and especially when it concerned 
the government." 

Yet authorities have speculated that McVeigh's interests went beyond mere dissatisfaction with the Federal Government. According to Carl 

Lebron, McVeigh once brought him a newsletter from the Ku Klux Klan.^^^ McVeigh was also fond of a book called the Turner Diaries. 
Written by former physics professor and neo-Nazi William Pierce, the Turner Diaries was a fictionalized account of a white supremacist 
uprising against the ZOG (Zionist Occupational Government). The book, exceedingly violent and racist in tone, is a fictionalized account of 
the overthrow of the Federal Government — which by that time had become the "Jewish-liberal-democratic-equalitarian plague" — by a 
Right-wing paramilitary group called the "Organization," which then goes on to murder and segregate Jews and other "non-whites." The 
protagonists also blow up FBI headquarters with a truck-bomb. The Turner Diaries \Nas found on Timothy McVeigh upon his arrest. 

The book became the blueprint for a neo-Nazi group called The Order, which terrorized the Midwest in the early to mid '80s with a string of 
murders and bank robberies. Authorities have speculated that McVeigh, who carried the book with him constantly and sold it at gun shows, 
was inspired by its screed to commit his terrible act of violence. Yet McVeigh dismisses such suggestions as gibberish. "I bought the book 

out of the publication that advertised the book as a gun-rights book. That's why I bought it; that's why I read it."^^^ 

In Kingman, McVeigh made friends with an ex-marine named Walter "Mac" McCarty. McVeigh apparently sought out the 72-year-old 
McCarty for discussions in which he tried to make sense of the actions of the Federal Government at Ruby Ridge and Waco, and such 
issues as the United Nations, the Second Amendment, and the "New World Order." 

"I gathered that he was following the Right-wing, survivalist, paramilitary-type philosophy," McCarty said. "I also got the sense that he was 
searching for meaning and acceptance. "^^^ 

McVeigh and Fortier also took handgun classes from McCarty during the summer of 1994, which is odd considering that the two men, 
McVeigh especially, were extremely proficient in the use of firearms. "Believe me, the one thing he did not need was firearms training, "said 

Fred Burkett, McVeigh's co-worked at State Security. "He was very good and we were impressed with his actions. "^^^ 

McCarty himself was apparently suspicious of McVeigh's motives. "They wanted to hear certain things from me to see if they could get me 
involved," said McCarty. "They definitely liked what they heard. We were on the same page about the problems of America." 

Why would McVeigh, the consummate firearms expert, bother taking a course in handguns? Perhaps to be around like-minded individuals or 
as a harmless diversion. It is also possible, like the Lee Harvey Oswald impostor seen at the Texas rifle range, McVeigh was being sheep- 
dipped. "I know brainwashing when I see it, McCarty said. "Those two boys had really gotten a good case of it." Perhaps McCarty was being 

more literal than he realized. ^^^ 

After the August 1994 passage of the Omnibus Crime Bill outlawing certain types of semi-automatic weapons, "McVeigh's demons finally 

became unbearable," claimed the Times. "What will it take?" wrote McVeigh to Fortier, expressing his exasperation. ^^^ 

It is possible that McVeigh had some contact with a local militia while in Kingman. According to reporter Mark Schafer of the Arizona 
Republic, Fortier, who worked at True Value, knew Jack Oliphant, the elderly patron of the Arizona Patriots, an extreme Right-wing 
paramilitary group. Oliphant had been caught in 1986 planning to blow up the Hoover Dam, the IRS and a local Synagogue. After the FBI 
raid, Oliphant was sentenced to four years in jail, and the Arizona Patriots went underground. It is reported that Fortier, who sported a "Don't 
Tread on Me" flag outside his trailer-home, was friendly with some of the Arizona Patriots, including Oliphant. 

According to federal authorities, McVeigh also left a note addressed to "S.C." on a utility pole near Kingman seeking "fighters not talkers." It 

has been speculated that "S.C." is actually Steven Colbern, who lived in the nearby town of Oatman, and was friends with McVeigh. (See 
Chapter 5) 

But federal authorities became very interested when they learned that a small explosion, related to a home-made bomb, had slightly 
damaged a house down the road from the trailer park. That house was owned by Frosty McPeak, a friend of McVeigh's who had hired him in 
1993 to do security work at a local shelter. When McPeak's girlfriend was arrested in Las Vegas on a bad credit charge, Clark Vollmer, a 
paraplegic drug dealer in Kingman, helped bail her out. In February of '95, Vollmer had asked McPeak to ferry some drugs. He refused. On 
February 21, a bomb exploded outside McPeak's home. When he went to Vollmer's house to confront him, he found Timothy McVeigh, 

along with another man he didn't recognize. ^^^ 

According to Mohave County Sheriff Joe Cook, the explosion "wasn't really a big deal" and probably wasn't related to the explosion in 

Oklahoma City.^^^ 

What does Marilyn Hart think about McVeigh's connection to the local militias? "I probably do know several people who are militia," said 
Hart. "But they don't advertise it, and they're not kooks. To me, McVeigh didn't have the money. The two other guys, Rosencrans and 
Fortier, went to school with our children, and neither of them have money either. And it took a good amount of money to pull this off. " 

"Obsessed With Waco" 

Whether or not McVeigh's "demons" became "unbearable" after the passage of the Omnibus Crime Bill, his anger, along with that of millions 
of others, would be justified by the governments' massacre of 86 innocent men, women and children at the Branch Davidian Seventh Day 
Adventist Church near Waco the following April. The ostensible purpose of the ATF's raid was to inspect the premises for illegal weapons. 
Although the Davidians, who were licensed gun dealers, had invited the ATF to inspect their weapons, the agency declined; they were more 
interested in staging a show raid to impress the public and increase their budgetary allowance. In fact, the raid was code-named "Show 

On February 28, 1993, without a proper warrant and without identifying themselves, over 100 agents stormed the Church compound. 
Residents who answered the door were immediately fired upon. At least one ATF helicopter began strafing the building, firing into the roof. 
For the next hour, ATF agents fired thousands of rounds into the compound. Many church members, including women, children and the 
elderly, were killed by gunfire as they lay huddled in fear, the women attempting to cover the children with their bodies. Church members 
repeatedly begged the 91 1 operator to stop the raid. In the ensuing battle, four ATF agents were killed, although there is evidence that 
indicates they were killed by "friendly fire." 

Several days later, the FBI took over. Almost immediately, they began psychologically harassing the Church members with loud noises. For 
over a month and a half, the Davidians were tormented by the sounds of dying animals, religious chants, loud music, and their own voices. 
Their electricity was cut off, and milk and other supplies necessary for young chidden was not allowed into the compound. Bright lights were 
shined on residents 24 hours-a-day, and armored vehicles began circling the compound, while flash-bang grenades were thrown into the 

The media was kept at bay, fed propagandizing stories by FBI spokesmen that painted the Davidians as crazed cultists with desires for 
apocalyptic self-destruction — dangerous wackos who stockpiled machine-guns and who abused their children. The mass media happily 

obliged, feeding these images to a gullible public.^^^ 

After a 51 -day standoff, the newly appointed Attorney General, Janet Reno, approved an FBI plan to assault the compound with a highly 
volatile form of tear-gas, proven deadly to children, who she was ostensibly trying to protect from "abuse." On April 19, tanks from the Texas 
National Guard and the Army's Joint Task Force Six, in violation of the Posse Comitatus Act forbidding the use of military force against 
private citizens, stormed the compound, firing hundreds of CS gas ferret rounds into the buildings. The tanks also rammed the buildings 
repeatedly, knocking holes in them, the official explanation being so that the residents could more easily escape. Instead, what it did was 
cause the buildings to collapse, killing dozens as they lay crouched in fear. Kerosene lanterns knocked over by the tank ramming ignited the 
highly flammable CS gas, and the holes created a flue effect through the buildings, caused by 30 mile and hour winds. Immediately the 
compound became a fiery inferno. 

While some residents managed to escape, most were trapped inside, exphyxiated by the gas, crushed by falling debris, or burned alive. 
Some who tried to escape were shot by FBI snipers. One unarmed man who tried to enter the compound to be with his family was shot six 
times, then left lying in a field while prairie dogs picked at his bones. During the final siege, which lasted for six hours, firetrucks were 
purposefully kept away. Bradley M-2 armored vehicles fitted with plows pushed in the still standing walls, burying those still trapped inside. A 
concrete vault where approximately 30 people had sought refuge was blasted open with demolition charges, killing most of the people inside. 

When it was all over, the fire department was allowed inside the compound to pump water on the smoldering debris. Out of approximately 
100 Church members, 86 perished, including 27 children. No FBI agent was injured. The remaining 11 Church members were put on trial for 
attempted murder of federal agents. During the trial, government prosecutors repeatedly withheld, altered, and destroyed evidence. The 
government even cut off electricity to the morgue, preventing autopsies on the bodies. 

The judge, recently under scrutiny by the "Justice" Department, also refused to allow the testimony of critical witnesses. Although the jury 
found all 1 1 innocent, the judge reversed the verdict. Nine Davidians were imprisoned for attempting to defend their families. Some received 

sentences up to 40 years. 

While "General" Reno, in a symbolic gesture of public reconciliation, took "full responsibility" for the actions of the FBI, she never resigned or 
served time. In fact, Larry Potts, who led the raid on behalf of the FBI, was promoted. 

The assault would be compared to the massacre of the Jews in Warsaw by the Nazis during WWII. A bunch of religious fanatics. Who'd 
complain? Who'd care? Yet the government didn't count on the fact that a lot of people would care. Millions in fact. The murder of the Branch 
Davidians would indeed become a wake-up call for a citizenry concerned about an increasingly tyrannical, lawless government. A 
government that would murder its own citizens with impunity, in fact with zeal. A government that would lie to its citizens, and be accountable 

to no one.^^^ 

In March of 1993, Timothy McVeigh traveled from Kingman to Waco to observe the 51 -day standoff. He was photographed by the FBI along 
with others protesting the siege on the road outside the compound, selling bumper stickers out of his car. Like Lee Harvey Oswald, who was 
photographed at the Cuban embassy in Mexico (a claim made by the government, but never substantiated), the photo of McVeigh would be 
added proof of his far-Right-wing associations. 

A day and a half later, McVeigh drove to Decker, Michigan to be with his old Army buddy, Terry Nichols. The Nichols family sat with McVeigh 
in their living room as they watched M-2 Bradley assault vehicles storm the compound. On April 19, they watched as the Branch Davidian 
Church burnt to the ground. "Tim did not say a word," said James Nichols, who watched the compound burn to the ground along with Tim 

and his brother. "We stood there and watched the live television footage as the church burned and crumbled... we couldn't believe it."^^^ 

McVeigh, who the Justice Department claimed was "particularly agitated about the conduct of the Federal Government in Waco," had a right 
to be. McVeigh had offered his life to serve in the military, and now had seen that very same military massacring its own citizens. He could 
see the Green Berets from the Army's Joint Task Force Six advising the FBI, and had watched while Bradley armored vehicles — the same 
vehicles he had served in — gassed and bulldozed the citizens of a country he had sworn to defend. 

The Federal Building was blown up on April 19, the two year anniversary of the Waco conflagration. Like millions of other citizens, McVeigh 
was angry about the deadly raid. He was particularly incensed about the participation of the Army's Joint Task Force Six, and about the 
deployment of the Seventh Light Infantry during the Los Angeles riots in 1992, and the United Nations command over American soldiers in 
Somalia, his former Army friend Staff Sergeant Albert Warnement told the Times. "He thought the Federal Government was getting too 

much power. He thought the ATF was out of control. "^^^ 

"I saw a localized police state," McVeigh told the London Sunday Times, "[and] was angry at how this had come about."^^^ 

"Their (the FBI's) actions in Waco, Texas were wrong. And I'm not fixated on it...." he told Newsweel<. 

"It disturbed him," said Burkett. "It was wrong, and he was mad about it. He was flat out mad. He said the government wasn't worth the 

powder to blow it to hell."^^^ 

Perhaps rather coincidentally, McVeigh's sister Jennifer said that during her brother's November '94 visit to the McVeigh family home in 
Lockport, he confided that he had been driving around with 1,000 pounds of explosives. During his trial Prosecutor Beth Wilkinson asked 

Jennifer if she had questioned her brother about why he was carrying so much. "I don't think I wanted to know," she said.^^^ 

Just what was McVeigh doing driving around with explosives, and where did he acquire them? Were these explosives part of the batch of 
ammonium nitrate Terry Nichols had allegedly purchased from the Mid-Kansas Co-op on October 20, or perhaps the Dynamite and Tovex 
the government alleged Nichols stole from the Martin Marietta rock quarry in September? 

Obviously this, and McVeigh's expression of anger at the Federal Government, would become the foundation of their case against him. In a 
letter Tim wrote to Jennifer, he is highly critical of the ATF. The anonymous letter, which was sent to the federal agency, was accompanied 
by a note that read: "All you tyrannical motherfuckers will swing in the wind one day for your treasonous actions against the Constitution and 

the United States." It concluded with the words, "Die, you spineless cowardice bastards. "^^^ 

"He was very angry," recalled Jennifer McVeigh during her brother's trial. "He thought the government gassed and murdered the people 

Jennifer also claimed her brother also wrote a letter to the American Legion saying that ATF agents "are a bunch of fascist tyrants." He 
identified himself in the letter as a member of the "citizens' militia." He also sent his sister literature on the standoff at Ruby Ridge, the 

Constitution, and even a copy of the Turner Diaries. ^^^ 

By the Spring of 1995, he told Jennifer not to send any more letters to him after May 1 because "G-men might get them." Then he sent her a 
letter saying, "Something big is going to happen in the month of the Bull." He did not explain what that meant, but Jennifer looked in her 
astrology book and saw that the "month of the Bull" was April. McVeigh also advised her to extend her Spring break — which began on April 

8 — a bit longer than the planned two weeks, and instructed her to burn the letter.^^^ 

For McVeigh's part, he wrote that this "expression of rage" the government claimed was so key, was nothing more than "...part of my 
contribution to defense of freedom, this call to arms.... I intend to become more active in the future. I would rather fight with pencil lead than 
bullet lead. We can win this war in voting booth. If we have to fight in the streets, I would not be so sure.... All too often in the past, we gutsy 
gun owners have lost the battle because we have failed to fight. The Brady Bill could have been defeated in Congress if gun owners had 
become more involved in electing officials and communicating to those officials what was expected to them.... Start your defense today. 
Stamps are cheaper than bullets and can be more effective." 

This letter, found by authorities in McVeigh's car, speaks of a man committed to fighting for freedom as many Americans have, in the "voting 
booth," and with pen and paper. Yet lead prosecutor Joseph Hartzler would read this letter, along with quotes such as this one: "My whole 
mindset has shifted... from the intellectual to the animal," into evidence at McVeigh's trial, in an attempt to prove that Timothy McVeigh was 
committed to violence. 

Like Lee Harvey Oswald, who was upset about the Cuban Bay of Pigs invasion and American foreign policy in general, a view he expressed 
to his friends in Dallas, McVeigh was upset about the government's foreign policy, a view he expressed to his friends here. "He wasn't happy 
about Somalia," that if we could put the United States under basically UN command and send them to Somalia to disarm their citizens, then 
why couldn't they come do the same thing in the United States?" Sergeant Warnement said. 

McVeigh was also reportedly angry over the killings of Sammy and Vicki Weaver, who were killed by federal agents at their cabin in Ruby 
Ridge, Idaho in August of 1992. Randy Weaver had become a fugitive wanted on a minor weapons violation. During the stand-off, U.S. 
Marshals had shot 14-year-old Sammy Weaver in the back, and had shot Vicki Weaver, Randy's wife, in the face as she stood at the cabin 
door holding her infant daughter. McVeigh had traveled to Ruby Ridge and came back convinced that federal agents intentionally killed the 

Although his anger over Waco and Ruby Ridge hardly implicates McVeigh in the destruction of the Federal Building, the government would 
make this one of the cornerstones of it case. The press naturally jumped on the bandwagon. When Jane Pauley of NBC's Dateline 
interviewed Jennifer McVeigh about her thoughts on Waco, she said, "The way I saw it, the Davidians were just a group of people who had 
their own way of living, perhaps different from the mainstream. But they were never really harming anybody. And to bring in all those tanks 
and things like that to people who are just minding their own business, not harming anybody, I just — I don't think that's right." 

But the dead, burned children at Waco were not what the producers at Dateline wanted the public to see. Immediately after Jennifer's 
statement, they cut to an image of the bombed-out day care center inside the Murrah Building. "We... We've been hoping this wouldn't be 
the case," said the live voice of an unidentified rescue worker, "but it is the case, there was a day-care inside the building." 

Time ran a page dedicated to the Waco theory, stating, "The date of last week's bombing and the anniversary of the apocalyptic fire (notice 
they don't say government massacre) at the Branch Davidian compound in Waco — has only gained in infamy, intricately bound as it is to 


the mythologies of homegrown zealots like McVeigh." 


It would appear that the seed that gave root to McVeigh's "homegrown zeal" was incubated in a U.S. government hothouse and fertilized by 
a heaping dose of intelligence agency fanaticism. 

After Waco, with the emergence of the Militia Movement, the stage would be set, the die would be cast — for Timothy McVeigh to be poured 
into like a miniature lead soldier. While the FBI and the press admitted that McVeigh didn't actually belong to any organized militia 
organization, "there was considerable evidence that he sympathized with and espoused their beliefs," wrote the Times. 

He voiced their ideas in conversations, he wrote letters expressing them, he read their literature and attended their meetings. And he lived. 


worked and traded weapons in areas where the paramilitary groups enjoy considerable support...^ — ^ 

Like Lee Harvey Oswald, who appeared to be an avid Communist, distributing leaflets on behalf of the Fair Play for Cuba Committee, 
McVeigh would play the part of an avowed Right-winger, distributing literature about taxes, the Second Amendment, Waco and Ruby Ridge. 
Like Oswald, who left behind a diary widely believed to be a CIA forgery, McVeigh was purported to have similarly documented his own 
extremist position. According to the Times: 

Law enforcement officials say McVeigh left behind a large body of writings about his ideological leanings, including extensive tracts in letters 
to friends and relatives, that describe his belief in the constitutional principles that he adamantly maintained allowed him to carry firearms 

and live without any restraints from the government. Prosecutors are likely to use such documents to establish his motive at a trial. ^^^ 

Like Oswald, McVeigh's departure from the military was under somewhat mysterious circumstances. And like Oswald, an ex-Marine with a 
top-secret security clearance who appeared to "defect" to the Soviet Union, McVeigh would appear to be a "disgruntled" ex-Army sergeant 

who happened to "drift" into the fringes of the far-Right.^^^ 

Yet, like Oswald, who lived and worked amongst the bastions of the far-Right in Dallas while purporting to be a Marxist, McVeigh would not 
seem to be the extreme Right-wing fanatic he's been made out to be. In a letter to his hometown newspaper in February, 1992, he wrote: 

At a point when the world has seen Communism falter as an imperfect system to manage people; democracy seems to be headed down the 
same road.... Maybe we have to combine ideologies to achieve the perfect Utopian government. Remember, government-sponsored health 
care was a Communist idea. . . . 

Obviously, such views are anathema to the far-Right, who see any attempt to socialize society as a major step towards the great one-world 
Communist conspiracy. It is possible that McVeigh was more progressive than his Right-wing associates. It is also possible that McVeigh 
was being sheep-dipped as a militant Right-winger. 

After Waco, McVeigh traveled to Michigan, staying for a time with Terry Nichols. He worked on Nichols' farm, and went hunting and target 
practicing. Neighbors recall how McVeigh and Nichols made and detonated small homemade bombs. Paul Izydorek, a neighbor, recalls 
"When they were around, they'd get different guns and play and shoot and stuff." On at least one occasion, Izydorek heard blasts at the farm 
and noticed Terry Nichols and a man he thought was McVeigh. "I'd seen them playing around with different household items that you can 

make blow up. Just small stuff. Just outside in the yard, blowing away."^^^ 

Nichols' brother James also admitted to the FBI that McVeigh and Terry made and exploded "bottle bombs" at his farm, using brake fluid. 

gasoline, and diesel fuel, and that he sometimes participated.^^^ 

In his interview with Newsweek, McVeigh dispelled the myth that his bomb making was a precursor to more deadly acts. "It would amount to 
firecrackers. It was like popping a paper bag," said McVeigh, who had also experimented with small explosives on his land in Olean, NY 
prior to entering the Army. 

Yet a relative also told the FBI that James Nichols kept a large supply of ammonium nitrate fertilizer on the farm — the very substance 
federal authorities accused the suspects of using to manufacture their alleged truck-bomb, a fact that would become yet another linchpin in 
the government's case against the two men. 

While in Michigan, McVeigh also started working the gun shows. From April of 1993 to March of 1995, McVeigh would travel from Kingman, 
Arizona to Decker, Michigan, and across the U.S., attending militia meetings and working the gun show circuit. A gun collector interviewed 
by the Times said that he had encountered McVeigh in gun shows ranging from Florida to Oklahoma to Nevada. "At the S.O.F. (Soldier of 
Fortune) convention he was kind of wandering around," said the gun collector, who requested anonymity, "like he was trying to meet people, 
maybe make converts. He could make ten friends at a show, just by his manner and demeanor. He's polite, he doesn't interrupt." 

"McVeigh traveled around the country in a rattletrap car," wrote the Times' Kifner, "his camouflage fatigues clean and pressed, his only 
companion a well-thumbed copy of the venomous apocalyptic novel, Tlie Turner Diaries." 

Yet it would seem McVeigh is not the asexual, sociopathic loner that the press — the New Yorl< Times in particular — has made him out to 

Had Kifner read the May 5th edition of Newsweel<, he would have discovered that McVeigh had more than an old book for a companion. 
Newsweel< reported that a Kansas private investigator had tracked down an old [platonic] girlfriend of McVeigh's — most likely Catina 

Lawson of Herrington, Kansas — attempting to convince her to sell her story to a news agency. ^^^ 


Robert Jerlow, an Oklahoma City private investigator, was also tracking down a girlfriend of McVeigh's in Las Vegas. ^ — ^ And CNN indicated 

that authorities had discovered a letter in the glove compartment to an old girlfriend. ^^^ 

Yet McVeigh's gypsy-like travels across the country in an old beat-up car were slightly more then unusual. He traveled widely with no visible 
means of support, other than trading and selling guns and military paraphernalia. Yet acquaintances and other witnesses recall he always 
had wads of cash on him. Upon his arrest, McVeigh had $2,000 on him. He reportedly had thousands more stashed away. He also traveled 
without luggage, making his car and occasional cheap motels his only home. 

"He lived in his car," said the gun dealer quoted in the Times. "Whatever he owned it was in that car."^^^ 

According to his sister Jennifer, his closest confidant, "...half the time we didn't know where he was. Half the time he wouldn't even tell us 

where he was living. "^^^ 

Again, one has to ask why McVeigh would voluntarily give up a promising military career to go careening around the country hawking used 
military surplus in an old car. 

McVeigh used the name "Tim Tuttle" while working the gun shows, claiming that the alias was necessary to protect him from people who 


didn't share his political views. ^ — ^ There is another possible reason McVeigh may have used an alias however. 

At one gun show in Phoenix, an undercover detective reported that McVeigh had been attempting to sell a flare gun which he claimed could 
be converted into a rocket launcher. According to Bill Fitzgerald of the Maricopa County Attorney's office in Phoenix, McVeigh "took a shell 
apart and showed that the interior could be removed and another package put in that could shoot down an ATF helicopter." He also was 
reportedly handing out copies of the name and address of Lon Horiuchi, the FBI sniper who shot and killed Vicki Weaver, and selling caps 

with the letters 'ATF' surrounded by bullet holes. ^^^ 

"He had come to see himself as a soldier in his own strange war against the United States," wrote the Times. McVeigh's mother told an 
acquaintance after visiting with him in her home state of Florida that he was "totally changed," and observed, "it was like he traded one Army 

for another one."^^^ 

While it is highly possible that McVeigh, like many people, genuinely disliked the ATF and FBI, it is also possible he used such high-profile 
anti-government tactics as a ruse while working undercover. While such behavior might appear extreme, it is a classic agent provocateur 
technique. The ATF routinely works undercover at gun shows, searching for people selling illegal firearms. Who better to lure and entrap 
unwary victims than a gun dealer claiming to be virulently anti-ATF. It is also possible that McVeigh was working undercover for another 

In an illuminating series of phone calls to Representative Charles Key, an anonymous source stated that McVeigh was present at several 
meetings with ATF and DEA agents in the days immediately preceding the bombing. The meetings took place in Oklahoma City at different 
locations. The ostensible purpose of the meetings were to provide McVeigh with further instructions, and to facilitate a payoff. 

David Hall of KPOC-TV uncovered information that McVeigh had met with local ATF agent Alex McCauley in a McDonalds the night before 
the bombing. The ATF agent was seen handing McVeigh an envelope. (See Chapter 9) 

CNN would cast a pale over this [largely unknown] information by reporting in June of 1995 that McVeigh had been under surveillance by an 
undercover operative at an Arizona gun show two years prior to the bombing. 

This fact was reinforced when the Anti-Defamation League of B'Nai B'Rith (ADL) reported that McVeigh ran an ad for a "rocket 
launcher" (actually a flare gun) in the far-Right Spotlight newspaper on August 9, 1993. In fact, the ad didn't appear until the next\NeeW, 
August 16. McVeigh had originally paid to have the advertisement run on the 9th. Not being aware of the Spotligiit's impending scheduling 
conflict, however, the ADL reported that the ad had run one week before it actually did. This subsumes that the ADL, long known for its 

spying and intelligence-gathering activities, had McVeigh under surveillance as well.^^^ 

Interestingly, McVeigh's young friend, Catina Lawson, recalled a strange man who often showed up at summer parties the high-schoolers 
threw. The soldiers from nearby Ft. Riley would attend the gatherings looking to meet girls, and McVeigh and his friends Michael Brescia and 

Andy Strassmeir (who lived at the white separatist compound in Southeast Oklahoma known as Elohim City), would often attend. ^^^ 

Yet the man Catina described was neither a high-schooler nor a soldier. This mysterious character in his late 30s to mid-40s, who often wore 
a suit and a tie and drove a red sports car, was was apparently not there to pick up girls. As Connie Smith, Catina's mother told me, "The 
man did not interact with anyone else... he stayed off... he never interacted with anybody else," only McVeigh. 

Barbara Whittenberg, who owned the Sante Fe Trail Diner in Herrington, Kansas, also remembered the man. The restaurant owner recalled 
that he would come in with McVeigh and Terry Nichols, who lived nearby. She didn't know where he was from, and had never seen him 

Was McVeigh an informant? Was he working for two different agencies? Numerous Kennedy researchers have uncovered evidence that 
Oswald was an FBI informant at the same time he was being sheep-dipped by the CIA for his role in the JFK assassination. According to 
former District Attorney (later federal judge) Jim Garrison: 

Oswald appears to have been extensively manipulated by the CIA for a long time prior to the assassination and may well have believed he 
was working for the government. Oswald was also a confidential informant, a job that provided additional control over him and may have 

given him a reason to believe he was actually penetrating a plot to assassinate the president.^^^ 

Situations where a person is working for two law-enforcement or intelligence agencies at the same time are not uncommon. 

What is uncommon is for a man like McVeigh to give up a promising military career to hawk used duffel bags from an old car. But then again. 


in the twilight netherworld of intelligence operations, things aren't always what they appear.^ — ^ 

While in Michigan, McVeigh also began tuning in to the Voice of America and Radio Free America on his shortwave. He was drawn to 
personalities like Chuck Harder, Jack McLamb, and Mark Koernke, all conveying an anti-federalist, anti-New World Order message. "He 
sent me a lot of newsletters and stuff from those groups he was involved in," said Warnement, then stationed in Germany. "There were 
newsletters from Bo Gritz's group, some other odd newsletters, some from the Patriots; then he sent that videotape 'The Big Lie' about 


McVeigh also began attending militia meetings. According to Michigan Militia member Eric Maloney, McVeigh was present at a truck-stop 
near Detroit for a January 25, 1995 meeting of approximately 70 members of the Oakland County Six Brigade. Members had obtained 
photographs of T-72 tanks and other Russian vehicles en route via railway flatcars to Camp Grayling, an Air National Guard base in northern 
Michigan. Although the captured Iraqi tanks were for target practice, the militiamen interpreted the equipment as proof positive of a UN plan 
to disarm American citizens and declare martial law. 

According to Maloney and militia member Joseph Ditzhazy, a plot was hatched to attack the base by Mark Koernke, a high-profile militia 
spokesman known to his radio listeners as "Mark from Michigan." According to Maloney, Koernke said, "We can either take them out now 
while we're still able to, or wait until the sons of bitches are rolling down the street..." Three days later, about 20 members met at a farm near 
Leonard to discuss plans for the attack. According to Maloney, McVeigh was one of 13 who volunteered for the assault. "McVeigh was 
there," recalled Maloney on ABC's Prime Time Live. "My wife sat next to him. He was very attentive, very interested in being involved in that 
operation, volunteered his services." 

The plan never came off. Ditzhazy and Maloney alerted State Police, who then contacted federal authorities. When the plot was made 
public, the Michigan Militia issued a press release stating that the plan was the brainchild of Koernke, working alongside a group of renegade 
members. Others who attended the meetings said that it was actually Maloney who pushed the plan, and had to be dissuaded from going 
through with it. Interestingly, Maloney was to provide weapons training for several of the attackers, and Ditzhazy, who made audio-tapes of 
the meetings, is a former military intelligence officer. When the FBI was contacted about Ditzhazy's claim that the plot was hatched by 


McVeigh and others, the FBI refused comment.' — ^ 

What is also interesting is that Koernke himself is a former Army intelligence officer. Koernke, a veteran of the 70th Army Reserve Division in 
Livonia, Michigan, refers to himself as an "intelligence analyst" and "counterintelligence coordinator" with a "top-secret clearance." He also 
purports to have trained two "special-warfare" brigades that trained Army personnel in "foreign warfare and tactics." While his claims may be 
exaggerated, Koernke did attend the Army's intelligence school at Fort Huachuca, Arizona. He returned to Michigan an E-5 specialist with a 


G-2 (security) section of a peacetime Reserve unit.' — ^ 

Koernke quickly rose to become one of the most sought after speakers on the Patriot circuit, leading off seminars in over 40 states. His 
video, America in Peril, sounds apocalyptic warnings of the coming New World Order, including plans by the Council of Foreign Relations, 
the Trilateral Commission, and the Bilderbergers to dominate and enslave America — with of course, a little help from Russian troops. 


Nepalese Gurkhas, and L.A. street gangs.' — ^ It would seem that Koernke is employing a time-tested technique of intelligence PSYOP 
disinformation. While purporting to rail against what may be genuine plans of a New World Order cabal, Koernke slips in just enough 
ridiculous disinformation to discredit his thesis, and by association, anyone who supports it. 

After the bombing, the media put Koernke in its spotlight. Koernke has boasted freely to friends that he was once employed as a 
"provocateur." He didn't say exactly for whom. In his tape, Koernke is shown holding an AK-47 and a cord of rope, stating: "Now, I did some 
basic math the other day, not New World Order math, and I found that using the old-style math you can get about four politicians for about 
120 foot of rope. And, by the way, DuPont made this. It is very fitting that one of the New World Order crowd should provide us with the 
resources to liberate our nation...." 

While the author personally has no qualms about stringing up the DuPonts, the Rockefellers and many other icons of the military-industrial- 
establishment, Koernke's rant smacks of the classic art of propaganda — that of the agent provocateur. Many in the Militia movement have 

accused him of justthat.^^^* 

On September 8, 1994, Fowerville, Michigan police stopped a car that contained three men in camouflage and black face paint, armed with 
three 9mm semiautomatics, a .357 Magnum, an assortment of assault rifles, and 7,000 rounds of ammunition. The men claimed to be 
Koernke's bodyguards. 

Ken Kirkland, an official of the St. Lucia County, Florida Militia said that McVeigh was acting as Koernke's bodyguard at a March 1994 
meeting. Kirkland recalled a bodyguard in Army camouflage clothes resembling McVeigh who introduced himself as "Tim" and was "really 

upset about Waco."^^^ 


Koernke and McVeigh both deny this. As McVeigh told Newsweel< "... I was never to one of their meetings, either.'" — ^ 

Was Koernke's "bodyguard" actually Tim McVeigh? In the September, 1995 issue of Soldier of Fortune, an ATF agent — the spitting image 
of Tim McVeigh — is seen accompanying ATF Agent Robert Rodriquez to the trial of the Branch Davidians. Was this in fact the "McVeigh" 
who accompanied Koernke? 

Given both mens' mysterious backgrounds, their curious intersections in Florida and Michigan, and the Camp Grayling and Fowerville 
incidents, it is highly likely that we are looking at two agent provocateurs. 

Other evidence of McVeigh's apparent employment as an agent provocateur would surface later. In a statement he made to Newsweek in 
response to a question about Reno and Clinton asking for the death penalty, McVeigh said: "I thought it was awfully hypocritical, especially 
because in some ways the government was responsible for doing it. I thought she was playing both sides of the fence." One must wonder 

just how McVeigh knows that "in some ways" the government was "responsible for doing it." 

McVeigh's own insurrectionist tendencies began coming to fruition towards the end of 1993, according to authorities, when McVeigh 
informed his sister that he was part of an anti-government group that was robbing banks. This startling revelation came in the form of three 
$100 bills he sent to Jennifer in a letter dated December 24, 1993. The money was part of the proceeds from a bank heist. As Jennifer told 
the FBI on May 2, 1995: 

"He had been involved in a bank robbery but did not provide any further details concerning the robbery. He advised me that he had not 
actually participated in the robbery itself, but was somehow involved in the planning or setting up of this robbery. Although he did not identify 
the participants by name, he stated that 'they' had committed the robbery. His purpose for relating this information to me was to request that 
I exchange some of my own money for what I recall to be approximately three (3) $100.00 bills. 

"He explained that this money was from the bank robbery and he wished to circulate this money through me. To the best of my recollection, I 
then gave my brother what I recall to be approximately $300.00 of my personal cash, in exchange for 3 $100.00 bills, which I deposited 
within the next several days in an account at the Unit No. 1 Federal credit Union, Lockport, New York." 

Jennifer also recalled Tim stating, "Persons who rob banks may not be criminals at all. He implied Jews are running the country and a large 


degree of control is exercised by the Free Masons. Banks are the real thieves and the income tax is illegal.'" — ^ 

Was Timothy McVeigh in fact a bank robber? If so, it is possible he was inspired by the Turner Diaries. The protagonists in that novel finance 
their overthrow of the "Zionist Occupational Government" by robbing banks and armored cars. As previously discussed, the book became a 
real life inspiration for Robert Matthew's Order, also known as "The Silent Brotherhood," which was engaged in heists of banks and armored 
cars throughout the Midwest during the 1 980s. The Order was part of the white Aryan supremacist community that sought to establish an all- 
white homeland in the Northwest. 

In December of 1984, Mathews was killed in a shoot-out with the FBI and police, and the Order disintegrated. Yet the white supremacist 
movement lived on, in such guises as the Aryan Nations, White Aryan Resistance (WAR), and a new, as yet unheard of group — the Aryan 
Republican Army, whose members are believed to be direct descendants of the Order. 

It was to this last group that Timothy McVeigh would be drawn, at a rural white separatist religious community in southeast Oklahoma called 
Elohim City. It was there that McVeigh would meet such self-styled revolutionaries as Peter "Commander Pedro" Langan, who, along with 
Scott Stedeford, Kevin McCarthy, and the late Richard Guthrie, would go on to rob over 22 banks across the Midwest, collecting a total of 

In a recruitment video obtained by the IVIcCurtain Gazette, Langan appears in a disguise, explaining the goals of the ARA — the overthrow of 
the Federal Government, and the subsequent execution of all Jews and the deportation of all non-whites from the U.S. 

In the tape, made only a few months before the Oklahoma City bombing, Langan says, "Federal buildings may have to be bombed and 


civilian loss of life is regrettable but expected.'" — ^ 

According to ATF informant Carol Howe, interviewed by Gazette reporter J. D. Cash, both McVeigh and Fortier had visited Elohim City, as 
had Langan, Guthrie, Stedeford and McCarthy. A secret recording made by the informant apparently reveals discussions between Andreas 
Strassmeir, Elohim City's chief of security (also suspected of being an informant), and various ARA members, discussing plans to blow up 
federal buildings. While it is not known if McVeigh was intimately involved with the ARA bank robbers, he was seen with Strassmeir and ARA 
associate Michael Brescia at parties in Kansas, and at a bar in Tulsa shortly before the bombing. McVeigh had also called Elohim City 
looking for Strassmeir the day after he reserved the Ryder truck allegedly used in the bombing. 

In the Fall on 1994, McVeigh and Terry Nichols allegedly began hoarding ammonium nitrate and diesel fuel. By mid-October, the pair had, 
according to official accounts, managed to stockpile approximately 4,000 pounds of fertilizer, which they stashed in storage lockers from 


Kansas to Arizona.' — ^ 

Like Mohammed Salemeh, a World Trade Center bombing suspect arrested when he attempted to retrieve his truck rental deposit, McVeigh 
would be linked to the bombing by the first in a chain of damning evidence — his thumbprint on a fertilizer receipt found in Terry Nichols' 
home; inquires about bomb-making materials made on his calling-card; and the paperwork used to rent the Ryder truck itself. 

Like Salemeh's rental receipt which had traces of ANFO on it, McVeigh's clothes would allegedly contain traces of a detonator cord known 

as PDTN.^^^ Like the World Trade Center bombers who stockpiled bomb-making equipment in rented storage lockers in New Jersey, 
McVeigh and Nichols would store their ammonium nitrate in rented lockers in Kansas and Arizona. And like the World Trade Center bombers 
who called commercial chemical companies requesting bomb-making materials, McVeigh would implicate himself by using a traceable 
phone card to make his purchases. 

The most damming evidence linking McVeigh to the crime would be the witness sightings placing him at the Murrah Building just before the 
bombing, following the Ryder truck, then speeding away in his yellow Mercury several minutes before the blast. 

Yet the most curious evidence implicating McVeigh in the bombing came from witnesses who say he cased the building on December 16, 
when he and Michael Fortier drove through Oklahoma City en route to Kansas, then again approximately one and a half weeks before the 

Danielle Wise Hunt, who operated the Stars and Stripes Child Development Center in the Murrah Building, told the FBI that on December 
16, a clean-cut man wearing camouflage fatigues approached her, seeking to place his two children in the day care center. Hunt told agents 
that the man didn't ask typical parent-type questions, but instead wanted to know about the day-care center's security. Hunt thought he might 


be a potential kidnapper. Later, after seeing his face on TV, she recognized the man as Timothy McVeigh.^ — ^ 

If the man was indeed Timothy McVeigh, it is curious why he would later claim he was unaware of the day-care center in the building. If 
McVeigh was so upset about the deaths of innocent children at Waco, why would he knowingly bomb a building containing innocent children 
as an act of revenge? 

Yet this "act of revenge" is precisely what the government claims motived him. Such an act could only be the result of a deranged man. Yet 
McVeigh is anything but deranged. In his July 3rd Newsweek interview, he said, "For two days, in the cell, we could hear news reports; and 
of course everyone, including myself, was horrified at the deaths of the children. And you know, that was the No. 1 focal point of the media at 
the time, too, obviously — the deaths of the children. It's a very tragic thing." 

Perhaps "deranged" isn't the proper word; perhaps "controlled" would be more appropriate. After his arrest, McVeigh was shown 
photographs of the dead children. He claimed to have no emotional reaction. Again, this could very well be indicative of a psychologically- 
controlled individual. 

There is another strong possibility. The man whom witnesses say is Timothy McVeigh may not have been Timothy McVeigh at all. 

"Lee Harvey" McVeigh 

As previously discussed, McVeigh, along with his friends Andreas Strassmeir, Mike Fortier, and Michael Brescia attended parties in 
Herrington, Kansas in the Summer of '92. Catina Lawson was actually good friends with McVeigh, and her roommate, Lindsey Johnson, 


dated Michael Brescia. Lawson's accounts are well documented.^ — ^ 

Yet calling card records obtained by the Rocky Mountain News indicate that each call charged to the card during 1992 originated within 
western New York, where McVeigh was working as a security guard for Burns International Security. There appears to be little time he could 
have gone to Kansas to party with teen-agers. 

Dr. Paul Heath, the VA psychologist who worked in the Murrah Building and survived the blast, spoke to an individual named "McVeigh" late 
one Friday afternoon, a week and a half before the bombing. In an interview with the author, he described in vivid detail his encounter with 
"McVeigh" and two other men, one of whom appears to be one of the elusive John Doe 2s. 

"I've narrowed this to probably a Friday [April 7], at around three o'clock," recalls Heath. "A bell rang in the outer office of room 522. No one 
answered, so I went out to the waiting room... . A man came in with two others to apply for a job. One other was American-Indian looking, the 
other was Caucasian. A male individual was standing there, and I introduced myself as Dr. Heath, 'how can I help you?' and this individual 
said 'my name is something' an6 I don't remember what his first name was, but he told me his last name was McVeigh. 

"So I said 'can I help you?' and he said 'well, we're here looking for work.' and I said 'what kind of work are we looking for?' He said We are 
looking for construction work.' And I said, 'well Mr. Birmbaum, the gentleman who is the job counselor for the state jobs office, is not here.' 
And this individual — I asked him if I could go back and get the job openings from the job counselor's desk — and he said 'no, that won't be 
necessary.' So I said, 'well, I'm very familiar with the area, and I could give you some job leads,' and I began to tell him about job leads, and 
began to give him some names and some different projects, and I said 'would you like me to get you the phone book; I could get you the 
state jobs offices.' He said, 'no, that won't be necessary.' 

"And about somewhere along in this conversation, the man who was sitting on the east wall, directly behind the man who named himself as 
McVeigh, came up behind the man, and said 'can I use your phone?' I would describe him as vanilla, 5'7" or 5'9", mid-30's. [Then] the third 
party who was in the office, looked directly at me, made eye contact with me, and... I got the impression that this individual's nationality was 
Native American, or half-Native American or half-Mexican American or a foreign national. He was handsome — at one time my mind said 
maybe he was from South America. 

"I... continued to talk to Mr. McVeigh and I said, 'Mr. McVeigh, did you take anything in high school that would be beneficial for me to know 
about so I could refer you to a different type of job?' And he said, 'well, probably not' And I said, 'well, where did you go to high school?' And 
he either said up north or New York. And then I said, 'Where are you living?' And he said, 'Well, I've been living in Kansas.' So then I said, 
'Do you happen to be a member of the McVay family from Cussing, Oklahoma?' ...he said, 'Well Dr. Heath, how do they spell their name?' 
'Well I assume, M-c-V-a-y.' And he took his finger, and he kind of put it in my face and said, 'Well Dr. Heath,' in kind of a boisterous way, 'Dr. 


Heath, you remember this. My name is McVeigh, but you don't spell it M-c-V-a-y...."" — ^ 

What Dr. Heath was describing appears to have been Timothy McVeigh and his co-conspirators casing the Murrah Building. As the press 

reported, the men went floor-to-floor, asking job-related questions and picking up applications. Yet if McVeigh had already cased the building 
on December 16, as reported by Danielle Hunt, why would he need to case it again? 

Moreover, if McVeigh wanted to case the building, why would he do it in such a conspicuous manner? Why would he go from floor-to-floor 
asking about job openings, then pretend not to be interested in following them up? And... if McVeigh was planning on committing such a 
horrific crime, why would he make it a point to tell people his name, saying to Dr. Heath, "You remember this. . . My name is McVeigh. " 

Former Federal Grand Juror Hoppy Heidelberg concurs. "Why would McVeigh walk around the building before the blast telling people his 

If McVeigh was keen on informing people of his identity before committing the crime, he apparently was on a roll. On Saturday, April 8, 
McVeigh and friends Andreas Strassmeir and Michael Brescia — both living at Elohim City at the time — were seen at Lady Godiva's 
topless bar in Tulsa, Oklahoma. According to a security camera videotape obtained by J.D. Cash of the McCurtain Gazette, and Trish Wood 
of CBC, McVeigh's boasts were the topic of discussion among the dancers that night. In the tape, one of the girls named Tara is overheard 
relating the conversation to another girl in the dressing room: 

"...he goes, Tm a very smart man.' I said, you are? And he goes, 'Yes, you're going to find an (inaudible) and they're going to hurt you real 
bad.' I was, like, 'Oh really?' And he goes, 'Yes, and you're going to remember me on April 19, 1995. You're going to remember me for the 
rest of your life.' 

Laughing, she replies, "Oh, really?" 

"Yes you will," McVeigh says.^^^ 

The sighting of McVeigh in Tulsa on April 8, along with an older, pale yellow Ryder truck that appeared to be privately-owned, directly 
contradicts the testimony of the maid at the Imperial Motel who says McVeigh was there each day. 

However, phone records indicate that McVeigh made a steady series of calls up until April 7, which suddenly resumed again on the 1 1th. 
Could McVeigh have flown to Oklahoma to pick up the old Ryder truck, then have flown back to Kingman several days later? As J.D. Cash 
notes in the September 25, 1996 McCurtain Gazette: 

It is not merely idle speculation that McVeigh flew to eastern Oklahoma or western Arkansas to pick up the second truck. Records 
subpoenaed by the government indicate McVeigh may have made such a trip to Fort Smith, Ark., between March 31 and April 14, 1995. 
Curiously, an employee of the airport taxi service in Fort Smith could not elaborate on why the taxi firm's records for that period were seized 
by federal agents working on what the government calls the "OKBOMB" case. 

If McVeigh actually did fly from Arizona to Arkansas, then drive the truck to Kansas, then fly back to Arizona again, he apparently was a very 
busy man. Witness accounts and phone records put him in Oklahoma City on the 7th, in Tulsa on the 8th, in Kansas from the 10th to the 
14th (although he's supposed to be in Kingman on the 11th and 12th), then back in Oklahoma City on the 14th, 15th and 16th (when he's 
supposedly in Kansas) then in Kansas on the 17th and 18th (when he's also seen in Oklahoma City), and finally in Oklahoma City on the 
19th, the day of the bombing. 

While McVeigh was supposedly seen at Terry Nichols' house in Herrington, Kansas on the 13th, witness David Snider saw his car in 
Oklahoma City. A Bricktown warehouse worker. Snider remembers seeing McVeigh's distinctive yellow Mercury whiz past around 2:30 p.m., 
not far from downtown. Snider is certain it was the same battered yellow Mercury driven by McVeigh. "I was standing there with my friend, 
who does auto bodywork," said Snider, "when the car went past. I turned to him and said, 'My Mom used to have a car just like that... It 
looks like homeboy needs a primer job.'" Snider said the car had an Oklahoma tag, as witness Gary Lewis later reported, not an Arizona tag 
as the FBI claims. 

On Thursday, April 13, a federal employee in the Murrah Building saw two men, one of whom she later identified as McVeigh. She was riding 
the elevator when it stopped at the second floor. When the doors opened, there were two men in janitorial smocks waiting to get on. She 
didn't recognize the men as any of the regular janitors, and thought it odd that they turned away when she looked in their direction. 

On Monday, April 17, janitors Katherine Woodly and Martin Johnson, who were working the 5-9 p.m. shift, saw McVeigh and his companion 

again. Martin said McVeigh spoke to him about a job, and the man who resembled John Doe 2 nodded to Woodly. ^^^ 

That same day, or possibly the following day, Debbie Nakanashi, an employee at the Post Office across from the Murrah Building, saw the 
pair when they stopped by and asked where they might find federal job applications. It was Nakanashi who provided the description for the 
well-known profile sketch of John Doe 2 in the baseball cap. 

Craig Freeman, a retired Air Force master sergeant who works in the same office as Dr. Heath, was one of the people who saw McVeigh in 
Oklahoma when he was supposedly in Kansas. Freeman recalls sharing the elevator with a man who resembled McVeigh on Friday, April 
14. "The guy was tall... What struck me is his hair was cut real low. I thought he was a skinhead." Freeman, who is black, said 'Hey man, 
how's it going?' "And he looked at me like he was just disgusted with me being there. Most people in the building speak to each other, you 

know, so I spoke to this guy, and he looked at me like... pure hate." 

About a week and a half before the bombing, a HUD employee named Joan was riding the elevator with a man she described as Timothy 
McVeigh. What struck her was the man's strict military demeanor. He stared straight ahead making no eye-contact or conversation. "He 

won't last long in this building," Joan thought to herself. ^^^ 

The Friday before the bombing, when Craig Freeman walked out of the building to mail his taxes, he saw an individual he believes to have 
been Terry Nichols, "because he looked just like the picture of him," said Freeman. "He was standing there, he had a blue plaid shirt on. He 
was standing in the front of the building — he was just standing there, looking kind of confused. You know, how somebody looks when 
they're nervous." 

Was the man in the elevator Freeman was describing actually Timothy McVeigh? According to phone records obtained from the Dreamland 
Motel, McVeigh made several phone calls from his room on the morning of Friday, April 14. Is it still possible that McVeigh drove down to 
Oklahoma City in the afternoon? 

If he did, he would had to have been back in Kansas by early next morning. Barbara Whittenberg, owner of the Santa Fe Trail Diner in 
Herrington, remembers serving breakfast to Nichols, McVeigh, and John Doe 2 around 6:00 a.m. on Saturday. 

"I asked them why they had a Ryder truck outside," said Whittenberg. "I wasn't being nosy, I just wondered if Terry Nichols was moving. My 
sister was moving here, and she needed to find a place. Well, the guy who they haven't arrested yet — John Doe #2 — he blurted out that 
they were going to Oklahoma. When that happened, it was like someone threw ice water on the conversation... McVeigh and Nichols just 

stared at the guy"^^^ 

A dancer in Junction City, Kansas had the same experience as Whittenberg, when four of the suspects stopped by the Hollywood Supper 
Club around 10:30 that evening. The dancer, who we'll call Sherrie, definitely recognized two of the men as McVeigh and Nichols. 

"The only reason I really remember it," said Sherrie, "is just because I had a conversation with one of them about Oklahoma, and my 
husband's family is from Oklahoma. He said they were planing a trip down there, and he said — I think it was for hunting or something.... 
then one of them kind of gave him a look, and they changed the subject..." 

Sherrie also said one of the men, who was quiet and sat in the corner, appeared to be Middle-Eastern. The other was Hispanic or part 


Hispanic, and was friendly. When he mentioned Oklahoma, Nichols shot him a hard look.' — ^ 

Additionally, while the records at Elliott's Body Shop indicate that "Bob Kling" rented his truck on April 17, Barbara Whittenberg saw the truck 
outside her restaurant on the 15th. Later that day she saw it at Geary State Fishing Lake, along with three people and a light-colored car. 

possibly a Thunderbird, with Arizona tags.^^-^ 

Backing up Whittenberg is Lee McGowan, owner of the Dreamland Motel in Junction City, where McVeigh stayed from April 14 to April 17. 
McGowan told the FBI that McVeigh was in possession of his truck the day before "Kling" allegedly rented his. She remembered the day 
clearly because it was Easter Sunday. 

McGowan's son, Eric, as well as motel resident David King and his mother, also stated that they saw McVeigh driving an older faded yellow 

Ryder truck at the motel around 4 p.m. on April 16.^^^ 

Yet McGowan's testimony contradicts that of Phyliss Kingsley and Linda Kuhlman, who worked at the Hi-Way Grill in Newcastle, just south 
of Oklahoma City. The two women saw McVeigh and three companions around 6:00 p.m. on April 16, when they stopped in the restaurant 
and ordered hamburgers and fries to go. The two women distinctly recall the Ryder truck pulling into the restaurant at SW 104th and 
Portland, accompanied by a white Chevy long-bed pick-up, and an older, darker, possibly blue pick-up, which may have belonged to Terry 
Nichols. Accompanying McVeigh was a short, stocky, handsome man, of either Mexican or American Indian descent. The man closely 

[31 21 

resembled the FBI sketch of John Doe 2, they said.' — ^ 

According to the FBI, this was the same day that McVeigh called Nichols from a pay phone at Tim's Amoco in Herrington, Kansas at 3:08 p. 
m., and asked him to drive him to Oklahoma City. It would have been impossible for McVeigh and Nichols to drive from Junction City to 
Oklahoma City in less than four hours. 

Reports soon surfaced that "McVeigh" had stayed at a motel south of downtown Oklahoma City on the night of the 18th. Witnesses recall 
seeing a yellow Ryder truck, and two companions. They recall that "McVeigh" gave them a "go to hell look" as he pulled away. 

Later that morning, at 8:35 a.m., Tulsa banker Kyle Hunt was driving to an appointment when he came upon the Ryder truck at Main and 
Broadway, trailed by a yellow Mercury, "...for some reason I thought they were out of state, moving and lost in downtown Oklahoma City," 
said Hunt. "I felt sorry for them and then when I pulled up beside them, I got that cold icy stare from a guy that had a real short Gl 
haircut.... "12131 

Hunt described the driver of the Mercury as Timothy McVeigh. "He gave me that icy, go-to-hell lool<," said Hunt. "It l<ind of unnerved me." 
While Hunt didn't see the occupants of the truck, he did recall two passengers in the Mercury. The rear occupant, said Hunt, had long hair, 
similar to the suspect Phyliss Kingsley and Linda Kuhlman saw on Sunday at the Hi-Way Grill south of the city. 

Around the same time as Hunt saw this convoy, David Snider, a warehouse worker in Bricktown, a few blocks southeast of downtown, saw a 
heavily loaded Ryder truck with two men inside, slowly making its way towards him. Snider had been expecting a delivery that morning, and 
explained that people sometimes get lost because the loading dock is on a different street than the warehouse. The time was 8:35 a.m. 
Thinking the truck was his delivery. Snider waved them down. Snider, who by now was gesticulating wildly, became frustrated as the two 
men, staring at him, continued on their way. 

While he never received his delivery. Snider did get a good look at the truck, and the two men. The truck appeared to be an older model with 
a cab overhang, not the newer version the FBI claimed was destroyed in the bombing. 

Snider described the driver as a barrel-chested, dark-skinned male with long, straight black hair, parted in the middle, wearing a thin small 
mustache. The man, who was also wearing tear-drop style sunglasses and a dark shirt, was of American Indian or Hispanic decent. (See 
sketch) "I lived in New Mexico for years," said Snider; "I know the look." The passenger, wearing a white T-shirt, Snider said, was Timothy 

"He looked at me like 'who the hell are you?' — real attitude," recalls Snider, and began yelling profanities at the loading-dock worker. 
Snider, who was not in a great mood that morning to begin with, yelled back, "Fuck you, you skin-head motherfucker!" 

Snider and Hunt weren't the only individuals who saw McVeigh and the Ryder truck that morning. At 8:40 a.m., Mike Moroz and Brian 
Marshall were busy at work at Johnny's Tire Store on 10th and Hudson, when a yellow Ryder truck pulled in looking for directions to the 
Murrah Building. The driver, who Moroz later identified as Timothy McVeigh, was wearing a white T-shirt and a black ball cap on backwards. 
Moroz caught a glimpse of the passenger — a stocky man with dark curly hair, a tattoo on his upper left arm, and a ball cap worn similar to 

McVeigh's. The passenger, said Moroz, stared straight ahead, never turning to look in his direction. ^^^ 

Moroz then proceeded to give directions to McVeigh, whom he described as polite, friendly, and relaxed — quite interesting considering that 
McVeigh is supposedly minutes away from murdering 169 people. After thanking Moroz, McVeigh got back in the truck, sat there for a few 
minutes, then took off in the direction of the Federal Building. 

At approximately the same time as McVeigh was seen driving the Mercury by Kyle Hunt, and seen as a passenger in the Ryder truck by 
David Snider, and seen driving the Ryder truck by Mike Moroz, he was then seen driving the Mercury by attorney James Linehan. 

As previously discussed, Linehan, a Midwest City attorney, was stopped at a red light at the northwest corner of 4th and Robinson, one 
block from the Murrah Building. Late for an appointment, Linehan looked at his watch. It read 8:38 a.m. When he looked back up, he noticed 
a pale yellow Mercury stopped beside him. While he could not positively I.D. the driver, he described him as having sharp, pointed features, 
and smooth pale skin. 

A second later, the Mercury driver gunned his engine, ran the red light, and disappeared into the underground parking garage of the Murrah 

Is it possible these witnesses are describing are two different people? In Snider's account, the driver is an American Indian or Hispanic man 
with long, straight black hair, wearing sunglasses. The passenger is McVeigh. Neither one is wearing a ball cap. The time is 8:35 a.m. In 
Moroz's account, the driver is McVeigh, while the passenger is a stocky man with short curly hair. Both men are wearing ball caps on 
backwards. The time is 8:40 a.m. 

Snider and Moroz both saw a Ryder truck containing Timothy McVeigh, yet with completely different companions. While Snider was yelling 
at McVeigh in the Ryder truck in Bricktown, Hunt was watching the truck being trailed by McVeigh in the Mercury several blocks away. A few 
minutes later, Linehan watched as the Mercury drove into the Murrah Building garage. 

Moreover, each witness saw these convoys at approximately the same time. It is possible that the heavily loaded truck seen by Snider could 
have made it from 25 East California in Bricktown to 10th and Hudson in five minutes. But in order to do so, they would have had to drop off 
one man, pick up another, exchange places in the truck, and put on ball caps. Then they would have to drive a distance of approximately 25 
blocks — during morning rush hour traffic. Possible, but not too likely. 

Is it possible one of these witnesses has his story wrong? Well, if he does, he has it rea//y wrong. How could an apparently credible 
witnesses mistake a short-curly-haired man with a black ball cap for a long-straight-haired man with tear-drop sunglasses? One who is 
clearly the passenger, the other who is clearly the driver? In numerous interviews with the author and other journalists. Snider went into 
great detail about his encounter, and never wavered. 

In a taped interview with Mike Moroz, he struck me as a sincere, sober, young man. Both Linehan and Hunt are solid, professional people. It 
is not likely that these witnesses are relaying inaccurate information. 

"Their stories really seem to check out," said video producer Chuck Allen, who interviewed many witnesses. "They go into great depth and 

detail about all this. If you ever meet these guys, you'll know their stories are very strong — very believable. "^^^ 

Researchers have also questioned why McVeigh, who had supposedly been to the Murrah Building at least three times — once on 
December 16, again a week and a half before the bombing, then again on April 14 — would need to ask directions to it when he was only six 
blocks away. But according to Moroz, who has helped more than a few lost travelers, the number of one-way streets in the downtown area 

often confuses people. "A lot of people get lost down here, even people who live here, he said"^^^ 

Finally, HUD employee Germaine Johnston was walking through an alley approximately two blocks from the Murrah Building about 15 
minutes after the blast, when she ran into McVeigh and another man. "They were just standing there watching," said Johnston. 

McVeigh then asked the dazed passerby "Was anyone killed?" When Johnston answered that numerous people had been killed, including 
many children, McVeigh's expression suddenly turned sad. He and his companion then got up and left.^^^^^^^^^ 

Mike Moroz was eventually called in to identify McVeigh in a photo line-up. Yet he was never called to testify before the Federal Grand Jury. 
Snider was initially interviewed by two FBI agents, including Weldon Kennedy and Rob Ricks [of Waco fame], but was never brought in to a 
line-up or called to testify before the Federal Grand Jury. 

Considering he had close and sustained contact with "McVeigh" and several of his associates. Dr. Heath should have been a key 
prosecution witness. Yet the FBI never called Dr. Heath in to identify McVeigh in a line-up. Nor was Dr. Heath ever called before the Federal 
Grand Jury. Nor was Freeman ever called in to see a line-up, or before the grand jury. Linehan, Hunt, Johnston, and numerous other 
witnesses were likewise never called. 

On May 10, the Los Angeles Times reported, "Investigators said authorities theorize that John Doe 2 could be two people, and that McVeigh 
and his alleged conspirators could have used different men to accompany him in order to serve as 'decoys' and confuse investigators trying 

to trace his movements. "^^^ 

The Los Angeles Times report, which would tend to account for the two different trucks, only gives half the story. What they aren't saying is 
that not only were there at least two John Doe 2s — there apparently were two "Timothy McVeighs." One was probably a double. 

The use of doubles in espionage work is not new. In fact, the use of impostors, look-alikes and doubles was well-documented in the JFK and 
Martin Luther King assassinations. 

Like the "Lee Harvey Oswald" who was seen filing out numerous job applications in New Orleans, "McVeigh" was seen going floor-to-floor in 
the Federal Building in Oklahoma. Except that the "Oswald" who filled out job applications listed his height as 5' 9", while the real Oswald's 
height was 5' 11." 

According to employees at Elliott's Body Shop in Junction City, the "McVeigh" (alias "Kling") who rented the truck on April 17 was of medium 
build, 5' 10" to 5' 11" and weighed 180-185 pounds. Elliott's employee Tom Kessinger stated on his FBI FD-383 report that the man had a 


"rough" complexion with "acne."^ — ^ (See Appendix) 

The only problem is, Timothy McVeigh is 6' 2," weighs 160 pounds, and has a totally clear complexion. Another shop employee, Vicki 


Beemer, said the man had a deformed chin, unlike the real McVeigh.^ — ^ 

Nevertheless, federal prosecutors would claim that a "little curlicue" on the "K" in "Kling's" signature was indicative of McVeigh's handwriting. 
Yet if McVeigh was the same person who rented the truck at Elliott's on the 17th, why didn't he also use an alias while signing the motel 
register? While the "McVeigh" who rented the truck listed his name as "Bob Kling," 428 Malt Drive, Redfield, SD, the "McVeigh" who 
checked into the Dreamland, right down the street, signed his name as "Tim McVeigh," and listed his address as 3616 North Van Dyke 

Road, Decker, Michigan, the home of James Nichols.' — ^ 

If McVeigh was planning on committing such a heinous crime, certainly he would not leave such a blatantly incriminating trail of evidence. 
This makes about as much sense as McVeigh going from floor-to-floor in the Murrah Building filling out job applications and announcing his 
name. Or telling a dancer in Tulsa, "You're going to remember me on April 19th." 

These preposterous scenes were practically identical to those of all-time patsy Lee Harvey Oswald. In early November of 1963, a "Lee 
Harvey Oswald" applied for a job as a parking lot attendant at the Southland Hotel. During his interview with the manager, he asked if there 


was a good view of downtown Dallas from the hotel.' — ^ 

On January 20, 1961, two men, one representing himself as "Lee Harvey Oswald," walked into the Bolton Ford dealership in New Orleans 
and requested a bid for 10 pick-up trucks, ostensibly for the Friends of Democratic Cuba Committee. The only problem was, Lee Harvey 

Oswald was in Russia at the time.^^^ 

Then in September of 1963, a man purporting to be "Lee Harvey Oswald" showed up at the Mexican Consulate in New Orleans. According 

to Mrs. Fenella Farrington, "Oswald" said, "What do you have to do to take firearms or a gun into Mexico?" 

A "Lee Harvey Oswald" subsequently phoned, then showed up at the Soviet embassy in Mexico City, speaking with a trade consultant who 
was allegedly a member of the KGB's "liquid affairs" bureau (hit squad). The CIA later turned over to the Warren Commission a surveillance 
snapshot of a man they claimed was Oswald at the Soviet embassy. The man looked nothing like Oswald. 

On April 17, 1995, a "Bob Kling" showed up at Elliott's Body Shop in Junction City, Kansas and rented a Ryder truck. Yet according to 
surveillance footage taken from a nearby McDonalds, McVeigh was sitting in the restaurant eating a hamburger at the time. He was wearing 
completely different clothes than those ascribed to "Kling." 

Yet the FBI contends that McVeigh left the restaurant 20 minutes before the truck was rented, walked the 1 .3 miles to Elliott's — a fifteen- 
minute walk — in a light rain, then showed up at Elliott's nice and dry, wearing completely different clothes. 

In November of 1963, a "Lee Oswald" walked into the downtown Lincoln Mercury dealership in Dallas announcing his intention to buy a 
Mercury Comet. According to the salesman, Albert Bogard, "Mr. Oswald" took him on a wild test drive, speeding along at 60 to 70 miles an 
hour. After he was told the amount of the down payment, another salesman, Eugene Wilson, heard "Oswald" say, "Maybe I'm going to have 
to go back to Russia to buy a car." 

During the Warren Commission hearings, salesman Frank Pizzo described the customer as 5' 8" tall. When the Warren Commission showed 

Pizzo a photo of Oswald taken after his arrest, he said, "I have to say that he is not the one..."^^^ 

After the bombing in Oklahoma City, ATF informant Carol Howe told the FBI that she recognized the two men on the FBI's original wanted 

posters as Peter Ward and Michael Brescia — two Elohim City residents. She said that neither man was Tim McVeigh. ^^^ 

In early November of 1963, Mrs. Lovell Penn of Dallas found three men firing a rifle on her property. After they left, she found a spent 
cartridge bearing the name "Mannlicher-Carcanno," the rifle that the Warren Commission claimed Oswald used to perform his historic feat of 
marksmanship in Dealy Plaza. 

As District Attorney Jim Garrison later noted, "These scenes were about as subtle as roaches trying to sneak across a white rug." 

No less subtle were the scenes and events leading up to the Oklahoma City bombing. It is highly possible that the man Dr. Heath saw in the 
Murrah Building a week and-a-half before the bombing was not Timothy McVeigh at all, but a double. The scenario of Timothy McVeigh — 
the alleged "lone nut" bomber — going from floor-to-floor in the target building announcing his name while leaving a paper trail is beyond 

Like Oswald, who repeatedly telephoned, then appeared at the Soviet embassy in Mexico, McVeigh would telephone Elohim City — a white 
separatist compound — just before the bombing, asking to speak to Andy Strassmeir. 

Like Oswald, who left behind a diary of his "Left-leaning" writings, McVeigh purportedly left intentions of his plans to bomb other targets in 
the glove compartment of his car — a car which could be easily recognized and traced to him. 

Like Oswald who, after purportedly killing the president of the United States, walked into a movie house without paying, purposely attracting 
the attention of the police, McVeigh would speed down the highway at 80 miles an hour without a license plate, purposefully attracting the 
attention of the Highway Patrol. He would then meekly hand himself over for arrest, not even attempting to draw his Glock 9mm pistol on the 
approaching cop, whom he could have easily shot and killed. 

Like the Mannlicher-Carcanno rifle which Oswald purportedly bought from a mail-order supply house, and the Mannlicher-Carcanno 
cartridge found by Mrs. Penn, McVeigh would leave a business card from Paulsen's Military Surplus with a notation to pick up more TNT in 


the police cruiser after his arrest.^ — ^ 

As Jim Garrison noted, "Some of these scenes were so preposterous only the most gullible could swallow them." 

Like Oswald, who was led out of the Dallas Police Department and immediately shot by Jack Ruby, McVeigh would be led out of the Noble 
County Courthouse in a bright orange jumpsuit, without a bullet-proof vest, paraded before an angry crowd on the verge of violence. 

Finally, like James Earl Ray, who was accused of killing Martin Luther King, Jr., we are left pondering the significance of two similar vehicles, 
both apparently tied to the crime. Ray had owned a white Ford Mustang, which was seen speeding away after the assassination. Yet 
another white Mustang was seen parked in front of Jim's Grill in Memphis, near where Ray had his car parked. The two cars were almost 
identical, except for two things: While Ray was wearing a suit on April 4, 1968, the driver of the other Mustang was wearing a dark blue 

windbreaker; while Ray's car had Alabama plates, the other car had Arkansas plates. ^^^ 

One is reminded of the contradictory testimony of David Snider and Mike Moroz, who saw two Ryder trucks on the morning of April 19, but 
with different occupants. Another interesting parallel is that while McVeigh's Mercury reportedly had Arizona tags, a white Oklahoma tag was 

seen by Gary Lewis dangling from one bolt as the car sped away from the scene. 

In spite of the numerous discrepancies, it seemed that by a convenient string of associations, a carefully placed trail of evidence, and a 
carefully planned and executed operation, Timothy McVeigh was implicated as prime suspect number one in the plot to blow up the Alfred P. 
Murrah Building. 

Like Lee Harvey Oswald, who was declared the "lone assassin" within weeks, Timothy McVeigh would be declared — along with Terry 
Nichols — the "lone bomber" within days. On the indictments, the Justice Department would gratuitously add, "with others unknown." Yet 
these "others unknown" would fade from official memory as the so-called "Justice" Department withdrew the John Doe 2 sketch and the 
subsequent reward offer. 

After his arrest, Lee Harvey Oswald announced to the television cameras, "I'm a patsy!" 

After his arrest, Timothy McVeigh told the London Sunday Times he was "set up" for the bombing by the FBI because of his extreme political 


views.^ — ^ 

Never since the frame-up of Lee Harvey Oswald has the media gone out of its way to portray a suspect as dangerous and malignant. While 
the mainstream press took their cues from the FBI, they contradicted their own journalistic common sense. The government and their 
mainstream media lap dogs have based their theories of Timothy McVeigh upon the flimsiest of pretenses, while ignoring the more obvious 
facts. The mainstream press, willing to take the Federal Government's word as gospel, has succumbed, and perpetrated, the most obvious 
propaganda. In so doing, they have violated every principal of thorough and honest journalism, and have become nothing but a willing tool of 
the corporate/intelligence establishment. 

As Stephen Jones said, "Before this investigation is all over with, the government will have Tim McVeigh standing next to Lee Harvey 


Yet unlike Oswald, who was summarily executed by mob-connected police officer Jack Ruby, McVeigh has quietly and safely settled into his 
newfound circumstances. As the drama of his trial(s) unfold in a daily display of evidence and witnesses, Timothy McVeigh may truly believe 
that justice will prevail. 

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Terry Nichols: "Non-Resident Alien" 

The image of Timothy McVeigh — the stone-faced killer — would fade in the wake of court appearances and media interviews, as Stephen 
Jones sought to portray his smiling and chiding client as the simple boy next door. 

The enigmatic figure of Terry Nichols, however, would haunt public perception, as his attorney jealously guarded the mysterious, brooding 
figure from prying eyes. 

It was the older, quiet, bespectacled Nichols, some theorized, who was the "brains" behind the bombing, guiding his young friend in the 
sinister and deadly plot. 

Nichols' ex-wife, Lana Padilla, doesn't agree. "I believe that Terry bought his home, brought his family there... truly, truly... wanted to have a 
family and just get on with his life. I just don't think this man could have done this... I just don't think with any knowledge he could have done 

Neighbors Bob and Sandy Papovich, long-time friends, wrote the press that Terry Nichols is a "kind, gentle, generous man absolutely 
incapable of violence." As Papovich told the author, "I've known Terry for over 15 years, and I've never heard this man utter the word "hell" 
or "damn". . . . Terry doesn't want to hurt anybody. . . . And all these people want me to believe that this man is capable of murdering hundreds 

of innocent people. It ain't possible 


Terry Nichols told Federal Public Defender Steve Gradert, "Heck, I've got kids, too," in response to the bombing.' — ^ A peaceful person, 
Nichols reportedly loved children, including his son Josh, whom he maintained a close relationship with. One day, the astute thirteen-year- 
old told his mother he had to call the FBI. He was frantic. "I've got to tell them!" 

"What do you got to tell them, Padilla asked?" 

"I've got to tell them that my dad wouldn't do that. He loves children. He wouldn't do that to those children." 

Yet the press would paint Terry Nichols with the same broad brush that they had used to paint Timothy McVeigh — focusing on the fact that 
Nichols came from a broken home, had dropped out of college, worked a series of odd jobs, and was anti-government. Like McVeigh, the 
media, anti-militia activists, and scores of pseudo-experts would do their best to cast Nichols in the same extremist mold — a man, 
authorities claimed — capable of killing 169 innocent people 

The third of four children, Terry Nichols grew up on a farm near Lapeer, Michigan. His father, Robert — quiet and soft-spoken — labored 
hard on the family's 160-acre farm. Like his son, he also worked a series of odd jobs, doing construction, selling encyclopedias, and putting 
in shifts at the Pontiac and Buick plants, in an effort to keep the family afloat in a county where farming had become less and less 

His mother Joyce was a sharp contrast. Hard-drinking, often violent with explosive fits of temper, she had once rammed Robert's tractor with 
her car, and had threatened the local sheriff with a chain-saw. After 24 years of difficult marriage, the couple finally divorced. Padilla said 

Terry took it hard.^^^ 

Nichols dreamed of going to medical school but his grades weren't good enough for most pre-med programs. He enrolled at Central 
Michigan University, but after his parents' divorce in 1974, he dropped out at the request of his mother, who needed help on the family farm 

in Decker. However, Nichols told friends he would never be a farmer.^^^ 

Yet, like McVeigh, Nichols was an intelligent man. He passed a difficult test for a securities license with a minimum of study and preparation, 
but told friends he was bored with college, which he found no more challenging than high-school. 

While in Decker, Nichols met his first wife, Lana Padilla, and they married in 1981. Two years later, they had a baby boy, Joshua. Shortly 
thereafter, Padilla's sister Kelli married Terry's brother James, and the four lived together at James's Decker, Michigan farmhouse. 

Not satisfied with farm life, Nichols tried a number of different occupations. He delved into penny stocks, went on to sell insurance and real 
estate, managed a grain elevator, and worked occasionally as a carpenter. Nothing held his interest. 

"No matter what he tried to do, every time he tried to break away, he ended up back on the farm trying to help his mother and James," said 


While Padilla devoted time to building her real estate career, Nichols cooked, cleaned house, and cared for the kids. Yet he grew 
increasingly restless and depressed. 


"Terry got real down on life," said his father. "He didn't care what he had done... . He lost his vitality."' — ^ 

One afternoon Padilla brought home pamphlets from the local Army recruiting office, and laid them out on the table. When she came back, 
the pamphlets were gone. Like many men uncertain about their future, Nichols decided to try a career in the military. 

"He was just searching for a career, something he enjoyed," Nichols' friend Sandy Papovich told the Dallas Morning News. "He thought he 
would like it."^^^ 

It was an unusual career move for a 32-year-old man with children. Yet Nichols hoped he would be able to rise quickly through the ranks, 
and Padilla thought the experience would strengthen Terry and save their marriage. 

On May 24, 1988, Nichols was assigned to Fort Benning, Georgia for basic training. "He said the government had made it impossible for him 
to make a living as a farmer," recalled assistant platoon leader Glen "Tex" Edwards. He hated the United States government. I thought it 
strange that a 32-year-old man would be complaining about the government, yet was now employed by the government. Nichols told me he 

signed up to pull his 20 years and get a retirement pension. "^^^ 

Because of his age and maturity, Nichols was quickly made platoon leader. The obvious discrepancy in years earned him the nickname "Old 

"The drill sergeant said that because Nichols was older than the rest of us, he would hopefully be more mature and able to lead the younger 

guys in the unit. He also had some college background and came into the Army as a PFC," said Edwards. ^^^ 

It was at Fort Benning that Nichols would meet Timothy McVeigh. The two men had enlisted on the same day. According to an account in 
the Post: 

William "Dave" Dilly, who was McVeigh's roommate for about a year in the service, said McVeigh and Nichols "hit it off from the start, like 
Terry was his big brother. Tim was real frail and unsure of himself. Terry was the oldest guy and real sure of himself." 

But the two men found they had a lot in common. McVeigh too came from a broken, blue-collar home and had an abiding interest in firearms 
and far-right politics. Both men fancied themselves as survivalists, and both loved to spend time on the rifle range. Both were looking for 

lifetime careers in the service. They quickly became friends. ^^^ 

Another one of their friends was Michael Fortier, who joined Nichols and McVeigh at Fort Riley. The three would spend free time together, 
going fishing, shooting, and sharing their political beliefs. 

Yet while McVeigh would rise quickly through the ranks, Nichols' Army career stalled. It seemed his platoon leadership status had been 
rescinded due to a prank he and McVeigh had pulled. 

Around the same time, Padilla filed for divorce, and made plans to move her real estate business to Las Vegas. On May 15, 1989, after 1 1 
months in the service, Nichols put in for a hardship discharge due to a "family emergency" that was never publicly explained. Yet it 
apparently had nothing to do with his divorce. He told Padilla it was to take care of his son Josh. As Padilla later wrote, Nichols already had 
Josh with him at Fort Riley, where the pair lived in a house off-base. As Padilla wrote in her book. By Blood Betrayed: 

I've always wondered just why he was released, less than a year after enlisting, and have always been told it was because he had to take 
care of Josh. But this theory never washed with me because he'd had Josh with him all along. I really believe that Josh was just a 

convenient excuse and that Terry had become disillusioned with the Army because he believed he would never rise through the ranks. ^^^ 

Perhaps Nichols' "hardship discharge" was similar to Lee Harvey Oswald's "hardship discharge" from the Marines that never was explained. 
And that of Thomas Martinez, the FBI infiltrator into the Silent Brotherhood (The Order), who was given an honorable discharge during basic 


training, which was never explained.^ 

Even more interesting is the parallel to McVeigh's discharge after "failing" his Special Forces try-out in April of 1991. McVeigh's sudden and 

mysterious departure from the Army, like Nichols', was never fully explained. As suggested previously, McVeigh's sudden decision leave a 
brilliant military career behind may have resulted from his being "sheep-dipped" as an intelligence operative. 

Yet mainstream media psychojournalists insisted that Nichols' departure from the Army was nothing more than the inevitable result of a 
consistent string of life-long failures. 

Glen "Tex" Edwards put a slightly different spin on the matter. Edwards said that shortly before he left the Army, Nichols invited him to be 
part of a "private army" he said he was creating. "He told me he would be coming back to Fort Riley to start his own military organization," 
recalled Edwards. "He said he could get any kind of weapon and any equipment he wanted." 

Nichols also said he intended to recruit McVeigh, Fortier, and others. "I can't remember the name of his organization, but he seemed pretty 
serious about it," Edwards said, adding that he reported Nichols' offer to the FBI shortly after the bombing. 

In spite of the flamboyant tales about recruiting a private army, Nichols returned to his old life in Michigan, working for a time as a carpenter, 
then moving back to the farmhouse in Decker. In spite of his short career in the Army, or perhaps because of it, Nichols developed a deep 
distrust of the Federal Government. 

It was a feeling that was shared by his brother James, who, as a farmer, had suffered through the worst of the floods of the late '70s and 
early '80s, and blamed the Federal Government for failing to provide adequate disaster relief. Nichols, along with his Sanilac country 
neighbors, witnessed dozens of farm foreclosures as a result. It was the Federal Government's policies that led to the rise of such far-Right 
groups as the American Agricultural Movement and the anti-tax Posse Comitatus. As the Posf writes: 

Many residents around Decker said they share Terry and James's angry politics, but are less vocal because they fear government 
retribution. "Much of what the Nichols brothers believe is not that different or radical from what lots of people around here think," said local 
truck driver Jack Bean. "We feel our liberties and freedoms are being chipped away at and we want all this authority off our backs. The 
difference between the Nichols and others in this community is that they are just not afraid to say what they think, to challenge what is 

In spite of their differences, Terry and James had a lot in common. Both were fathers, had married sisters, and had suffered through difficult 
divorces. Both shared an ideological distrust of the Federal Government. 

James studied the Constitution, Black's Law Dictionary and the Uniform Commercial Codes. He read the works of Jefferson and Paine and 
was particularly inspired by Jefferson's maxim, "The tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time with the blood of patriots and tyrants." 
Perhaps not coincidentally, this passage was discovered in McVeigh's car upon his arrest. It would later be read into evidence at his trial. 

Both Terry and James also held a view shared by many beleaguered farmers: that the Federal Reserve was not empowered to coin money, 
and that U.S. currency printed after 1930, when the nation went into debt, was valueless. Following the advice of financial books that warned 
of an imminent crash, the brothers put their money into precious metals such as silver and gold. 

Yet their activities took still more dramatic turns. In 1990 James tried to renounce his citizenship, and plastered his car with anti-government 
and Second Amendment bumper stickers. 

Terry purchased a pick-up truck and decided not to register it, instead, making his own tag and placing it on front. Both men renounced their 
driver's licenses. 

In March of 1994, Terry sent a dramatic affidavit to the Evergreen Township claiming himself to be a "Non-Resident Alien" private citizen not 
bound by the laws of the U.S. government. (See Appendix) He also renounced his voting rights due to " corruption in the entire 

political system from the local government on up through and including the president of the United States of America, George Bush."^^^ 

While he may have been right in principle, his activity was not condoned by the local authorities. In 1992, Chase Manhattan Bank went after 
Nichols for racking up $17,860 in unpaid credit card debts. The largely out-of-work farmer had spent over $35,000, using Chase and First 
Deposit National Bank cards, on farm equipment, personal effects, and airline tickets. 

He attempted to pay off the debts with his own "Certified Fractional Reserve Check," a bogus check distributed widely among farmers by a 
group called Family Farm Preservation. He signed the check, "Explicitly reserving all my rights, Terry L. Nichols." He then sent the bank a 
letter retroactively revoking his signature from the credit card contract. 

"There are two sides to that man, maybe many more," said Dennis Reid, a Sandusky, Mich., lawyer who has observed Nichols and his 
brother, James, during court proceedings in Michigan. "Jim to me I really expect is kind of a sissy. He was always shaking when he'd go into 
the courtroom and spout off," attorney Dennis Reid said. "Terry seemed to be more level-headed. He was still saying things that were 

strange, but he was certainly more cold and more calculating."^^^ 

Terry definitely didn't seem "level-headed" when he went to court to answer the lawsuit by Chase. He refused to come before the bench, 
shouting to Judge Donald Teeple from the back of the room that the court had no jurisdiction over him. During the hearing, the bitter and 

sarcastic defendant accused the bank of fraud. "They knowingly and willingly know how to make credit out of nothing and make interest on it 
and actually steal people's hard earned money," he told the Judge. "They gave me valueless nothing for something they want to take from 
me that has value. That's not right, is it?" 

He claimed to have determined that the bank's business was based upon "fraud and misrepresentation, collusion, color of law, conspiracy, 
enticement, inducement, seduction, duress, coercion, mistake [and] bankruptcy," and he filed a counterclaim against First Deposit and its 
attorneys for $50,000 or 14,200 ounces of silver. Nichols charged the bank with "mental and emotional damage, loss of happiness and the 

unjust destroying of credit history... by wanton acts when no probable cause existed. "^^^ 

The judge was not impressed. He accused Nichols of playing with words and ordered him to pay the debt. Nichols didn't pay. 

When FBI agents questioned Lana Padilla after Nichols' arrest, they asked her a curious question: Did Nichols ever dye his hair? The 
Bureau had been investigating a string of bank robberies throughout the Midwest. One of the robbers had dyed his hair, and was Nichols 
height and weight. 

The group, known as the Midwest Bank Bandits, had robbed over a quarter-of-a-million dollars from more than 22 banks between January, 
1994 and December, 1995 in a spree that took them across six states, including Kansas. The bandits were tied to a group of men who made 
their temporary home at Elohim City, a far-Right religious compound in Southeastern Oklahoma. McVeigh and his friend Michael Fortier 
were known to have visited the compound. Some of the men were also seen in Kansas with the bombing defendants. (See Chapter 4) 

If the FBI's question came as a shock to Padilla, she would turn pale when she opened her ex-husband's storage locker on December 1 5, 
1994, and discovered wigs, masks, and pantyhose. The Mid-West Bank Bandits had worn masks. 

Could Nichols have been robbing banks? "Not the Terry I knew," said Padilla. "I was just speculating, but everything that has come out about 
that side of Terry was a total... maybe I just turned my face and never noticed it, never wanted to notice it, but... I never thought of him... of 

course I never would have thought of him sleeping with a gun under him either. "^^^ 

Yet considering Nichols' hatred of banks and his rallying cry against the monetary system, it would not be too far-fetched a scenario. Such 
speculation is bolstered by the fact that McVeigh sent his sister a letter in December of '93 informing her that he was part of a group that had 
been robbing banks. Although he himself didn't admit to taking part in any of the robberies, he asked her to "launder" three $100 bills that 
"they" had stolen. 

McVeigh returned to Decker, Michigan in the Spring of 1993 to see his old Army friend Nichols. Just back from Waco, where he had 
witnessed the carnage inflicted upon the Branch Davidians, McVeigh was instilled with a new sense of urgency and rage. At the Nichols 
farm, he would find like-minded souls who shared his frustration. 

By the Fall of '93, McVeigh was living at the farmhouse, helping with the chores, and reportedly urging the Nichols brothers onto more 
militant activities. The men practiced target shooting and setting off small bombs on the property. 

"You know how little boys like to play with things that blow up?" recalled [neighbor Phil] Morawski. "That was what they were like. And 
everything they mixed out there in the cornfields seemed to work." 

The government would focus heavily on this activity later on. 

According to Michigan Militia members, the Nichols brothers also began attending meetings, but the militia found their rhetoric too strong. 
Michigan Militia member John Simpson recalled: "Terry came to one of our meetings and wanted to talk about a tax revolt, having to have a 

drivers license and eliminating the government. We did not believe in his tactics — particularly the stuff about a revolt."^^^ James reportedly 
talked about the "necessity" of taking on police officers, judges and lawyers. Apparently, McVeigh accompanied Nichols to some of the 

According to Time magazine, McVeigh and the Nichols brothers went on to organize their own militia: 

...the three men formed their own cell of the "Patriots," a self-styled paramilitary group that James Nichols had been affiliated with since 
1992 when he began attending meetings in a nearby town. The trio decided to recruit members and establish other cells around the area. 

but determined that for security reasons no unit should grow larger than eight members. ^^^ 

If this account is accurate, it would tend to jive with what Nichols told Army buddy Glen "Tex" Edwards about "recruiting" his own private 
army. Perhaps one of Nichols' recruits was Craig O'Shea, who lived just off Highway 77 in Herrington. A friend of Nichols who was kicked 
out of the service, O'Shea used to work for Barbara Whittenberg, who owns the Sante Fe Trail Diner in Herrington. Whittenberg described 
O'Shea as a "demolitions expert," and said she saw him occasionally with Nichols. "He's a very violent man," said Whittenberg, who said 

O'Shea had once threatened to kill her and her husband. ^^^ 

In March of '94, Nichols took a job at the Donahue ranch in Marion, Kansas. 

Co-worker Tim Donahue recalled that Nichols worked long hours, sometimes six days a week, without complaint and appeared to enjoy his 
job, which he did well. Nichols would grouse about taxes and the government conspiring to seize people's firearms. One day when Nichols 

and Donahue were talking about the use of fertilizer in farming, Nichols mentioned that he knew how to make a bomb.^^^ 

Four months later, in August of '94, Nichols gave Donahue 30 days notice. His dream of setting up a private army metamorphosized into 
simply supplying that army. He told Donahue he was going into the army surplus business with a friend. On September 30, that friend — 
Timothy McVeigh — showed up to help him pack. 

It was during this period that his ex-wife began picking up strange signals from her former husband. 

Earlier in the month, he had called her from Kansas. "He was very upset," she said. "He was very emphatic. He talked about Waco and that 
shooting at the White House (where a Colorado Springs man fired a gun toward the White House). He said, 'You know, that guy wasn't all 

wrong. There's going to be some civil unrest in this country. '"^^^ 

During one of his frequent visits to Padilla's house in Las Vegas, Nichols displayed his Glock .45. "I never knew him to carry a gun," Padilla 


told the Denver Post. "He liked guns and collected them, but this was new. He acted like he was afraid for his life. He slept with it on.'" — ^ 

Traveling the gun show circuit with McVeigh, Nichols was now a virtual nomad, living out of his pick-up. His few remaining possessions were 
stored in a locker in Las Vegas. He also told Padilla that he was he was switching the beneficiary of his life insurance policy from her to his 
new wife, Marife. 

A 17-year-old Filipino mail-order bride, Marife Torres met Nichols through Paradise Shelton Tours, of Scottsdale, Arizona. The young woman 
looked forward to leaving her life of poverty in Cebu City, Philippines, where the unemployment rate often topped 40 percent. After a year of 
exchanging heartfelt letters, they married on November 20, 1990 in a small restaurant in Cebu City. Yet it took over four months of 
bureaucratic hassles and red tape to arrange Marife's entry into the U.S. 

"That one episode soured Terry on government," his father recalled. "He originally told me it would take six weeks for her to come here... but 
it was red tape, red tape, red tape." 

At first the newlyweds tried life on the Decker farm, where Jason, Marife's son by a former boyfriend, was born on September 21 , 1991 . Yet 
Marife found herself "working like a maid," cooking and cleaning for "three husbands," Terry, James, and Tim, who often stayed at the 
house. She wrote her friend Vilma Eulenberg that she thought the place was haunted, and resented McVeigh, who she thought was a bad 
influence on her husband. 

The couple eventually moved to warm, sunny Las Vegas, but Marife missed her Philippine home. To accommodate his new wife, Nichols 
moved to Cebu City. But the noise, heat and smog was too much for him, and in mid-1993, after barely a month in the Philippines, they 
moved back to the States, shuttling back and forth between Michigan and Nevada. 

Nicole, their first common child, was born on August 1, 1993. 

Two months later, on November 22, tragedy struck, when 26-month-old Jason accidentally suffocated to death in a plastic bag. While Marife 
wondered if Terry was capable of killing a child, Padilla assured her he was not, then hinted darkly in her book that McVeigh may have been 
responsible for the death. She neglected to mention the fact that McVeigh and James had tried to revive the youngster for nearly half-an- 
hour, then called the paramedics. 

A month later, the couple moved to Las Vegas, where they rented a condominium for $550 a month. It was during this period that Marife 
began traveling to the Philippines to finish her physical therapy degree. According to Padilla, Terry also traveled to the Philippines about four 
times a year over a four year period. She wrote that he sometimes traveled to Cebu City without taking Marife, whom he occasionally left 

"Sometimes he went when Marife was in Kansas. It didn't make sense, but I never asked why."^^^ 

Padilla subsequently told me in July of 1996, "I have not known him to leave her here and just go to the Philippines. If he made a trip by 

himself, it was because she was already there. "^^^ 

Whichever account is true, Nichols did travel to Cebu City in late November to meet with "potential business partners." According to Padilla, 
Nichols was making arrangements to bring back "butterflies." 

"One time he brought back butterflies — little butterflies that they make over there — he brought them back here to sell."^^^ 

Butterflies. Curious merchandise for a man trying to set himself up in the military surplus business. ^^^' 

Then on November 22, 1994 Nichols made a final visit to the Philippines to visit Marife. His parting words to Josh left the 12-year old 
convinced he was never going to see his dad again. As he got into the car with Padilla after dropping his father off at the airport, he started 

"What's the matter?" Padilla asked. 

"I'm never going to see my dad again. I'm never going to see my dad again." 

"Of course you will," Padilla said reassuringly. "He's gone to the Philippines a lot of times. You know he always comes back." 

"This time is different," he blurted through big tears. ^^^ 

Nichols called his ex-wife from Los Angeles several hours later. "Had a little excitement at the airport after you left," he said, laughing. He 
told Padilla that airport security had stopped him for trying to sneak a pair of stun guns through the metal detector. They called the cop on 
duty who ran Nichols' name through the computer. Although he had several outstanding traffic warrants, the police let him continue on his 

Just why was Nichols attempting to carry stun guns on an international flight? According to Bob Papovich, Terry was afraid of the high crime 
rate in poverty-stricken Cebu City. He also said that Nichols was afraid of Marife's ex-boyfriend. Jason, her son by this man, had died while 
in Nichols' custody. The ex-boyfriend had allegedly threatened to kill him should he return. 

Yet Padilla doesn't think the story is credible. "I think it's something they dreamed up," she said. Yet upon his return he told Padilla that he 
could get "killed down there" and he was never going back.^^^ 

Obviously, somebody was out to hurt Terry Nichols, possibly kill him. When he departed for Cebu City, he left a mysterious package for his 
ex-wife, saying, "If I'm not back in 60 days, open it and follow the instructions." At first, Padilla did as she was told. But her instincts 
eventually took over. 

"I was uneasy about his warning, and Josh's, 'I'll never see my dad again' kept echoing in my brain. "^^^ 

Padilla had secured the package in her office safe. Now she slipped quietly into the conference room, opened the lock, and laid the 
mysterious brown paper bag on the table. It stared ominously back at her. As she ripped it open, nearly a dozen keys slid out onto the table. 
She didn't recognize any of them. 

There was Terry's life insurance policy with a note saying he had changed the beneficiary from her to Marife, and two handwritten lists 
saying "Read and Do Immediately." One of the lists directed her to a storage locker in Las Vegas: 

All items in storage are for Joshua. The round items are his when he turns 21 , all else now. . . . 

The note also instructed her to remove a small plastic bag taped behind a utensil drawer in Nichols' kitchen: 

All items in plastic bag are to be sent to Marife, for Nicole, if for any reason my life insurance doesn't pay her. Otherwise, half goes to Josh 
and half to Marife. 

She removed a letter to McVeigh's sister, Jennifer. Inside the letter to Jennifer was another one stamped and addressed to McVeigh: 


If you should receive this letter, then clear everything out of CG 37 by 01 Feb 95 or pay to keep it longer, under Ted Parker of Decker. This 
letter has been written & sealed before I left (21 Nov 94) and being mailed by Lana as per my instructions to her in writing. This is all she 
knows. It would be a good idea to write or call her to verify things, [address redacted] Just ask for Lana (card enclosed). Your on your own. 
Go for it!! 


Also Liquidate 40 

At the bottom it read, "As far as I know, this letter would be for the purpose of my death." 

"Why would he write that letter?" asked Padilla. "He has been there so many times. Never — ever, has he written a letter like that. Never — 


ever. ^^^^ 

Two weeks later, on December 15, Padilla and her oldest son, Barry, drove to Nichols' apartment. Following Nichols' instructions, Barry 
reached behind the kitchen drawer and pulled out a plastic bag. It was crammed full of twenties and hundreds — a total of $20,000 cash. 

Already in a state of shock, the pair drove to the AAAABCO storage facility and nervously fumbled with the lock. They were stunned when 
they opened the door. 

...there were wigs, masks, panty hose, freeze-dried food, and various gold coins (obviously the "roty/iof" objects for Josh), along with gold 
bars and silver bullion stacked neatly in boxes. There were also some small green stones that appeared to be jade. I estimated at least 

$60,000 street value in precious metals!^^^ 

There was also a large ring with what appeared to be safe deposit box keys. 

Two months later, on January 16, Nichols returned from the Philippines, alive and well. "Where's the package?" he asked Padilla. 

"I opened it," she stated boldly. 

"Why?!" he exclaimed. "You betrayed my trust. I told you not to open it for sixty days." 

"Because I was frightened. I thought something terrible had happened to you. I thought you were dead. And where did you get all that 

The couple then argued over finances, but Nichols wouldn't explain the mysterious letters, or where he had gotten the cash, the gold, and 
the safe deposit box keys. She didn't ask about the wigs, the masks, and the pantyhose, and he didn't tell her. But she was worried 

"I think those letters were written because there is somebody bigger than any of us will ever know involved in this," said Padilla. "Why did he 
change his beneficiary on his life insurance? It wasn't because her boyfriend might take a pot-shot at him... and then he said in that letter not 

to say a word to Josh until it's all taken care of... what the hell is he talking about? It isn't the boyfriend. "^^^ 

If the boyfriend story is untrue, perhaps Nichols' "butterfly" partners were out to get him. 

Or perhaps it was someone else, someone bigger and more dangerous. Such players aren't hard to come by in Cebu City, home to a 
number of terrorists groups such as the Liberation Army of the Philippines, the Communist Huk, and the Abu Sayyaf, an organization with 
close ties to the Mujahadeen and World Trade Center bomber Ramzi Yousef. 

Was Nichols meeting with terrorists in the Philippines? Incredibly, FBI 302 reports and investigations conducted by McVeigh's defense team 
indicate that Yousef, Abdul Hakim Murad, Wall Khan Amin Shah, and several other terrorists met in Davao, on the Island of Mindanao, in 
late 1992 or early 1993, to discuss the Oklahoma City bombing plot. 

One of the men at the meeting, recalled an Abu Sayyaf leader, introduced himself as "a farmer. "^^^ 

When the "farmer" returned from his November, 1994 trip, and discovered that Padilla had opened the package and read the letter, he 
turned "white as a ghost," then immediately began making a series of desperate calls to a boarding house in Cebu City. 

Curiously, Nichols would call his party, have a brief 34-second conversation, then hang up and immediately redial the number 14 
consecutive times, letting it ring each time. This he repeated on January 31, with nine calls and one 14-minute conversation; then on 
February 14 he placed 22 calls within a 40-minute time-period, with one 23-minute conversation; then on the 28th he made 31 calls within 

three hours, with no conversations; then finally on March 7 and 14 he made two calls, speaking 24 minutes each.^^^ 

Since Nichols didn't time-out these consecutive calls (as one would tend to do if there was no answer or the line were busy), but made one 

call right after the other, is it possible he was sending some sort of signal or code?^^^ 

Helen Malaluan, who runs the boarding house, told me Nichols was probably trying to reach Marife, who she said was staying there at the 
time. Her brother Ernesto also said that boarders from the island of Mindanao often stayed at the house. The Abu Sayyaf, coincidentally, is 
headquartered in Mindanao. Was Nichols using Marife to send a message to someone else? 

In February of '95, Terry and Marife moved to Herrington, Kansas, where Nichols purchased a modest home for $25,000. 

"We all thought he was just a little bit different," Herrington real estate agent Georgia Rucker said. "We had to pry any information out of 

, .. [369] 


In Herrington, Nichols appeared to settle down. He attended army surplus auctions at nearby Fort Riley and tried to make a living selling 

army surplus gear. 

"He spent the morning of April 19, around Herrington, picking up business cards, registering his truck with the state, and calling on a couple 

of local shops, asking about their interest in buying government surplus," said Padilla. "Those are not the actions of a guilty man."^^^ 

But are they? 

On September 30, the same day that Nichols quit the Donahue ranch, someone using the name "Mike Havens" purchased 40 50-pound 
bags of ammonium nitrate from the Mid-Kansas Co-op in McPhearson. Although employees never positively identified Nichols as the 
customer, a receipt with McVeigh's fingerprint was found in Nichols' home. The FBI asserts that the fertilizer was kept in a storage shed in 

nearby Herrington, rented by Nichols under the alias "Shawn Rivers. "^^^ 

Then, that same weekend, 299 dynamite sticks, 544 blasting caps, detonator cord, and a quantity of an explosive called Tovex were stolen 
from the Martin Marietta Aggregates rock quarry just north of Marion. Marion County Sheriff Ed Davies testified at McVeigh's trial that he 
found metal shavings and tumblers on the ground in front of the magazines. FBI Agent James Cadigal, an FBI firearms and tool marks 
identification specialist, said that a drill bit in Nichols' home matched the signature of the hole drilled into the lock. 


Finally, Lori Fortier, Michael Fortier's wife, testified that McVeigh told them that he and Nichols had broken into the quarry.^ — ^ 

On October 18, 1994, 40 additional 50-pound bags of ammonium nitrate were purchased from the Mid-Kansas Co-op by "Havens." Havens 
was reportedly driving a dark-colored pickup with a light-colored camper top — the kind owned by Terry Nichols. (Another version of the 
story has a red trailer attached to the truck, which didn't appear to be Nichols') The FBI believed the fertilizer was stored in a locker in 
Council Grove — number 40 — rented the previous day by "Joe Kyle." This apparently was the "liquidate 40" that Nichols referred to in his 
mysterious note to McVeigh. 

Jennifer McVeigh later testified that when her brother visited Lockport in November of '94, he confided to her that he had been driving 
around with 1,000 pounds of explosives. Could these "explosives" have been the ammonium nitrate purchased at the Mid-Kansas Co-op? 

Then on November 5, 1994, several masked men robbed gun dealer Roger Moore. The 60-year-old Moore was surprised by two men 
carrying shotguns, wearing camouflage fatigues and black ski masks, who bound him with duct tape. They proceeded to ransack his house, 
making off with a large collection of weapons, plus a number of gold and silver bars, and a safe deposit box key. 

Interestingly, Moore (AKA: Bob Anderson) knew McVeigh, who once stayed at his house. Moore had met McVeigh at a gun show in Florida 
in 1995. 

For his part, McVeigh had a solid alibi. He was in Kent, Ohio on November 5, at a gun show. Yet after the bombing, Fortier reportedly told 
the FBI that McVeigh called him after the robbery and said, "Nichols got Bob!" Some of the guns were later pawned by Fortier at the behest 
of McVeigh, according to the FBI, which contends that the proceeds were used to finance the bombing. 

Interestingly, Nichols was seen in Sedalia, Missouri on February 10 and 11, the same weekend that gun dealer William Mueller was robbed. 
Mueller's Tilly, Arkansas home, 150 miles south of Sedalia, was burglarized of $40,000 worth of silver coins, gun parts, survival gear, and 30 
cases of ammunition. 

What makes this even more interesting is that Nichols had checked into the Motel Memory the evening of February 10, after a long drive 
from Kansas, telling owner Phillip Shaw he was there for the gun show. Yet Nichols had missed the first day of the two-day show. 

The next morning, while Nichols was apparently at the show, Shaw's wife Betty opened his room and saw dozens of boxes of ammunition 
scattered across the floor. The presence of such a large quantity of ammunition puzzled local investigators, who knew there was too small a 
profit margin in legally-purchased ammo for gun show dealers to bother messing with it. Moreover, if Nichols had planned on selling the 
ammunition, why had he left so much of it in his room? 

Tragically, Mueller, his wife, and their 8-year-old daughter, Sarah, were found murdered on June 28, 1996. Their bodies were by pulled from 
the Illinois Bayou after a fisherman discovered a portion of a leg. The family had been handcuffed, their heads covered with plastic bags 
wrapped with duct tape. They were found in 20 feet of water, tied to a heavy rock. 

Unaccounted for was some $50,000 the Arkansas Gazette reported the Muellers were believed to have received only days before they 

While Timothy McVeigh had known Roger Moore, his friend Michael Brescia, and his friend and roommate Andy Strassmeir had met Bill 
Mueller at a Fort Smith, Arkansas gun show earlier that year. As reported in the McCurtain Gazette: 

...Mueller then told [Gene] Wergis that he remembered the two because he believed they might be connected with his home's burglary — or 
even the ATF. Wergis also reported that Mueller showed him a spiral notebook where the exhibitor had gone so far — so great was his 


concern — as to write down the two men's names.' — ^ 

Both Brescia and Strassmeir, who also knew McVeigh, lived at Elohim City, the white separatist compound near Muldrow, Oklahoma. Two 
other part-time residents of Elohim City, 24 year-old Chevie Kehoe and his brother Cheyne, opened fired on police during a traffic stop in 
February of '97. The pair was indicted by a Federal Grand Jury in Little Rock on murder, racketeering and conspiracy charges, stemming 
from the Mueller murder. 

Guns stolen from the Muellers wound up at a Spokane, Washington motel. The manager told the FBI that he is 75 percent certain that 
McVeigh visited his motel in late '94 or early '95 when Chevie Kehoe was living there. He said that Kehoe showed up 45 minutes before the 

April 19 bombing with a request to watch CNN, and seemed elated when he learned of the tragedy. ^^^ 

Michael Brescia was later arrested for his alleged role in the robbery of a Madison, Wisconsin bank — part of the string of robberies 
committed by the Mid-West Bank Bandits. As previously mentioned, some of the robbers made their temporary homes at Elohim City. 

After the bombing, the FBI questioned Padilla about the items found in Nichols' home and storage lockers. Among those items were large 
quantities of ammunition and a safe deposit box key belonging to Roger Moore. As of this writing it is not known whether the FBI traced the 
ammo to Mueller. 

Also found in Nichols' home, according to ATF Agent Larry Tongate, were 33 firearms, five roles of 60-foot Primadet detonator cord, non- 
electric blasting caps, containers of ammonium nitrate, a fuel-meter, and four 55-gallon blue and white plastic drums. 

Not exactly the everyday stuff of an ordinary guy from a small town in Kansas. 

Similar items were found in James Nichols' farm, including blasting caps, safety fuses, ammonium nitrate, and diesel fuel. Nichols, who was 
taken into custody the same day as his brother, denied any wrongdoing, and authorities dropped all charges. As for his brother, he 
commented, "My gut feeling. I didn't do anything. He didn't do anything." When asked by a reporter, "How about Timothy McVeigh? he 
replied, "I want to see some facts." 

Yet the facts against Terry seemed to be piling up. 

On April 15, 1995, Barbara Whittenberg served breakfast to three men at the Sante Fe Trail Diner: Terry Nichols, Tim McVeigh, and a third 
man with dark features. She also recalled seeing a Ryder truck outside, and asked the men where they were headed. Suddenly, she said, it 

was "as if ice water was thrown on the conversation. "^^^ 

The men left before 7:00 a.m. Later that afternoon, as Whittenberg and her son were driving to nearby Junction City, they saw the truck 
parked at Geary State Fishing Lake — where authorities originally claimed the bomb was mixed. The truck was still there when they drove 
past around 3:00 or 4:00 p.m. Whittenberg's son recalled seeing three men along with what he described as a Thunderbird with Arizona tags. 

Later that day Nichols visited a Conoco station in Manhattan, Kansas, and a Coastal Mart in Junction City, and bought over 30 gallons of 
diesel fuel. Nichols' pick-up has a diesel motor, according to his brother, and Nichols' had been a regular diesel customer for over two 
months prior to the bombing, according to Shan Woods of Klepper Oil Co., purchasing between $20 to $30 worth of diesel fuel "two or three 

times a week." Receipts were again found in his home.^^^ 

The next day, Nichols purchased an additional 21 gallons from the Junction City Conoco station. 

Then, on the evening of April 17, 1995, a Ryder truck was seen parked behind Nichols Herrington home. A Ryder truck was seen that same 
week backed up to a storage shed that Nichols rented. 

On the morning of the 18th, several witnesses again saw the Ryder truck parked at Geary Lake. Parked next to appeared to be Nichols' pick- 
up. When the FBI subsequently inspected the area, they allegedly recovered bits of ammonium nitrate and strands of detonator cord, and 
saw signs of diesel fuel. 

That same day, or possibly the day before, a convoy pulled in for gas at the Easy Mart in Newkirk, 100 miles north of Oklahoma City. It was 
a Ryder truck accompanied by a blue pick-up with a camper top. Manager Jerri-Lynn Backhous recalled seeing three men. The passenger in 
the pick-up was dark skinned with black hair, average height, and had a "real muscular build," she said. He was wearing a t-shirt and sun- 

glasses, and "looked just like the John Doe 2 sketch. "^^^ 

Backhous also saw a reflection of the person in the Ryder truck. He was a short man with close cropped, dark hair and glasses, she said. 
Employee Dorinda J. "Wendy" Hermes waited on the third man — Terry Lynn Nichols — who came into the store and bought food for the 

others. Hermes particularly recalled Nichols' pick-up. "It caught me funny because it had street tires on it, but it was all muddy," she said.^^^ 

But perhaps most interesting was the recollection of Nichols' son Josh, who accompanied McVeigh and his father on the ride back to Kansas 
that Sunday. McVeigh asserts that he called Nichols from Oklahoma City because his car had broken down, and asked Nichols to pick him 

up. On the way back, according to Josh, McVeigh made his infamously cryptic remark: "Something big is going to happen." 

Nichols reportedly asked him. What, are you going to rob a bank?" 

"Something big is going to happen," McVeigh stoically replied. 

A curious statement. If McVeigh and Nichols had conspired to bomb the Murrah Building, wouldn't Nichols already know that "something big" 
was going to happen? 

Or was the statement invented by Nichols to exculpate himself from the plot in the eyes of investigators? Given the fact that the statement 
was relayed to the FBI by Nichols' 12-year-old son, this seems unlikely. 

And if Nichols was involved in the plot, there is evidence that in November of '94 he wanted out. Among the documents prosecutors handed 
over to the defense is testimony from Lori Fortier that McVeigh began to solicit help from her husband because Nichols was "expressing 

It should be noted however that the FBI and the "Justice" Department is infamous for framing people, and they brought enormous pressure 
on the Fortiers, threatening them with knowledge of a terrorist plot, weapons violations and other charges if they did not testify against 
Nichols and McVeigh. Federal prosecutors subsequently coached Lori Fortier heavily before McVeigh's trial, having her practice her 
testimony in two mock trials. 

Yet if Nichols had no involvement in the plot, what was he doing with large quantities of ammonium nitrate, blasting caps, detonator cord, 
and a collection of 55-gallon drums? Why the purchases of diesel fuel? Were these items planted by the FBI? 

If Nichols was involved in the bombing, why didn't he make any attempt to hide or dispose of these incriminating items before April 19, or 
even by the 22nd? Why would a man, who had allegedly just blown up a building, killing 1 69 people, plainly leave a receipt for the so-called 
bomb ingredient in his kitchen drawer? 

In fact, Nichols didn't attempt to hide any of these items, before he casually walked into the local police station on April 22, after hearing his 
name on TV. Such do not seem like the actions of an intelligent, calculating, cold-blooded killer. 

But, then there were the mysterious trips to the Philippines. Those trips, and Nichols' clandestine meetings with some mysterious players in 
Las Vegas, would begin to intrigue a handful of journalists and investigators, as the Oklahoma City bombing plot took them down an even 
darker and more insidious road. 

Brought to you by 

I O N A L r s 

;ws Portal 


Millar's Rent-A-Nazi 

Authorities have postulated that McVeigh's "obsession with Waco," and Nichols' hatred of the Federal Government were the driving forces 
that led them to bomb the Federal Building. Their alleged association with militias and other paramilitary groups, authorities claimed, was the 
key influence that guided them along their sinister path to their final, vicious act of revenge. 

These numerous pseudo-experts also theorized that McVeigh himself was inspired by the Turner Diaries, written by former physics 
professor William Pierce. In this fictionalized account of white race-warriors' overthrow of the Zionist Occupational Government (ZOG), the 
"heroes" demolish the FBI building in Washington, D.C. with a fertilizer bomb at precisely 9:00 a.m. 

The idea for bombing a federal facility is hardly new. In the mid-1970s Oklahoma resident Harawese Moore was convicted of planting an 
incendiary device outside both the Federal Courthouse and the Alfred P. Murrah Building — a case, coincidentally, defended by Stephen 

In 1983, members of the Covenant, Sword and the Arm of the Lord (CSA), a white supremacist group based in northern Arkansas, planned 
to truck-bomb the Alfred P. Murrah Building. In 1988, former CSA leader James Ellison turned states' evidence and testified that CSA 
member Richard Wayne Snell and others had participated in the plot. Snell was bitter toward the government, Ellison claimed, because the 
IRS and FBI had seized his property. 

Other defendants included Richard Girnt Butler, chief of the Aryan Nations; Robert E. Miles, a former Ku Klux Klansman; and Louis Beam, 
Jr., former Grand Dragon of the Texas Ku Klux Klan, and Aryan Nations "Ambassador at Large" — who led a campaign of terror against 

Vietnamese-American fisherman. 

Ellison, who fancied himself "King James," was surrounded at his CSA compound near the Missouri-Arkansas border on the prophetic date 
of April 19 (ten years to the day of the Oklahoma City bombing), leading to a four-day standoff against 200 heavily-armed agents. Ellison 
later testified at his sedition trial that at Snell's request, he had cased several buildings, including the Alfred P. Murrah Building. 

"He took me to some of the buildings and asked me to go in the building and check the building out," Ellison said. According to his testimony, 
rocket launchers were to be "placed in a trailer or a van so that it could be driven up to a given spot, parked there, and a timed detonation 
device could be triggered so that the driver could walk away and leave the vehicle set in position and he would have time to clear the area 


before any of the rockets launched.'" — ^ 

Ellison would later deny this. Yet on October 22, 1996, the Canadian Broadcasting Company (CBC) played a clip of Ellison, where the 
former CSA leader admitted his involvement in the plot: 

Ellison: ...Wayne Snell had been... had made a trip to Oklahoma City, and Wayne came back and told me about different buildings that he 
had seen, wanted to know if I would look at them with him sometime. And Steve talked to me and gave me a description of these buildings 
and asked me to design a rocket launcher that could be used to destroy these buildings from a distance... heavy, large buildings. 

In the CBC piece, former CSA member Kerry Noble states: "I still look at things like this and realize how close we were, and, you know, that 
this could have been me having done this." The reformed Noble, now a critic of the militant extreme-Right, spoke openly about the plot with 
CBC's Trish Wood: 

Noble: It was one of the targets that we had talked about at [the] CSA in '83. The day it happened, as soon as I heard it on the news, I said, 
the Right-wing's done it — they finally took that step. 

Noble explained that the Murrah Building was a target because it was a low security complex that housed many different federal agencies. 


He said the plotters thought it would have more effect on the country "than if you did a building, say, in New York City or something.'" — ^ 

Wood: Do you think — and I know this is a guess — that Snell or Ellison told [Reverend Robert] Millar about the early plans to blow up the 
Murrah Building in Oklahoma City? 

Noble: ... I think that probably Millar knew that something major was going to happen. Now, whether he knew the exact details, chances are 
he probably did not, because he would not want to know specific details at first. But I think he knew something major was going to happen. 

Ellison later settled at Elohim City at the behest of Millar, who claims to disavow the bombing. "If I knew something like that was taking place 
then or today," said the Christian Identity minister, "I'd do everything I could do to prevent it and, if necessary, call in government agents to 
help stop it." 

While all 14 defendants in the original 1983 bombing plot were acquitted, Snell was executed on the ever-prophetic date of April 19, 1995, 
the very day that the Murrah Building was bombed. Snell was convicted of killing a black state trooper in 1984, and a pawn shop owner he 
thought was Jewish. While under arrest, Snell called himself a "prisoner of war," precisely what authorities claimed McVeigh said. 

Before his death, Snell had time to watch scenes from the bombing on his jail-room TV. Millar, who was with the 64-year-old Snell during his 
final hours, said he was appalled at the destruction. Yet according to Arkansas prison official Alan Abies, "Snell chuckled and laughed as he 
watched television coverage of the Oklahoma City disaster." 

Both Millar and Snell's wife contend that the convicted murderer was saddened by the bombing. Yet Noble thinks McVeigh was in some way 
inspired by Snell. 

Wood: Did you ever think that it was a coincidence that Tim McVeigh — if, in fact, he did it — chose that building? 

Noble: No, I don't think it's any coincidence. When you bring that into account with the declaration of war that we made, the pressure that 
the older leaders of the groups are putting on the younger followers to do something in a major way before they die — no, it's no coincidence. 

Wood: How would McVeigh have known about the earlier plans for the Murrah Building? 

Noble: It's very feasible and likely that he would have kept in communication with certain people and said... you know, then if somebody 
said, well, what would you recommend as a starting place — it's very likely he could have said, well, this is what we had picked out. 

Interestingly, Abies told the Denver Post, "Snell repeatedly predicted that there would be a bombing or an explosion the day of his death." 

Abies: A few days before the execution I began to hear things from the director, the wardens, just talk in the office, that strange things were 
going on, Snell was talking strangely, he was, you know, making statements that were a little scary... catastrophic events, things were going 
to happen. This date, April 19th, was going to be something that the governor would regret perhaps. 

Snell's parting words before leaving this Earth were, "Look over your shoulder. Governor, justice is coming. I wouldn't trade places with you 
or any of your cronies. Hell has victory. I am at peace." 

Wood: Are those the ravings of a man about to be executed or are they the comments of a man with a plan? 

Noble: I think a man with a plan, I think a man who is taking the satisfaction that his death may mean something after all and that it may be 

the catalyst that puts somebody over the line to do what he himself didn't get the chance to do.^^^ 

A similar bomb plot surfaced a year after the Oklahoma City bombing, when Richard Ray Lampley, 65, his wife Cecilia, and friend John 
Baird were convicted of a plot to bomb the ADL office in Houston, the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) in Montgomery, and various gay 
bars and abortion clinics. Lampley made his intentions known at one of Dennis Mahon's WAR meetings. A former Grand Imperial Dragon of 
the KKK, and number three man in WAR, the Tulsan was a frequent visitor to Lampley's place, and to Elohim City. 

A self-proclaimed "Prophet of God," Lampley claims he was entrapped by Richard Schrum, an FBI informant. Schrum was sent by the 
Bureau to infiltrate the Oklahoma white separatist compound, but when he found nothing illegal there, he infiltrated Lampley's group instead. 

According to defense attorneys, it was Schrum who ran the militia cell to which Lampley belonged, and threatened to leave when it appeared 
Lampley was wavering. "If anyone formed any kind of conspiracy, it was Richard Schrum," defense lawyer Mark Green said. Defense 
attorney Warren Gotcher backed up Green, stating "This conspiracy to build a bomb is totally on the orders of Richard Schrum." Schrum told 
Lampley that he had a brother in the Special Forces at Fort Bragg, NC, who would provide logistic support when the "New World Order" 


invasion came.^ — ^ 

The bomb, a mixture of homemade C-4, was supposed to tested at Elohim City.^^^ 

Whatever the reality of that case, it provides a unique insight into the characters and players of the white supremacist community of 
Southeastern Oklahoma — a community that drew to it like a magnet some of the key players of the Oklahoma City bombing conspiracy. 

Led by the 71 -year-old Millar, Elohim City (Hebrew for "City of God") is a 1,100-acre Christian Identity compound nearMuldrow, Oklahoma. 
Founded in 1973 by the Canadian-born Mennonite, the community is home to approximately 90 residents, about half of whom are direct 

descendants of Millar. 

Christian Identity adherents believe that white Anglo-Saxons, not Jews, are God's chosen people, being descendants of the 12 lost tribes of 
Israel, and that America, not Israel, is the Promised Land. This sanctified doctrine also holds that Jews are the spawn of Satan, and non- 
whites are a "pre-Adamic," sub-species. 

Only whites are the "true sovereign citizens" of the Republic, and all others are "Fourteenth Amendment citizens" — the creation of an 
illegitimate "ZOG." Believers of this odd mix of theology not only believe that the end times are near, but that a great messiah will arise to 
lead these "holy warriors" in a terrible final battle against the evil ZOG. 

Those who monitor Right-wing extremist groups say Millar is probably the most influential Christian Identity leader in the Great Plains. ^^^ As 
Millar explained it: 

"We are opposed to governmental misuse of tax money.... We are opposed to some of the actions of government. We're not anti- 
government... Our people are all self-employed, and we all pay taxes.... "We are racist," Millar said, "but we aren't anti-Semitic. I think it's 
better for races and cultures... to have relationships within their own ethnic group. That doesn't mean isolationism, but it means 

X- ..[3861 

separatism. ^ — ^ 

Yet the group does maintain connections to white supremacist and neo-Nazi organizations, including WAR, the somewhat defunct CSA, and 
the violent but largely disbanded Order. The Christian Identity adherents also formed alliances with Richard Butler, Christian Identity 
"minister," and head of the Aryan Nations in Hayden Lake, Idaho. The Hayden Lake compound served as a nexus for white supremacist 
groups from all over the country, including the KKK, Posse Comitatus, William Pierce's National Alliance, and Robert Mathews' Order. It was 
Mathews' group, inspired by Pierce's Turner Diaries, that went on to commit a string of bank robberies, counterfeiting, bombings, and murder 

throughout the Mid- and Northwest in the 1980s.^^^ 

Amassing between $2 and $4 million from robberies and heists of armored cars, the group distributed the proceeds amongst the white 
supremacist movement. They also purchased land in northern Idaho for paramilitary training, but moved to northern Arkansas, linking up 
with the CSA when they found the harsh climate unsuitable for their purposes. 

The Order's exploits came to an end in November of '84, when Mathews died in a shoot-out with police and federal agents on Whidby Island 
off the coast of Washington. It's members who managed to escape fled across the country, integrating themselves into different white 
supremacist groups, or went underground altogether. 

Richard Lee Guthrie, Jr., the son of a CIA employee, who was discharged from the Navy for painting a swastika on the side of a ship and 
threatening superiors, his childhood friend Peter K. Langan, and Shawn Kenny, went on to form the nucleus of a group known as the 
Midwest Bank Bandits. The group stole more than $250,000 from 22 banks between January of '94 and December of '95 in a spree that led 
them across Ohio, Wisconsin, Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas, and Missouri. The four-member group would often wear FBI jackets agents to taunt 
the Bureau, and create diversions to foil police, including leaving behind inert pipe-bombs to slow pursuit. The bandits even had a macabre 
sense of humor, wearing a Santa Claus suit during a hold-up around Christmas, and an Easter basket with a gold painted pipe-bomb left 
inside a bank in Des Moines. 

"Wild Bill" Guthrie also admitted to a West Virginia sheriff that he had helped Butler's Aryan Nations raise another quarter million dollars 
through fraud. Both Guthrie and Langan were regular visitors to the Hayden Lake compound. 

The seeds for the mens' dalliance with the paramilitary extreme-Right was sown in 1991, when Shawn Kenny, a friend of Langan and 
Guthrie, began discussing their plans to further the "cause." 

Interestingly, the Secret Service recruited Langan as an informant in August of 1993 to keep an eye on his friend Guthrie, who had made 
threats against the lives of Presidents Clinton and Bush. Langan was released from his Georgia jail cell (where he was serving time for 
robbing a Pizza Hut with Guthrie) and set up in a house in Ohio, where he was to assist the Secret Service in locating his old friend. The 
deal soon went sour. 

Secret Service Agent Dick Rathnell summed up the fiasco this way: "Our main interest was to find if there was an interest to harm the 


President or overthrow the government.... We didn't know they were these bank robbers."^ — ^ 

Langan went south on the Secret Service six weeks later, and soon located his old friend Guthrie. The two set themselves up in a safehouse 
in Pittsburg, Kansas, from which they were alleged to have launched their notorious crime spree. 

In November of '94, Mark Thomas, the local Aryan Nations representative, united the two with others of their kind. Thomas' farm, located 
rather appropriately next to a toxic waste dump, has been the site of skin-head and neo-Nazi rallies such as White Pride Day and the annual 
Hitler Youth Festival, where participants enjoyed such wholesome activities as pagan rituals and cross burnings. 

Thomas introduced the pair to Pennsylvania native Scott Stedeford, a rock musician and artist, and Kevin McCarthy, a bassist in a white- 
power band named "Day of the Sword." Thomas was instrumental in helping the men form an alliance which they would call the Aryan 

Republican Army (ARA). 

Taking the moniker of "Commander Pedro," Langan became the group's leader. According to testimony provided by Kenny at Stedeford's 
trial, Langan boasted that the gang was modeled after The Order. 

"Learn from Bob [Mathews]," Langan is heard saying on a home-made recruitment video. "Learn from his mistakes. Study your enemy. 

Study his methods."^^^ 

The Pennsylvania Posse Comitatus leader would also introduce Stedeford and McCarthy to Michael Brescia, a Philadelphia native and rock 
musician who would go on to form a speed metal band with McCarthy and Stedeford, called "Cyanide." The rock 'n roll bank robbers decided 
to recruit the 24-year-old La Salle University student after planning the heist of a large bank in Madison, Wisconsin, which the trio robbed on 
August 30, 1995. 

The three men came to know "Grandpa Millar" at Elohim City courtesy of Thomas, and Brescia was soon engaged to Millar's granddaughter. 
Ester. Brescia wound up living at the reclusive compound for two years. It was there that he would meet his new roommate, Andreas Karl 
Strassmeir, the mysterious German who settled there in 1991. It was also at Elohim City that Brescia would meet Timothy McVeigh. As ATF 
informant Carol Elizabeth Howe recalled: 

"Sometime before Christmas [of 1994] a lot of guys showed up at EC (Elohim City). One that I recall was Tim [McVeigh], who I only knew as 
Tim Tuttle. He was there with a guy who used the name Fontaine, a person I now recognize as Mike Fortier." 

Referring to McVeigh, she said, "I never even spoke to him. He was considered a 'good soldier' by the members of the ARA, but not a 

leader; he was just someone you sent out on jobs, because he was reliable. "^^^ 

Were McVeigh and Nichols involved in bank robberies? Had the robberies financed the bombing? It was a question that has disturbed 
Nichols' ex-wife Lana Padilla, who discovered masks, nylon stockings, and wigs in her former spouse's storage locker. Nichols was known 
as a vehement critic of the banking system, had been on the losing end of a large credit card lawsuit, and had declared the Federal Reserve 

McVeigh himself sent his sister Jennifer three $100 bills, telling her they were the proceeds from a bank robbery. While there was no proof 
that the pair had actually participated, authorities would ponder the significance of the associations. As the Gazette writes: 

A reliable source familiar with the investigation confirmed that admitted co-conspirator Michael Fortier told the FBI that ex-army buddy Tim 

McVeigh said in February 1995 that he (McVeigh) was going to Colorado to join "The Order. "^^^ 

Interestingly, what is not known is just where McVeigh was on the days immediately before and immediately after 1 1 of the robberies. 

What is known is that Brescia, Strassmeir, and McVeigh became friends, attending gun shows, traveling the white supremacist circuit, and 
crashing high-school parties in Kansas, not far from Terry Nichols' house. Neighbors recalled seeing men who fit the general description of 
McVeigh and John Doe 2 at Nichols' Herrington home. 


For his part, Strassmeir claims he'd "never been in Kansas," then admitted, "...well, once, driving through.'" — ^ 

Catina Lawson's roommate, Lindsay Johnson, dated Brescia, and Lawson was close friends with McVeigh. Both she and Lawson recalled 
seeing Strassmeir, Brescia, McVeigh and Fortier at the Kansas parties around the Summer of '92. The young women allegedly referred to 
the handsome young Brescia as "Mike Breezy." 

It is Brescia, some investigators claim, who is the mysterious John Doe 2 originally sought by the FBI. Bombing victim Glenn Wilburn, along 
with investigator J.D. Cash, learned of Brescia's relationship to Strassmeir and McVeigh after talking to people at Elohim City and others in 
the white supremacist underground. The family filed a $30 million lawsuit against McVeigh, which includes Strassmeir, and named Brescia 
as John Doe 2. 


Robert Millar insists that Brescia, who is engaged to Millar's granddaughter, is not John Doe 2, but simply a "cleancut, college type boy.'" — ^ 

Yet several witnesses in Kansas claimed that Brescia closely matches the FBI's wanted sketch. Like John Doe 2, Brescia has a tattoo on his 
left arm. Curiously though, Brescia's tattoo is circular — a cross inside a wheel — the emblem of the Aryan Nations. The tattoo seen by Mike 
Moroz and other witnesses on John Doe 2 more closely resembled a dragon, an anchor, or a snake. But then again, according to numerous 
witnesses, there is more than one John Doe 2. 

While Brescia's connection to Elohim City centered around his relationship with Ester, it was Strassmeir who was his roommate. A German 
national, the 38-year-old Strassmeir is the son of Gunter Strassmeir, former Parliamentary Secretary of State to German Chancellor Helmut 
Kohl. Strassmeir's uncle is in the German parliament, and his brother Alexander sits on the Berlin City Council. Like Langan, Strassmeir's 
father also reportedly has connections to the CIA. 

Andreas served as a lieutenant in the German Panzer Grenadiers (the equivalent of our Special Forces), had formal military intelligence 
training, and did a stint as a liaison officer with the Welsh Guards. He told the London Sunday Telegraph that part of his work was to detect 
infiltration by Warsaw Pact agents, and then feed them disinformation. "If we caught a guy, we'd offer him amnesty. We'd turn him and use 

him to feed false information back to the Warsaw Pact."^^^ While Strassmeir would not admit it, it is reported that he is an agent for the 


German national anti-terrorist police, the GSG-9.' — ^ 

"Andy the German," as he became known, arrived in the U.S. in May of 1991, without being documented by the INS (Immigration and 


Naturalization Service), and lived on a credit card provided by sources unknown. He soon became Elohim City's Director of Security.' — ^ 

According to Strassmeir, his path crossed McVeigh's at a Tulsa gun show in April of '93. Strassmeir stopped by McVeigh's table and bought 
a few military souvenirs and discussed events at Waco. He then gave McVeigh his card bearing the inscription "Elohim City." In an interview 
in Soldier of Fortune, Strassmeir professed never to of heard of McVeigh, though he later recanted his story for the Telegraph.. "I met the 

guy once at a gun show," he said. "We spoke for five minutes, that's all."^^^ 

It would seem the relationship goes deeper than that however. Strassmeir reportedly met McVeigh again at the first anniversary of the Waco 
massacre in April of '94. And according to journalist William Jasper, sources close to the investigation revealed that McVeigh visited Elohim 
City on at least 20 occasions. Traffic records show McVeigh was stopped for speeding on October 12, 1993, two miles north of Cederville, 
Arkansas, less than 10 miles from Elohim City, on a remote road leading to the compound. ATF informant Carol Howe also recalled seeing 
McVeigh and Fortier at Elohim City during the winter of '94. 

Yet possibly the most revealing connection surfaced in the form of two phone calls, one placed by McVeigh from the Imperial Motel in 
Kingman, Arizona to Strassmeir on April 5, just two weeks before the bombing. It was just minutes after McVeigh had allegedly called 
Junction City to reserve the Ryder truck. According to Millar's daughter-in-law Joan, who answered the phone, the caller asked to speak to 
"Andy." Andy wasn't in. McVeigh left a message saying, "Tell Andy I'll be coming through." 


Robert Millar, Elohim City's "spiritual leader," claimed ignorance of McVeigh or the phone call.' — ^ He later recanted his story. 

Then one day before the bombing, McVeigh called Strassmeir's U.S. attorney. Kirk Lyons, looking for Andy. Not finding him there, he 
engaged Lyon's assistant, Dave Holloway, in a 15-minute conversation about Waco, Lyons claims, and the need to "send a message to the 
government." It seemed McVeigh also needed to send a message to Strassmeir. 

For his part Strassmeir claims McVeigh never visited Elohim City. "I don't know why McVeigh was trying to contact me," he said. 

Catina Lawson, who was close friends with McVeigh for two years, remembers seeing Strassmeir at the Junction City parties. "He was just 
someone you'd see every once in a while," said Lawson, who, along with friends, would meet and party with the soldiers from nearby Fort 


Riley. "He was tall, skinny and pale, with crooked teeth and sunken eyes surrounded by dark circles. And he had this accent....'" — ^ 

Larry Wild and his wife Kathy also recall seeing Strassmeir on one of their fishing trips to Cameron Springs Lake, near Fort Riley. The Wilds 
remember seeing Strassmeir with two other men with an old Ryder truck one week before the bombing. Just who those two other men were 
they couldn't say. Wild did recall speaking with Strassmeir though. "I said, 'Your dialect is really different. Are you a soldier?' He said, 'No.' I 
said, 'Do you work for the government?' He just kind of laughed." 

Yet still more witnesses recall seeing the two men together. At least five dancers recall seeing McVeigh, Nichols, Brescia, and Strassmeir at 
Lady Godiva's, a strip joint in Tulsa, which the men visited on April 8, 1995. In an interview with CBC's Trish Wood, the dancers, who wish to 
remain anonymous, were "positive" of Strassmeir and McVeigh's presence just eleven days before the bombing: 

Wood: You saw this man in here? 

Unidentified: Yes. 

Wood: And how do you remember? What makes you remember seeing him in here that night? 

Unidentified: From one of the girls. I just heard her say something about a couple of guys, there were a couple of weird guys, she wanted 
somebody to go sit with them. 

As discussed earlier, McVeigh bragged to one of the girls that "something big" was going to happen. "On April 19, 1995, you'll remember me 

for the rest of your life," McVeigh said.^^^ 

Also present that night was an old, faded Ryder truck, seen by the bouncer. The truck appeared to be privately-owned, adding further proof 
that at least two trucks were used in the bombing. It was this truck which was seen by witnesses at Geary State Park, several days before 
authorities allege that McVeigh rented his. J.D. Cash speculates that McVeigh flew to Fort Smith from his motel room in Kingman on April 7 
to pick up the truck and meet his comrades, then the men stopped by Tulsa on their way back to Kansas. 

If they stopped by Tulsa, maybe it was to check out the Indian Territory Gun Show. It also might have been to meet Dennis Mahon. The 
WAR official, National Socialist Alliance (NSA) leader, and former KKK Imperial Grand Dragon traveled frequently to the reclusive compound 
where he kept a trailer, "to visit and fellowship and do some target shooting and military maneuvers," he said. Mahon was close friends with 

Brescia and Strassmeir, both of whom he "loved like brothers. "^^^ 

In what may seem like an even more bizarre twist, Mahon claims he was funded by the Iraqis during the Gulf War. Like Order leader Robert 
Mathews, who was reportedly offered funding by the Syrians, Mahon received $100 a month, for a total of $4,800, from the Iraqis to stir up 
opposition to the Bush/UN-imposed sanctions. Mahon, operator of the Dial-a-Racist hot line, also produced several videotapes which he 

distributed to public access stations, expressing his dissenting view on the U.S. policy.^^^ 

Mahon started receiving Iraqi funds shortly after he began holding anti-war rallies, he said, "'s coming from the same zip code where the 
Iraqi Embassy is, but they don't say it's from the Iraqi Embassy."^^^ 

Jeff Steinberg, an investigator for the LaRouche Foundation, says such a scenario is not at all unusual. "This kind of stuff happened all the 
time," says Steinberg. "In the '70s, they had people who's job it was to show up at every sort of Left-wing rally." 

Yet why would the Iraqis give money to an avowed white supremacist like Mahon? "Hatred of the Jews," says Stienberg. "Some low-level 

person at the embassy gives it out to these guys, and you'd be surprised at who they give it to — they're not that bright."^^^ 

In McVeigh's Petition for Writ of Mandamus, filed one week before McVeigh's trial, Stephen Jones made note of the fact that three members 
of the American Agricultural Movement also met with Iraqi officials. Their purpose was to work with the Iraqis to negotiate a peaceful 
withdraw from Kuwait. "We wanted to get a dialogue going and stop a shooting war," said one member. "As Americans, that's what we tried 


Yet it seemed the meeting between the farmers and the Iraqi ambassador wasn't the only meeting that took place. Jones stated that Terry 
Nichols, who he refers to only as "Suspect I," made calls to two Kansas-based Posse Comitatus members — David Oliphant and Buddy 
Snead. Like Nichols, Snead is married to a Filipino woman. It is not known whether he met her through the same mail-order bride service as 


A CIA source contacted by Jones indicated that two members of the Posse Comitatus (it is not known who) visited with an Iraqi diplomat in 
New York City around the same general time. While the author was unable to locate these two individuals to confirm the story, it is possible 
they met with the diplomat to express their horror over Bush's "Desert Massacre." 

It is also possible that the Iraqis viewed the meeting as an opportunity to strengthen their ties to the white supremacist movement. As will be 
seen, collaboration between Arab states, Mid-East terrorists, and neo-Nazis is a long and well-documented one. 

Unfortunately for Dennis Mahon, the Iraqis severed their ties with him after the bombing, "...they cut me off, a month after the bombing — 

It is also likely that Mahon, who traveled to Germany to recruit young skinheads for the KKK, may have met up with Michael KCihnen. A 
prominent neo-Nazi, KCihnen formed the Anti-Zionist League, which preached hatred of Jews, and sought to form a common bond between 
Nazis and their Arab brethren. KCihnen also negotiated with the Iraqis, providing them with 200 German, American and British skinheads to 
fight alongside Iraqi troops. There is reportedly a videotape of these storm troopers in S.S. uniforms being greeted by Iraqi Information 

Minister Abdel Lateef Jassem.^^^ 

KCihnen's successor, a name named Hubner, has connections to Kirk Lyons, Andreas Strassmeir's North Carolina-based attorney. Lyons 
also spoke with Hubner at meetings of the group "Deutsche Alternative." Like Mahon, Lyons traveled the German white supremacist circuit. 
Strassmeir and Mahon were close friends, until Mahon and his brother Dennis reportedly called Germany with orders to kill Strassmeir. 

Another friend of Mahon's is Gary Lauck of Lincoln, Nebraska. The leader of the neo-Nazi National Socialist Worker's Party, Lauck wrote a 
20-page manifesto entitled, "Strategy, Propaganda and Organization," about integrating worldwide extremist groups into a tight network, and 
"military education with terrorist aims." Lauck has reportedly had frequent contact with Arab terrorist groups according to McVeigh's defense 

Finally, there is the Libyan government, widely reported to have funded both the Irish Republican Army (IRA) and U.S. citizens, including a 
Chicago street gang called the El Rukns — convicted of conspiracy to commit terrorist acts throughout the U.S. 

"Upon hearing that Louis Farrakhan had received $5 million from the Libyan government, the leader of the El Rukns actively sought 
sponsorship from Libya in exchange to an in-kind amount of money. Members of the El Rukns actually traveled to Libya to meet with military 

official of the Libyan government. "^^^ 

Farrakhan, the leader of the Nation of Islam (NOI, or "Black Muslims"), carries forth a unique historical precedent. His predecessor, Elijah 
Muhammad, invited American Nazi Party leader George Lincoln Rockwell to address an NOI rally on June 25, 1961 in Washington, D.C. 
There is a photo of Rockwell's Nazis in full regalia (including Swastika arm bands) seated in the front row, with the Black Muslims seated 

directly behind them.^^^ 

Rockwell appeared at an NOI rally in Chicago one year later, where he announced, "Elijah Muhammad is to the so-called Negro what 
Adolph Hitler was to the German people. ..." 

In September of 1985, the NOI invited Tom Metzger, former Grand Dragon of the KKK and current leader of WAR to its forum in Ingelwood, 
California, and accepted a small financial contribution from the notorious white supremacist. Metzger declared that his alliance with the NOI 
was a "logical one: They want their territory and that's exactly what we want for them and for ourselves. They speak against the Jews and 

the oppressors in Washington."^^^ 

It therefore comes as no surprise that Libya funded the NOI to the tune of $5 million dollars. The motive behind Arab funding of Western 
racist and dissident groups was — and is — to ferment revolution and destabilize the "Great Satan." Just as Libyan President Muammar al- 
Qaddafi serves as the inspiration behind many militant Black Muslims, so the IRA served as the spiritual inspiration behind the Aryan 
Republican Army, the group founded by Richard Guthrie and Peter Langan, which included Michael Brescia. 

As Stephen Jones eloquently states, "These people are targeted because their ideological compass is preset against the Federal 
Government... Although the white supremacist community are diametrically opposed to that of Black Muslims, it is a well known fact that 
both share a common hatred for the Federal Government." 

When the ARA was eventually disbanded, the FBI discovered an IRA terrorist manual called the "Green Book," literature on Ireland, Gaelic 

language tapes, Semtex explosives, a shoulder-fired rocket launchei 
terrorists, usually being supplied by Russia, China and North Korea. 

language tapes, Semtex explosives, a shoulder-fired rocket launcher, and 1 1 pipe bombs. ^^^ Semtex is normally used by Mid-East 

It seems the connection goes deeper. Dennis Mahon claims he actually provided advice to the IRA, encouraging them to murder "top British 
officers and police officials" but avoid killing civilians. That statement ties-in to others Mahon has made, including the idea of blowing up the 
Oklahoma Federal Building at night, when no one was around, and other methods which "are legitimate to save your nation." 

It seems the IRA may have returned the favor. According to Carol Howe, the outlawed Irish resistance group supplied the detonator used in 
the Oklahoma City bombing. The author is not quite sure why the bombers would need to go to the IRA for a detonator, or exactly how such 
a connection would be arranged, but it seems rather dubious. Sinn Fein (the political arm of the IRA) President Gerry Adams called the claim 

"preposterous rubbish. "^^^ 

It may seem even more preposterous in light of the fact that Adams had won the political favoritism of President Clinton, having been the 
guest of honor at a recent White House reception. 

Yet Howe alleged that Andreas Strassmeir was the key link between the ARA and the IRA. Interestingly, the Dublin Sunday Times reported 
on July 13, 1997 that Strassmeir has indeed associated with Sinn Fein: 

Strassmeir moved to Dublin last February and is living in an apartment in the city owned by George Maybury, general secretary of the 
association of Garda Sergeants and Inspectors. He has been working on construction sites and has attended Sinn Fein meetings and social 

Furthermore, federal informant Cary Gagan, who met with Jones after the bombing, told the author he met with an IRA bomb expert while in 
Mexico City, who instructed him on the use of timers. Gagan claims to have been deeply immersed in the Middle Eastern cell involved in the 
bombing. (See Chapter 5) 

When FOX News reporter Rita Cosby asked Robert Millar if there was any Middle Eastern connection to Elohim City, he answered, "No, not 

that I can even dream of." Strassmeir likewise denied any Middle Eastern connection to the bombing in an interview with the author.^^^ As 
of this writing, former ABC 20/20 investigator Roger Charles was checking a lead that Middle Eastern individuals were indeed trained at 
Elohim City. It has not yet been confirmed. 

Just what Andreas Strassmeir was doing in the U.S. is not altogether clear. In a five-part interview in the Telegraph, Strassmeir said that he 
came to the U.S. in 1989 to work on a "special assignment" for the Justice Department. "I discussed the job when I was in Washington. I 
was hoping to work for the operations section of the DEA," he explained. "It never worked out." 

The former German intelligence officer was recommended for these positions by Vincent Petruskie, a retired U.S. Air Force colonel. 
Strassmeir told attorney Mike Johnston, who flew to Berlin to interview him, that Petruskie is "a former CIA guy who my father had known 
since he (Petruskie) was stationed in Berlin during the Cold War." 

In an interview with New American editor William Jasper, Petruski denied any CIA connections: 

As for the CIA connection, "That's totally wrong," insisted Petruskie. "I'm a retired Air Force officer, that's all." According to Petruskie, he was 
a special agent for the Air Force Office of Special Investigation (OSI), and retired as a colonel after serving from 1954 to 1975. Was he a 

friend of Andreas' father? "I've never met his father; we've only spoken over the phone. "^^^ 

How had Petruskie come to know the younger Strassmeir? Andreas arrived in the late 1980s with some other German lads for the 
reenactment of the Battle of Gettysburg. The German visitors had authentic period uniforms, rifles, bayonets, etc. and an amazingly detailed 
knowledge of the battle. But they apparently had not done their homework concerning economic realities of contemporary America and so 
were short of cash for living accommodations and had no credit cards with which to rent a vehicle. That is when a mutual friend put them in 
touch with Petruskie, who put them up for a while at his home. 

Strassmeir was "a mixed-up kid, a very immature 34-year-old when he came over here," recalled Petruskie. "Andy wanted to work for the U. 
S. government — DEA, Justice — undercover. [He] thought his background with military and German government would help. I explained 
he'd need a green card, education, and set him down with some people in Washington who explained that it wasn't that simple. I think he 

went down to South Carolina and then to Texas to go to school. "^^^ 

In an interview with the Oklahoma Gazette, Petruski once again attempted to distance himself from Strassmeir. "This kid is what we would 
call a putz," he said. 

An interesting description for a former intelligence officer and lieutenant in the elite Panzer Grenadiers. ^^^ 

Petruski also claims that Strassmeir's job with the DEA "fell through." Is one seriously supposed to accept the premise that a man with 
Strassmeir's background, influence, and connections came to the U.S. on the off-chance of finding a job with the DEA? That he traveled all 
this way to run around playing toy soldier for a couple days? And that Petruski just "happened" to meet him at a battle reenactment at 

More likely, Gettysburg was a necessary cover-story to infiltrate Strassmeir into the country. Appearing to be a military enthusiast makes it 
easier to infiltrate the extreme-Right. And Petruski's tale about his DEA job falling through is a "limited hang-out," just enough information 
revealed to satisfy nosy journalists, with enough disinformation mixed in to steer them away from "unapproved" areas. And while Petruski 

said that Strassmeir never got a job with the DEA, he never said he didn't get a job with the ATF, FBI, or CIA.^^^ 

With his cover-story firmly in place, Strassmeir then "drifted" into the far-Right circles of the lunatic fringe, stopping long enough to pick an 
ordinary job as a computer salesman to further enhance his image as an innocent drifter. 

"Andy the German" was now ready to infiltrate the neo-Nazi cliques of the far-Right. With his German background and accent, it was easy to 
convince white supremacists of his legitimacy. In 1991 he settled in Elohim City, where he established himself as Chief of Security and 
weapons training. 

According to a report from the Oklahoma State Bureau of Investigation (OSBI), Strassmeir trained platoon-sized groups consisting of 30 to 
40 individuals from throughout the U.S. every three months at the reclusive compound. According to a law enforcement source interviewed 

by the McCurtain Gazette, they consisted primarily of members from the Aryan Nations, and included Timothy McVeigh. ^^^ As the Gazette 

"Strassmeir went out and replaced all our deer rifles with assault weapons," said [resident Zara] Patterson. "Next, he wanted us to start 
doing illegal stuff... a lot of illegal stuff. I kept telling Andy that we were defensive here, and we didn't want any problems from the law. 

During the mid-'80s, we had a standoff with the feds. I told him to keep us out of trouble. "^^^ 

Was Strassmeir attempting to infiltrate Elohim City? "If the agent penetrates the group," Strassmeir said in an interview with the author, "the 
first thing they do is try to sell them weapons." When asked if that wasn't exactly what he did, he replied, "I just advised them about 
weapons, as an experienced soldier. That's what I did for years and years. I was an infantry man — I just gave advice. But, I always obeyed 
the law." He then admitted that he "didn't know the law. I'd have to consult my lawyer." 

According to information obtained by the Telegraph, Strassmeir infiltrated the Texas Light Infantry militia between 1988 and 1989, and set up 
some illegal gun purchases. They soon suspected that Strassmeir was a ATF informant. When some members followed him to a federal 

building one night, they observed him entering it using the building's combination key-pad. ^^^ 

ATF agent Angela Finley-Graham, the agent who supervised ATF informant Carol Howe, had aerial surveillance photos of Strassmeir with 
an assault weapon, and photos of concrete bunkers at Elohim City. In fact, in 1992, some 960 yards of concrete were transported to the 

compound, presumably for bunkers and weapons storage facilities.^^^ 

Law enforcement officials also received reports that the compound was believed to be generating income through the sale of illegal drugs. A 
source familiar with the community told me that Bruce Millar, Robert Millar's son, was supposedly "strung out" on Methamphetimines. Speed 
is a highly popular drug among the neo-Nazi crowd, and was in fact invented by the Nazis during WWII to bolster the fighting ability of their 

front-line troops. 

Several weeks before the bombing, in mid-February, the Tulsa office of the ATF passed on information to the Oklahoma Highway Patrolman 
Ken Stafford, who put out a BOLO (Be On The Lookout For) on Strassmeir: 

ANDREAS STRASSMEIR, W/M, 5/17/59, heavy German accent. Black Hair/ Blue Eyes. 1" scar on chin, wears cammo fatigues. Possible 
Tennessee driver's license. Came to USA in 5/91, passport was good until 8/91. He never left the country. INS says he does not have an 
extension of his VISA. Possibly in blue Chevy, late model, tag BXH 346 (not on file), usually has someone driving him. Carries a .45 auto 
pistol at all times. He is an illegal alien, ATF wants to be notified if he is stopped and has the gun on him. They will file the charges. Contact: 
Agent Angela Finley, ATF. Office: 918-581-7731 (or) Pager: 918-672-2755. 

What's odd is that the BOLO was for an INS violation, not exactly the jurisdiction of the ATF. Moreover, according to a Tulsa police 
intelligence source, the INS was told not to make any effort to focus on visa violations due to manpower shortages. 

The McCurtain Gazette, which uncovered the BOLO, thinks it was put out by the ATF to provide cover for Strassmeir — an aid for his 
extraction from Elohim City. The OHP subsequently typed up the BOLO, which was eventually "leaked" to various sources, including the 
residents of the rural community. According to Glenn Wilburn, the BOLO was circulated with the stipulation that Strassmeir not be arrested. 


Curiously, when Finley-Graham attempted to get a warrant for Strassmeir's arrest, she was stonewalled by the INS. A Tulsa police 
intelligence source told me that Finley "was out to get the whole place." This fact was confirmed by information obtained by McVeigh's 

defense counsel during discovery. ^^^ 

This is also interesting in light of the fact that the INS and ATF had originally planned a joint raid on the compound — a plan which suddenly 
came to a halt in late February of '95. As one INS memo stated: 

Investigation pending — no arrest or warrant as of yet — Northeastern Oklahoma — request participation. Raid — next month. ^^^ 

It seems the ATF and INS weren't the only ones interested in Elohim City. As a report of Finley-Graham's dated February 28 states: 

On 22 February 1995, this agent met with OHP Trooper Ken Stafford to exchange certain information regarding this investigation. Trooper 
Stafford indicated that the FBI also had an ongoing investigation regarding Elohim City. On this same date, RAC David Roberts met with the 
United States Attorney for the Northern Judicial District of Oklahoma, Steve Lewis, to discuss this investigation. 

On February 23, 1995 RAC David Roberts was contacted by FBI supervisor, Marty Webber, who stated that FBI Special Agent in Charge, 
Bob Ricks, would be available during the week of February 27 through March 03, 1995 to meet with ATF Special Agent in Charge, Lester 
Martz. RAC Roberts then contacted Dallas Division to request SAC Martz meet with SAC Ricks to discuss the investigation of Elohim City. 


As an interesting historical precedent, [former] FBI agent James Rodgers had developed a massive FBI raid on Elohim City in 1988, but it 
was called off for reasons that have never been made clear. 

One month before the bombing Howe got "fed up" with Elohim City and the ATF's attitude towards the investigation. "Angle hadn't made any 
arrests either," Howe told the Gazette, "and that was frustrating, so I quit going out there... until after the building got blown up!"^^^^^^^^ 

Three days after the bombing, the ATF's Washington headquarters pulled the Tulsa office off the case, and the FBI requested them to turn 
over all their files on Elohim City. 

The question is, just who was Strassmeir reporting to? The CIA? The Tulsa ATF office, which has jurisdiction over Elohim City, may not have 
been informed if Strassmeir were reporting to a higher authority, a different agency, or was a confidential informant (CI) on a national level. 

Strassmeir's cover-story that his Justice Department job "never worked out" also smacks of McVeigh's story that his try-out for the Special 
Forces didn't work out due to a "blister." Perhaps Strassmeir — a seven-year German Army veteran — failed his indoctrination due to a 

In spite of his vehement denials, Strassmeir practically admitted to the Telegraph that he was an undercover agent. "The Right-wing in the U. 
S. is incredibly easy to penetrate if you know how to talk to them," he told the Telegraph. "Of course it's easier for a foreigner with an accent; 
nobody would ever suspect a German of working for the Federal Government." 

This certainly appears to be no ordinary slip of the tongue. How would Strassmeir know the extreme-Right is "incredibly easy to penetrate" 
unless he had penetrated them? His statement that 'nobody would ever suspect a German' is practically an admission that he was doing so. 

On February 28, 1992 Strassmeir was arrested and his car impounded by the OHP for driving without a license. When the police opened his 

briefcase, they found a number of documents, including some in German. There were statements from foreign bank accounts, false identity 
papers, and a copy of The Terrorist Handbook. 

According to the tow-truck driver, Kenny Pence, Strassmeir soon brought heavy pressure to bear. "Boy, we caught hell over that one," he 
said. "The phone calls came in from the State Department, the Governor's office, and someone called and said he had diplomatic 

imm unity.... "^^^ 

According to Strassmeir, the entirety of the story amounts to a pair of cops who were out to harass him and his friend Peter Ward (recall that 
Howe identified Ward as John Doe #1). Interestingly, federal prosecutors filed a motion requesting that Judge Matsch block efforts by 
McVeigh's defense team who was seeking government files on Strassmeir's activities. It was eventually revealed to Jones through discovery 
that Strassmeir held a tourist Visa with the designation "A O". Neither Jones nor Ambrose Evans-Pritchard, who reported extensively on 
Strassmeir, could learn what the designation meant. The INS denied any knowledge of its meaning. Curiously, the entries, which appeared 

on all of Strassmeir's INS files, suddenly vanished in March of 1996. Somebody had earased them.^^^ 

All told, these are strange circumstances for a former German intelligence officer — the politically well-connected son to a top aide in 
Chancellor Helmut Kohl's government. It seems unlikely that this ordinary "computer salesman" and "neo-Nazi" with diplomatic immunity, 
backed up by the State Department and the Justice Department, brought federal pressure to bear in order to have a minor traffic violation 

More likely, Strassmeir was in danger of having his cover blown by unsuspecting law enforcement agents. The situation had to be corrected, 
and quickly. 

After the bombing, with the increasing attention of investigators, and his cover almost blown, Strassmeir fled to Germany, taking a circuitous 
route through Mexico and Paris — a route commonly used by spies. Strassmeir's attorney. Kirk Lyons, detailed his client's escape, stating 
that it was aided by Germany's vaunted counter-terrorism unit, GSG-9, the equivalent of our Delta Force. Curious that GSG-9 would assist in 

Strassmeir's retreat. Were they helping one of their own?^^^ 

To help maintain his cover, the Justice Department questioned Strassmeir in North Carolina at his attorneys office, then called him in Berlin 
to ask about his alleged ties to McVeigh. "The FBI asked where I was on the day of the bombing," he told the Telegraph.. "They wanted to 

help debunk the rumors spread about me."^^^ 

Why the FBI would be in the business of debunking rumors, unless it is about them, is unclear. In this case, since any ties between 
Strassmeir and the Justice Department would lead directly back to the them, it seems that is exactly what they are trying to do.^^^* 

If Strassmeir had any ties to McVeigh, or to McVeigh's companions, or to those who had planned the 1 983 bombing of the Murrah Building, 
the Justice Department should have served him with a grand jury subpoena or a warrant. Yet all the FBI did was call Strassmeir on the 
phone to "debunk the rumors" spread about him. 

As one law enforcement officer told the McCurtain Gazette, "We found the axle from the truck that led to Junction City and McVeigh. Our 
Highway Patrolman arrested McVeigh. And that arrest led to Terry Nichols and Mike Fortier... Since then, nothing in this investigation has 

accomplished anything. But we're told by the Bureau that Strassmeir and his buddies are not important. Bull-shit!"^^^ 

The Gazette also uncovered an intelligence bulletin issued by the Diplomatic Security Division, Counter Terrorism Unit, of the Department of 
State on March 18, 1996 concerning Strassmeir's alleged criminal activities in the U.S. 

The cable states that Strassmeir overstayed his visa in 1991 and was known to have been the militia training officer for a white separatist 
group called WAR. 

Quoting the cable, "He (Strassmeir) has been the subject of several investigations for purchasing weapons, and making the weapons fire on 
full automatic. Strassmeir should not be allowed to return to the U.S." 

Yet this cable makes it appear as though the FBI didn't know anything about Strassmeir — who was apparently under the protection of the 
State Department. Was this another cover ploy to protect their informant, or was Strassmeir working for the CIA, who wasn't communicating 
with the FBI and ATF? 

Interestingly, the FBI would claim they weren't aware of Carol Howe's status as an informant either. During her July, 1997 trial (the result of 
trumped up charges by so-called the Justice Department), FBI agent Pete Rickel told the jury that he spoke to Howe in the Spring of 1996, 
when she requested protection, complaining that her cover had been blown. "We were interested to see if there might be any further 
information we could gather about activities involving people at Elohim City who may have been connected with the bombing," said Rickel. 

Yet the agent insisted he had no idea of who Howe really was when the FBI raided her home in December of '96.^^^ 

ATF Agent Angela Finley-Graham likewise claimed she was unaware that an FBI raid was planned on Howe's home. Yet as the McCurtain 
Gazette reported, this premise was destroyed when FBI Special Agent Chris Peters took the stand: 

After explaining his role in the raid on the Howe residence, Peters was asked by defense attorney Clark Brewster during cross-examination 
who he was married to. 

"Angela [Finley] Graham," Peters replied. ^^^ 

Strassmeir's own cover would finally be blown when the Gazette reported on July 14, 1996, that "a highly-placed source at the FBI has 
confirmed that Andreas Carl Strassmeir was a paid government informant sent by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms to infiltrate 


For his part, Strassmeir claims he was at work repairing a fence near Elohim City on April 19. Yet Strassmeir hasn't exactly held tight to his 
story. According to Glenn Wilburn, who has intensively investigated the connection, Strassmeir claimed he stopped working when it started 
to rain, then went home and watched the bombing on TV. When Wilburn checked the weather reports for the area that day, he found that it 
hadn't begun to rain until much later. Strassmeir then claimed the farmer he was working for was George Eaton, a friend of the murdered 
Mueller family. Later, according to Wilburn, Strassmeir stated that he couldn't recall exactly what he was doing until he talked to his attorney. 
Kirk Lyons. 

"Andy has been damaged," exclaimed Lyons, angrily refuting the allegations against his client. "Anybody who puts out the lie that he was 

linked to the Oklahoma bombing in any way is going to pay for jt."^^^ 

Lyons claims his client had been dragged into the conspiracy by McVeigh's defense team — a ploy, he said, to muddy the waters by painting 
a vast conspiracy involving neo-Nazis in Europe and terrorists in the Mideast. "I call it the Space Alien Elvis Presley theory, and it's been 
fueled by nut cases and conspiracy theorists." 

Obviously, Lyons himself is no nut case, merely a hardcore racist and neo-Nazi. The simple "country lawyer" married the sister of a 
prominent member of The Order. The ceremony was performed by Aryan Nations "pastor" Richard Butler at the group's compound in 
Hayden Lake. 

At the 1988 Aryan Nations World Congress, Lyons suggested forming an ACLU of sorts for the extreme-Right, and attended the annual 
event in Hayden Lake as Louis Beam's representative. Not that Lyons was desperate for clients. He happily defended the Confederate 
Hammer Skinheads of Dallas, the National Socialist Skinheads of Houston, the White Vikings of Chicago, and WAR leader Tom Metzger, 
who was accused of inciting the murder of a black student from Ethiopia. Lyons also defended Holocaust revisionist Ernst ZCindel, who 

claimed that the Nazi genocide was a Jewish invention, and other so-called "prisoners of conscience. "^^^ 

Lyons was also the guest of honor at the British Nationalist Party in London, where he applauded the Party's stance on white power, and like 
William Pierce, predicted a future race war. The erudite, ever-socially conscious attorney was also quick to defend Louis Beam, the Texas 
Grand Dragon of the Ku Klux Klan. Beam fled to Mexico after being indicted for conspiracy to overthrow the government. As discussed. 

Beam was charged with harassing Vietnamese fishermen along the coast of Texas. ^^^ 

Interestingly, when Terry Reed was in Guadalajara on behalf of the CIA, working with Oliver North's "Enterprise," Beam mysteriously showed 
up as his neighbor. With the help of Lyons, Beam was acquitted after his wife shot and killed a Mexican Federale. 

Lyons has likewise vehemently defended Strassmeir's role in the bombing, and claims he is not a government agent. Interestingly, Lyons 
arranged Strassmeir's stays in Knoxville, Houston, Elohim City, and even Lyon's own home in North Carolina. 

One thing that can be deduced from all this is that Strassmeir and Lyons aren't very good liars. 

According to Stephen Jones, Dennis Mahon made statements to the effect of, "If a person wanted to know about the bombing, then they 
should talk with Andy Strassmeir because he knows everything." 

For his part, Strassmeir claims he's not a government agent. In his Telegraph interview, he states, "I've never worked for any U.S. 
government agency, and I've not been involved in any intelligence operation since my discharge from the German army in 1988. This family 
(the Wilburns) is on a fishing expedition." 

Yet in the very same article, Strassmeir admits that the bombing was the result of a government sting gone bad — a sting involving agents of 
the ATF. Considering the revealing nature of Strassmeir's information, the article, entitled "Did Agents Bungle U.S. Terror Bomb?" might just 
as well have been called "Thank You Andy." As Strassmeir states: 

"The ATF had an informant inside this operation. They had advance warning and they bungled it," he said. "What they should have done is 
make an arrest while the bomb was still being made instead of waiting till the last moment for a publicity stunt." 

Asked if he thought the alleged informant would ever speak out, he replied with passion: "How can he? What happens if it was a sting 
operation from the very beginning? What happens if it comes out that the plant was a provocateur? What if he talked and manipulated the 

others into it? What then? The country couldn't handle it. The relatives of the victims are going to go crazy, and he's going to be held 
responsible for the murder of 168 people. Of course the informant can't come forward. He's scared shitless right now." Before and after this 

outburst he kept repeating that he was not making veiled references to himself. ^^^ 

When I interviewed Strassmeir, he insisted that he had been quoted out of context. That statement, he claimed, was made to him by a 
former ATF agent. "He made some hints that the ATF probably knew that this was coming down," said Strassmeir. The source, he said, was 

"pretty reliable," although he was quick to qualify it by stating that he wasn't certain of the information. ^^^ 

Referring to the sting, he said, "What kind of gives me a bad taste, is that all the ATF agents were apparently not in the office during the 
blast, all of them." As to just what the sting involved, Strassmeir claimed he didn't know. But regarding John Doe 2, he said, "For some 

reason they don't look for this guy anymore. That, for some reason, I think is very strange. "^^^ 

If Strassmeir was involved in a sting operation, it may have been to stop the flow of Nazi propaganda emanating from the U.S. Such 
influences have made their presence felt in an unsettling way in Germany in recent years. It is likely that the FBI requested the assistance of 
the Bundeskriminalamt (BKA), the German FBI, and the Bundesnachrichtendienst (BND), the German CIA, to help gather intelligence on 
such groups as Michael Kuhnen's Anti-Zionist League, and their connections to both Arabs and American neo-Nazis. 

FBI Director Louis Freeh had announced a joint U.S. -German intelligence gathering operation on neo-Nazi groups as far back as 1993. 
Freeh pledged to work alongside German law-enforcement to stem the spread of Nazism emanating from the United States. 

On April 20, 1995, the American National Socialist Worker's Party announced that the Secret Service and ATF had been investigating Gary 
Lauck, leader of the domestic NSDAP/AO. Lauck, who publishes the neo-Nazi newsletter N.S. Kampruf, had been a major influence in 

Germany and was an object of concern among German authorities (German sedition laws forbid the publication of Nazi literature).^^^ 

It seems that certain information provided by Strassmeir resulted in Lauck's arrest. With Strassmeir's help, the "Farm Belt Fuhrer" was 
arrested in Copenhagen and extradited to Hamburg. The arrest coincided with major raids by German police of NSDAP/AO cells all over 

Lauck wasn't the only one beckoning young Germans to join the white supremacist movement. Research conducted by McVeigh's defense 
team indicates that Dennis Mahon traveled to Germany to recruit individuals into the Ku Klux Klan. A video reportedly shows Mahon in 
Germany in full KKK regalia, lighting a cross. Mahon himself joked that if he was fined the usual 1,000 Deutsche Marks for every time he 

gave the Nazi salute, he would owe 10,000,000 Marks.^^^ 

Only a few weeks before the Oklahoma City bombing, Mahon received a phone call from Lauck. "Yeah, I got a call from Lauck sometime 
before the bombing... He told me that he was making another trip to Europe. I told him he was too hot, and he shouldn't go." Shaking his 
head, Mahon says now, "He should have listened." 

Did the authorities know Lauck was coming? "Well, I did tell Strassmeir about the trip," said Mahon. (Or did Mahon tell the government 

With Lauck's European arrest, the NSDAP noted, "U.S. officials have been doing extensive surveillance of Lauck's contemporaries in 
Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska and north Texas. These surveillance activities were being coordinated out of the OKC offices, according to 
our sources." 

Interestingly, the newsletter added that "the OKC office of the ATF had plans to serve search warrants 'by the beginning of Summer' on 
several well-known white supremacists." 

It seems the warrants were never issued. ^^^ 

Interestingly, Lyons told the German magazine Volkstreue: "There are many spies within [the Klan] and most of its best leaders have left the 
Klan to do more effective work within the movement... The man who is mainly responsible for the success of the Klan in Germany — 
Dennis Mahon — has left the Klan." 

Apparently, Mahon is still concerned enough about his responsibility to the white supremacist movement to have telephoned Germany with 
orders to kill Strassmeir. According to a conversation overheard by Cash, "[Mahon] wanted Andreas shot in both kneecaps and a confession 

elicited from him, then hold a 30-minute trial and then execute him."^^^ 

Investigator Jeff Steinberg takes this one step further, believing that Mahon himself may be an ATF operative. He says the ATF had him on a 
charge then dropped it. "He may have been turned," said Stienberg. 

Obviously, Strassmeir wasn't the only informant at Elohim City. Mahon, who knew Guthrie, McCarthy, Stedeford, and Langan, had 
introduced his new-found friend Carol Howe to the white separatist community. It was there that the attractive 24-year-old daughter of a 
prominent Tulsa businessman would meet Strassmeir. As Howe told the Gazette: 

"I kinda had a relationship with him for a while. We talked about relationships once, and he said he wasn't interested in settling down with a 
woman. All he wanted to do was blow up federal buildings. It was also at that same meeting that he shoved his hand down my dress and I 
thought, well, he was doing something else, but now that I think about it, I think he was feeling for a wire." 

Howe also said she overheard Mahon and Strassmeir discuss plans to bomb the Oklahoma City Federal Building. As Howe related it: 

"I started going to as many of their meetings as I could and met a lot of people who were very secretive. But sometime in November there 
was a meeting and Strassmeir and Mahon said it was time to quit talking and go to war, and time to start bombing federal buildings." 

"I reported all this to Angie."^^^ 

According to her attorney, Howe provided telephone numbers, license tags, names, family trees, (including the location and design of 
tattoos) drawings of buildings, pictures, and descriptions and lists of individuals who were involved in criminal activity. 

In fact. Confidential Informant 53270-183, or CI-183 (whose neo-Nazi handle was "Freya" and "Lady MacBeth") made over 70 reports to 
Finley-Graham during 1994-95 time frame. Finley paid Howe $120-a-week to provide the ATF regular updates on the activities at Elohim 
City, and those of Strassmeir and Mahon in particular. Finley-Graham filed her preliminary ROI (Report of Investigation) on Carol Howe on 
August 30, 1994. Entitled "White Aryan Resistance, W.A.R." It states, in part: 

On August 24, 1994 this agent met with CI-183 in the Tulsa ATF Field Office and discussed in great detail the federal firearms and 
conspiracy violations of the White Aryan Resistance, "W.A.R."... 

W.A.R. is described breifly as being radical, paramilitary, Neo-nazi, anti-government, and violent. W.A.R. has national and international 
affiliates to include the KKK and a racist following in Germany.... 

W.A.R. has several training sites in Oklahoma. The primary training location is called Elohim City which is in a rural area near the border of 
Oklahoma and Arkansas in Adair County, Oklahoma. The members of the religious organization. The Covenant, Sword and Arm of the Lord 
live at Elohim City. The The Covenant, Sword and Arm of the Lord is a separatist organization that conjointly trains with and exchanges 
weapons with W.A.R.... 

Regarding statements by Mahon that were secretly videotaped by Howe, Finley-Graham writes: 

Mahon has made numerous statements regarding the conversion of firearms into fully automatic weapons, the manufacture and use of 
silencers and the manufacture and use of explosive devices. Mahon has stated both the knowledge and ability to manufacture a range of 
explosive devices. Mahon intends to manufacture and use any or all of the above when he deems necessary. Mahon and his organization 

are preparing for a race war and war with the government in the near future and it is believed that they are rapidly stockpiling weapons. ^^^ 

Mahon responded to Howe's allegations in the Village Voice: "This woman has got some shit on me. They're lies. But it's my word against 

Some shit indeed. 

It was after Mahon and Howe had a romantic falling-out that the 24-year-old Howe switched from being an avowed white supremacist to a 
ATF informant. A temporary protective order was issued against Mahon by a Tulsa court in August of '94 after Howe alleged that Mahon 

threatened to "take steps to neutralize me," by breaking her knees if she tried to leave the white supremacist movement.^^^ 

"I was contacted by Dennis Mahon after I ordered some literature from this group called White Aryan Resistance," Howe told the McCurtain 
Gazette. "He wanted to have a closer relationship than I did, and later he threatened me when I tried to get away from his group. ^^^ 

It was after Howe sought the restraining order that Finley-Graham recruited her into the ATF. Mahon claims it was Howe-the-informant who 
advocated most of the violence. Depicting himself as the fall-guy in the affair, he told the press, "They want to drag me into this thing and I 

barely remember even meeting Tim McVeigh. It was Strassmeir who was meeting with McVeigh, not me."^^^ 

Curiously, Mahon later sent a videotape to McVeigh's prison cell expressing his views on the "movement." McVeigh's defense team was 
concerned about the video, not knowing whether the intended message "was to encourage the Defendant to 'sacrifice' himself for the 

eventual 'justice' of the cause or was a subtle threat intended to remind the Defendant that members of his family were vulnerable. "^^^ 

While Mahon vehemently denied Howe's allegations, the ATF's ROI of January 11, 1995 (three months before the bombing) states, in part: 

During the Sabbath meeting, Millar gave a sermon soliciting violence against the US government. He brought forth his soldiers and 
instructed them to take whatever action necessary against the US Government. It is understood that ATF is the main enemy of the people at 


EC. ... He explicitly told 1 83 that they were preparing to fight a war against the government. . . . ' — ^ 

Howe reported to Finley-Graham that James Ellison also planned to reconstruct the CSA. Her report also stated that Millar planned to 
consolidate his compound with groups in Texas, Missouri, Arkansas and Oklahoma to prepare to fight a war with the government. Posse 

Comitatus members from Pennsylvania allegedly lent a hand by helping Elohim City residents convert their weapons to full automatic.^^^ 

"These people have the means and the desire to start a terrible war in America," wrote Howe in a letter to her father in August of 1994. 
"They must be stopped, one group at a time."^^^ 

To precipitate that war, Strassmier was apparently willing to procure grenades, C-4 and other explosives.^^^ 

This is hardly surprising. In 1979, ATF informant Bernard Butkovich and FBI operative Edward Dawson led a group of KKK and Nazi Party 
members on a shooting spree during a parade in Greensboro, North Carolina, which led to the deaths of five members of the Communist 

Workers Party.^^^ 

Interestingly, the Washington Post reported how Butkovich "urged members to buy equipment to convert semi-automatic guns to fully 
automatic weapons, and offered to procure explosives (including hand grenades)." 

According to the New York Times, witnesses reported that Butkovich, a veteran demolitions expert, also offered "to train them in activities 

such as making pipe bombs and fire bombs," and that "the Nazis take weapons to the [Communist] rally in the trunks of their cars."^^^* 

With a map of the parade route supplied by Greensboro Police Department Detective Jerry Cooper, Dawson, Butkovich, and their KKK and 
neo-Nazi comrades were able to select the most advantageous site for their ambush. 

According to Stephen Jones's appeal brief, Finley-Graham's handwritten notes confirmed a report from Howe that Dennis Mahon had bomb- 
making expertise, including allegedly exploding a 5001b ammonium nitrate bomb in Michigan five years earlier.^^^ 

Howe also told the agents that Strassmeir and Mahon cased the Tulsa IRS building and the Oklahoma City Federal Building in November 
and December of 1994, and once during February of '95. Interestingly, Mahon told reporters that as a "revolutionary," he would indeed blow 
up the Federal Building, but do it at night, when no one was around. 

Shockingly, most of this information was provided to the ATF before the bombing. ^^^ 

J.D. Cash, reporting for the IVIcCurtain Gazette, claimed to have received information from an intermediary that a source at the headquarters 
of the Aryan Nations in Hayden Lake, Idaho, said that Mahon was "one of the ring leaders in the group that bombed the Federal Building." 
Cash, who interviewed Mahon on numerous occasions by posing as a white supremacist, wrote the following in the Gazette: 

And he (Mahon) indicated that the results of the bombing were not as he anticipated. He felt like this would cause a coming together of 
radicals around the country who would begin a campaign of terrorism. In retrospect, he feels like the IRS building should have been bombed 
instead of the Murrah Building and probably should have been bombed at night. The day care center and the killing of the children was 
having a negative effect. 

For his part, Mahon claims he has an alibi for the morning of April 19. Yet Bricktown witness David Snider is sure the driver of the Ryder 
truck which slowly made its way past his warehouse that morning was Dennis Mahon. Although the driver had long hair and was wearing 
sunglasses. Snider is adamant. He showed the Oklahoma County Grand Jury a video showing Mahon wearing the same sunglasses he was 

wearing on the morning of the blast.^^^ (See drawing) 

Mahon, who said he believes there were others involved with McVeigh, told the Daily OI<lalioman, "I have never been in downtown 

[Oklahoma City]. I am squeaky clean. "^^^ 

Interestingly, Mahon also claimed himself to be a make-up artist, and described himself as "the master of all disguises." In a somewhat 
startling statement, Mahon told Ambrose Evans-Pritchard of the London Sunday Telegraph: 

"I always deliver my bombs in person, in disguise," he said mischievously. "I can look like a Hispanic or even a Negro. I'm the master of 
disguise. "^^^ 

Reverend Johnny Lee Clary, a reformed Ku Klux Klansman who also testified before the County Grand Jury, told the Daily Oklahoman: 
"There is no mistake that the lips and chin and facial features [of the man Snider saw] is Dennis Mahon in one of those disguises." 

"He always bragged he is the master of disguise," said Clary, who claims to be an ordained minister in Tulsa. Mahon "used to dress up like 
Mexicans and Orientals or like blacks."^ 

Howe, who was debriefed by the ATF and FBI after the bombing, told agents Blanchard and Finley-Graham that the sketches of the 
suspects who rented the Ryder truck appeared to be Elohim City residents [and Mahon and Strassmeir associates] Peter or Sonny Ward. 
She also reportedly told the agents, " one in the world looks more like the sketch of John Doe 2 than Michael Brescia." Howe's report to 
Finley-Graham stated, in part: 

SA BLANCHARD and SA ANGIE FINDLEY, ATF, talked with SA FINDLEY's confidential source "CAROL." CAROL stated she believes in 
1994, she saw an individual resembling the composite of UNSUB # I in a white separatist paramilitary camp called "Elohm City" (phonetic) 
(EC). This camp is located around Stillwell, Oklahoma. CAROL knows this person as "PETE." CAROL has seen an individual named 
"TONY" resembling the composite of UNSUB # 2. TONY is PETE's brother, and is not well liked at EC. TONY would do as his brother 
directed however. 

When CAROL saw the television pictures of TIMOTHY JAMES MCVEIGH, she said MCVEIGH doesn't look like "PETE." CAROL recalled 
that she did see a person who looked like MCVEIGH in a photograph in a photo album she saw at a 1994 Klan Rally. 

NBC, putting the official Justice Department spin on the story, claimed Howe's reports contained no specific information regarding the plot. 
Yet according to the Gazette, "Howe was routinely polygraphed by the government during the time she was making her monthly reports. The 

government's own documents indicate she passed, 'showing no deception on her part in any polygraph examination. '"^^^ As Finley-Graham 
testified during Howe's pre-trial hearing: 

Brewster: "Now, you were interested in knowing as much as you could about Mr. Strassmeir, weren't you?" 

Graham: "Yes " 

Brewster: "What kind of guns he had?" 

Graham: "Yes " 

Brewster: "And the kind of threats he made about wanting to blow up federal buildings? You were interested in that, weren't you?" 

Graham: "I was interested in anything I could find out about any violation." 

Brewster: "And Ms. Howe told you about Mr. Strassmeir's threats to blow up federal buildings, didn't she?" 

Graham: "In general, yes." 

Brewster: "And that was before the Oklahoma City bombing?" 

Graham: "Yes " 

At the time of this writing, federal authorities were still insisting that Howe"s reports contained no specific warnings of any plot to bomb any 

federal building. They also claimed that they were only alerted two days after the bombing, when they debriefed their informant.^^^ 

Yet seems Howe"s reports were specific enough to warn the ATF not to be in the office the day of the bombing. No ATF employees were 
among the 169 killed. 

Nevertheless, federal prosecutors still insisted, after Howe went public, that the informant couldn"t have had any specific information about 
the bombing, because she was ""terminated"" on March 27, three weeks before the attack. 

Also ""terminated"" it seems, was the ATF"s December, 1994 report regarding Howe"s activities at Elohim City. That report, sources told The 
New American, contained specific warnings about the pending attack on the Alfred P. Murrah Building. Had this report, like so much of the 
ATF"s evidence concerning their and the FBrs atrocities at Waco, conveniently ""disappeared?"" 

Unfortunately for the ATF, the records which show that Howe remained an active informant until January 9, 1996, hadn"t disappeared. As 
Finley-Graham"s ROI of January 31, 1996 states: 

It is requested that CI 53270-183 be retained as an active informant. It was requested by the Dallas Division office that this informant be 
retained as an active informant for the duration of the Oklahoma City bombing investigation. 

On April 22, Finley-Graham sent the following memo to Lester Martz, SAC of the Dallas Field office: 

This informant is involved with the OKC bomb case which is pending prosecution in Denver and was the key in identifying individuals at 

Elohim City, which is tied to the OKC bomb case.^^^ 

In addition to denying her employment with the ATF, the bureau attempted to claim that Howe was "unstable," her emotional state and her 
"loyalty" to the ATF being in question. Yet once again, the official records, which describe Howe as "stable and capable," contradict these 
claims. As the ATF's ROI of April 22, 1996 notes: 

[This agent has] known CI 53270-183 for approximately two years and can assert that this informant has not been overly paranoid or fearful 
during undercover operations. 

As 24-year ATF veteran Robert Sanders told The New American, "Howe was 'a very good informant. She is obviously intelligent, 
resourceful, cool and convincing under pressure,' and has a good sense for 'the kind of detailed information that is most helpful' to law 

enforcement and prosecutors. "^^^ 

Yet the feds would make every attempt to distance themselves from their own informant in the aftermath of the bombing. Not surprisingly, 
this was the same ruse the FBI used in the aftermath of the World Trade Center bombing — pulling undercover operative Emad Salem off 
the case two weeks before the tragic attack (which he had also warned them about) then claiming that he was "unreliable." 

Yet the FBI reactivated Salem after the bombing, just as they did with Howe, sending her back to Elohim City to gather additional information 
on Mahon, Strassmeir, and the others. Her new contract raised her pay from $25.00 per day to $400.00. 

Curiously, neither the ATF nor the FBI offered Howe any protection. FBI agent Pete Rickel admitted during subsequent court testimony that 
Howe had come to him in May of '96 seeking protection, but he had offered none. In fact, Rickel said he didn't even make a note of their 

Not only did the FBI fail to protect what the ATF called their "key" witness linking Elohim City to the bombing, but the FBI went one step 
further, leaking a confidential report to the press. As Finley-Graham wrote in her April 1, 1996 report: 

On March 29, 1996 this agent received a telephone call from S/A Harry Eberhardt. S/A Eberhardt stated that the identity of CI 53270-183 
had been severely compromised. S/A Eberhardt stated that a report by FBI agent James R. Blanchard II contained the formal name of CI 
53270-183 and enough information to reveal the identity of CI 53270-183 without his/her name being used. S/A Eberhardt stated that he had 
attempted to relay this matter to FBI ASAC Jack McCoy, however ASAC McCoy showed little concern and denied that S/A Blanchard was at 
fault. S/A Eberhardt stated that he became irate because it was apparent that nothing was going to be done in an effort to rectify the problem 
or at least provide help for the safety of CI 53270-183. 

Finley-Graham "immediately telephoned CI 53270-183 and informed him/her that their name had been disclosed and that he/she should 
take every precaution for their safety.... This agent told the CI that anything and everything will be done to insure his/her safety." It seems the 
government was fully aware of the danger posed to their informant, as Finley-Graham's report of April 22, 1996 notes: 

Individuals who pose immediate danger to CI 53270-183 are: (1) Dennis Mahon, (2) members of Elohim City, and (3) any sympathizer to 
McVeigh.... This agent believes that s/he could be in serious danger when associates discover his/her identity. 

In fact, one of Finley-Graham's initial reports indicates that Dennis Mahon "stated that he would kill any informant." Mahon subsequently sent 
Howe on a "night reconnaissance mission" to a secluded area — straight into the arms of a black gang, whose members pistol-whipped her 
and cut her with a knife. In what looked like a deliberate attempt to rid itself of an embarrassing informant, Howe was provided with no 
protection by the government which she had so loyally and courageously served. 

When public criticism and Naze a' faire attempts to make Howe "disappear" failed, the government resorted to silencing her on phony, 
trumped up charges. 

The "Justice" Department found it expeditious to indict Howe just in time for McVeigh's trial, putting her safely behind bars. The charge? 
Compiling a list of bomb ingredients, acquiring photographs of federal offices in Tulsa, and using her home telephone to distribute racist 

information — all undercover activities committed on behalf of her employer — the ATF. Howe was unanimously acquitted. ^^^ 

Attorney Stephen Jones believes that Howe was indicted "for the purposes of 'leverage' against her in order to keep her mouth shut about 

what she knows about the activities of Mahon and Strassmeir," and her employer, the ATF.^^^ As the reader will soon discover, this is not 
be the time the Federal Government would seek to silence and discredit one of its own informants. 

Perhaps most surprisingly, during a July, 1997 pre-trial hearing for Howe, FBI agent Pete Rickel revealed that "Grandpa" Millar was a 
confidential FBI informant! When asked if Millar had been a source of government information or an informant, Rickel replied, "generally, 

It now appeared that there were at least three government informants inside Elohim City — Howe, Strassmeir, and Millar, the later two who 
were inciting a war with the Federal Government. Add to that the probability of Brescia, Mahon, and McVeigh being informants, and Elohim 
City begins to look like one great big government-run neo-Nazi training camp. 

According to a former government informant interviewed by the Gazette, "It is typical for agencies such as the CIA, FBI and ATF to place 
multiple 'moles' inside a place like Elohim City and play one resource off the other, without either one knowing the identity of the other." 
Federal law enforcement, even different offices of the same agency, often do not share informants' names unless the mission calls for it. 

"The reasons are obvious. First, there is no way a law enforcement agency is going to risk exposing the life of one of their assets should the 
other 'resource' succumb to torture or decide to double-cross the agency. And, of course, the monitoring of information can best be verified if 
neither resource knows who the other is. That's the only way this game works, and it's the only way it succeeds." 

And what of Michael Brescia? Was he also an informant? Given the close, often revealing nature of a roommate relationship, it is likely that 
an undercover agent would room with another agent, even if nothing more than one might overhear the other talking in his sleep. 

Strassmeir himself admitted the difficulty of going "deep cover," and having to keep your guard up 24 hours-a-day. "If you were an 
undercover agent," said Strassmeir, "you have to keep your guard up, you can't get close." 

Is that why he roomed with Brescia, so he wouldn't have to maintain his guard? Not according to Strassmeir: "I would be very surprised if he 
(Brescia) was an undercover agent. He's a very honest, straightforward guy." 

Strassmeir, along with friends Peter and Sonny Ward, fled Elohim City in August of '95, after McVeigh defense team investigators began 
looking into activities at the secretive compound. 

Brescia left Elohim City around the same time as Strassmeir, with his fiance Ester, traveling to Canada, and remaining mostly underground. 
He subsequently returned to his parents' house in Philadelphia, where he was actively sought by the media. 

Curiously, like his friend Strassmeir, Brescia was completely ignored by federal authorities for his possible role in the bombing. He was 
finally arrested for the Wisconsin bank heist in February of 1997. Was it a legitimate bust, or did the arrest serve to silence him for his role in 
the bombing as the government tried to do with Carol Howe? 

Shawn Kenny gave the FBI the tip that led to the arrest of Guthrie, who was apprehended after a high-speed chase outside of Cincinnati in 
January of 1997. He was found dead in his cell in Covington, Kentucky six months later, on July 12, hanged with a bed sheet. Authorities 
quickly ruled his death a suicide. According to a note found at the scene, Guthrie was apparently feeling guilty over his turncoat attitude, and 
didn't want to endanger his family. 

"Sometimes it takes something like a suicide to settle a problem," he'd written to his attorney. "Especially one that's like... mine."^^^ 

Yet Dennis Mahon told Village Voice reporter James Ridgeway he believes Guthrie was murdered because he had threatened to reveal 
information about the proceeds of the loot, which was believed to have gone to the Aryan Nations and other neo-Nazi groups. Guthrie was 
found dead only a few hours after telling a reporter from the Los Angeles Times that he intended to write a tell-all book that "would go a lot 

further into what we were really doing. "^^^ He was also just days away from appearing before a grand jury. 

With Guthrie's help, Stedeford was arrested on May 24 at the Upper Darby recording studio where he worked as a guitarist, and McCarthy 

was captured in the Bustleton section of Philadelphia. Thomas was eventually arrested in conjunction with several robberies as well.^^^ 

Langan was arrested at his rented house in Columbus, Ohio several days after Guthrie, in a fusillade of bullets fired by over-eager FBI 
agents. The wanted fugitive, who had fired no shots, likened the arrest to an assassination attempt. Another silencing attempt perhaps? (The 
FBI claimed they were warned that Langan wouldn't be taken alive.) 

Ironically, during his trial, the self-styled revolutionary shouted hackneyed phrases such as "Power to the People!" and told the judge that the 
ARA's mission was to overthrow the government and "set free the oppressed people of North America." Except, apparently, for Blacks, 

Jews, and homosexuals. ^^^ 

Yet eyebrows everywhere raised when Langan showed up in jail with pink-painted toenails and long manicured fingernails. Langan's lover, a 
transsexual named Cherie Roberts, appeared at the trial and exclaimed during a scene with U.S. Marshals, "I can't even talk to my wife!" 

Roberts, who met Langan at a Kansas City group called "Crossdressers and Friends," called the neo-macho revolutionary bank robber by 

his charmed pet moniker, "Donna. "^^^ 

In a "recruitment" video confiscated during a search of Langan's house, "Donna" appears in a black ski-mask, exhorting potential 
revolutionaries to eradicate all non-whites and non-Christians from the country, and eliminate federal "whores." 

"In solidarity with our Serbian brothers we understand the meaning of ethnic cleansing. To us, it's not a dirty word." Apparently, preoperative 
transsexuals were not included in Langan's targeted population group. 

The 107-nninute propaganda film, entitled "The Aryan Republican Army Presents: The Armed Struggle Underground," plays out like a bad 
Monty Python skit. Langan shouts orders in Spanish from behind a desk festooned with hand grenades and bank booty, while his "troops" 
goose-step in the background. "Our basic goal is to set up an Aryan Republic on the North American continent," states "Commander 


The neo-revolutionaries also expound their philosophy and tactics, which include, not surprisingly... blowing up federal buildings. "We have 
endeavored to keep collateral damage and civilian casualties to a minimum," announces their leader, "but as in all wars, some innocents 
shall suffer. So be it." 

The video was completed in January, 1995, four months before the bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Building. Langan, for his part, says he 

had nothing to do with the bombing. "Most of my family, my siblings work in federal buildings," he told the Washington Post.^^^ 

Yet given Langan's connections to Brescia, Strassmeir and Mahon, and their connections to Nichols and McVeigh, and the group's ties to 

the violent neo-Nazi underground, it is singularly curious why the FBI hasn't seriously pursued these leads. ^^^ 

Then there is the CSA's 1983 plot to blow up the Oklahoma City Federal Building, and Snell's strangely fortuitous statements about April 19, 

What is even more shocking is why the ATF apparently ignored warnings from it's own informant, Carol Howe. Had they figured they could 
ensnare the bombers in a highly publicized bust? 

"Elohim City is not a current subject of interest," a law enforcement official in Washington told the Associated Press, almost two years after 
the blast.^^^ 

Was Elohim City of so little interest to authorities because it was a government-infiltrated spook center, kept on hand for contingencies, 
much as elements of the KKK were by the FBI's J. Edgar Hoover? 

And what of Iraq's connections to Dennis Mahon? Is this a subject of interest? Was it just an innocent business relationship, or, like the 
Syrian's offer of funding to Robert Mathews, was it something more? 

Brought to you by 

I O N A L r s 

;ws Portal 


Teflon Terrorists 

In the wake of the bombing, the media was abuzz with reports of a Middle-Eastern connection. Reporters were reporting claims of Muslim 
extremists, and talking heads were talking about a familiar modus operandi. Then on April 21 , less than 48 hours after the bombing, the FBI 
announced that they had snared their elusive quarry, an angry white guy named Timothy James McVeigh. The following day, the Bureau 
announced that they had captured angry white guy number two: Terry Lynn Nichols. 

The mainstream media, having their information spoon-fed to them by the FBI, quickly launched into in-depth analysis of the two "prime 
suspects." All other information quickly became buried in the great collective memory sink hole. It was as if, with the "capture" of McVeigh 
and Nichols, all other information became suddenly irrelevant and obsolete. The Justice Department waved their magic wand. President 
Clinton winked at the Middle-Eastern community, and all the world was set right again. 

What remained hidden behind the official curtain of deceit however, were scores of witness accounts, official statements, and expert 
opinions regarding a Middle-Eastern connection. For 48 hours after the bombing, FBI officials and terrorism experts poured forth their 
opinions and analyses: 

Robert Heibel, a former FBI counter-terrorism expert, said the bombing looked like the work of Middle East terrorists, possibly those 
connected with the World Trade Center bombing. ^^^ 

Speaking on CNN, ATF director John Magaw said: "I think any time you have this kind of damage, this kind of explosion, you have to look 
there (Middle East terrorists) first." 

"This was done with the attempt to inflict as many casualties as possible," said terrorism expert Steven Emerson on CBS Evening News. 
"That is a Middle Eastern trait and something that has been, generally, not carried out on this soil until we were rudely awakened to it in 

Former United States Representative Dave McCurdy of Oklahoma (former Chairman of the House Intelligence Committee) told CBS News 
that there was "very clear evidence of the involvement of fundamentalist Islamic terrorist groups. "^^^ 

Former FBI counter-terrorism chief Oliver "Buck" Revell told CBS Evening News, "I think it's most likely a Middle East terrorist. I think the 
modus operandi is similar. They have used this approach." 

Ex-CIA counter-terrorism director Vince Cannistraro told the Washington Times, "Right now, it looks professional, and it's got the marks of a 
Middle Eastern group." 

Avi Lipkin, a former Israeli Defense Intelligence specialist on the Prime Minister's staff, in Oklahoma City at the time of the bombing, told 
investigator Craig Roberts, "this is a typical Arab Terrorist type attack."^^^ 

It was also reported the Israelis gave the Americans a "general warning" concerning the bombing 

CBS News stated that the FBI had received claims of responsibility from at least eight different organizations. Seven of the claimants were 
thought to have Middle Eastern connections: 

An FBI communique that was circulated Wednesday suggested that the attack was carried out by the Islamic Jihad, an Iranian-backed 
Islamic militant group, said a security professional in California who declined to be named... the communique suggested the attack was 
made in retaliation for the prosecution of Muslim fundamentalists in the bombing of the World Trade Center in February, 1993, said the 

source, a non-government security professional.... 'We are currently inclined to suspect the Islamic Jihad as the likely group... '^^^ 

James Fox, former head of the New York FBI office, told CBS News, "We thought that we would hear from the religious zealots in the future, 
that they would be a thorn in our side for years to come." 

On July 2nd, shortly after Sheik Omar Abdel Rahman's surrender to U.S. Immigration authorities, the Egyptian Jama a' Islamiya (the group 
implicated in the World Trade Center bombing) issued a statement saying that if the Sheik was prosecuted or extradited to Egypt, they would 
begin a world-wide terror campaign against the United States. 

On April 21, 1995, the London Telegraph reported: "Israeli anti-terror experts believe the Oklahoma bombing and the 1993 World Trade 
Center explosion are linked and that American investigators should focus on Islamic extremists." 

The same day, the London Sunday Times carried a report that suggested President Saddam Hussein of Iraq may have been involved in 
both the World Trade Center and the Oklahoma City bombings: 

Iraq was furious with America last week at its United Nations move to foil efforts to overturn Gulf war economic sanctions... Ramzi Ahmed 
Yousef, the recently-captured alleged mastermind of the 1993 attack on the World Trade Center in New York, was directly funded by 
Baghdad, according to CIA and FBI documents — and evidence so far developed about the latest bomb indicates some similarities in the 

planning. ^^^ 

If those in Baghdad were angry over the brutal and relentless attack on their country by U.S. forces during the Gulf War, they had additional 
reason for anger when President Clinton launched a retaliatory raid against Iraqi intelligence headquarters in Baghdad. The June 26 Cruise 
Missile strike was directed against the complex after an alleged plot was uncovered to assassinate former president, crook, and mass 

murderer George Bush during his recent visit to Kuwait.^^^ The raid merely destroyed some of the complex, and leveled about a dozen 
surrounding homes, killing approximately six civilians. Syndicated columnist Charlie Reese called it "high-tech terrorism." 

The Net News Service reported the next day that the government-backed Al-Tiiawra newspaper charged that Clinton had carried out the 
attack only to bolster his "eroded popularity and credibility... domestically." Both Al-Tiiawra and General Saber Abdul-Aziz Douri, head of the 
Iraqi intelligence service, indicated that the Iraqi government had vowed vengeance against the United States. 

Backing up Douri's claims was former head of Iraqi military intelligence. General Wafiq al-Sammara'i, who told the London Independent that 
the June, 1996 bombing of the U.S. military housing complex in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, which killed 19 servicemen, "strongly resembled 
plans drawn up by a secret Iraqi committee on which he served after the invasion of Kuwait. He says operations considered by Iraq, but not 
carried out at that time due to shortage of reliable agents, included exploding large bombs near buildings where American soldiers were 


One month later, the Washington Posf reported: 

Early on July 6, Col. Mohammar Qaddafi of Libya issued a warning that President Clinton and the United States had 'blundered' in the recent 
missile attack on Baghdad, and that the United States should expect 'a lot more terrorism' in the near future. Qaddafi spoke of increasingly 

violent and spectacular acts to be perpetrated expressly for broadcast on the national and international television.^^^ 

Shortly after the bombing, KFOR, Channel 4 in Oklahoma City received a call from the Nation of Islam, taking credit for the bombing. 
Interestingly, the NOI has been directly funded by Libya. 

The Post's Jack Anderson added that a direct attack against the U.S. would be unlikely, and that counter-terrorist analysts feared that the 
only viable avenue for Hussein's revenge would be through the use of terrorism. "A preferable revenge for Iraq would involve having a 
'surrogate terrorist' carry out a domestic attack that Hussein could privately take credit for... 

According to Dr. Laurie Mylroie, Ph.D., a Middle East expert at the Center for Security Policy, and an authority on the World Trade Center 
bombing, Iraqi agents such as Ramzi Yousef had infiltrated the original World Trade Center cell, resulting in the construction of a more 
powerful, sophisticated bomb. 

Dr. Mylroie noted that on September 27, 1994, as Iraqi troops tested American resolve by preparing a new assault against Kuwait, Saddam 
Hussein declared: "We will open the storehouses of the universe" against the United States. Two days later, Babil — a newspaper in Iraq 
owned by Saddam's son, Uday — amplified, saying: "Does the United States realize the meaning of opening the stores of the world with the 

will of Iraqi people?... Does it realize the meaning of every Iraqi becoming a missile that can cross to countries and cities?"^^^ 

Mylroie notes that there may be other Iraqi intelligence agents at large in this country, known as "sleepers," waiting to carry out far more 
deadly acts of revenge against the U.S. One such cell, planted by the Abu Nidal organization, was discovered in 1986. Four of their 

Palestinian members were arrested eight years later after one of them murdered the daughter of an FBI agent.^^^ 

On January 28, 1991 , the Washington Post reported: 

If Saddam is serious about terrorizing Americans at home, there are several allies he could call on for help. The most dangerous terrorist 
Organization in the world, the Abu Nidal organization, now based in Baghdad, has a rudimentary infrastructure of about 50 people in the 
United States. All of them, according to FBI sources, are under surveillance.... 

"Among the terrorists who are taking or would take orders from Saddam," added the Post, "are Abu Ibrahim, a pioneer bomb maker who 
designed the barometric pressure bomb that blew up Pan Am Flight 103, and Ahmed Jibril, who masterminded the Pan Am bombing on a 

contract from Iran."^^^ 

Ironically, U.S. interventions abroad have permitted the entry into America of extremist and even terrorist organizations that have 
subsequently gained footholds in ethnic communities across the country. Texas and Oklahoma, in fact, are major centers of Islamic activities 
in the U.S. 

Steven Emerson was quoted on CBS Evening News as saying, "Oklahoma City, I can tell you, is probably considered one of the largest 

centers of Islamic radical activity outside the Middle East."^^^ 

Emerson chronicled the rise of radical Islam in America in a 1994 PBS documentary which showed how fundamentalists had launched a 
recruiting campaign across the mid- and southwest. An Oklahoma City meeting in 1988 was attended by members of Hamas (Islamic 
Resistance Movement), Islamic Jihad (Holy War) and the Muslim Brotherhood, each notorious for their sponsorship of terrorism. The 
meeting was held only blocks from the Federal Building. 

As Stephen Jones stated in his March 25th Writ of Mandamus: 

The Murrah Building was chosen either because of lack of security (i.e. it was a "soft target"), or because of available resources such as 
Iraqi POWs who had been admitted into the United States were located in Oklahoma City, or possibly because the location of the building 
was important to American neo-Nazis such as those individuals who supported Richard Snell who was executed in Arkansas on April 19, 

Secret workshops have reportedly been held in the U.S., where HizbAllah and Hamas members have been taught bomb making techniques 
and small arms practice. HizbAllah, the Iranian-sponsored and Syrian-backed "Party of God," is believed to be behind a series of bombings 
in July of 1994 that took 117 lives in Argentina, Panama, and Britain. HizbAllah is the same Lebanon-based terrorist group that perpetrated 

the October 1983 bombing of the U.S. Marine barracks in Beirut.^^^ 

The most notorious U.S. terrorist cell was in Jersey City, led by Sheik Omar Abdel-Rahman, the group responsible for plotting the 
destruction of the UN building and the Holland Tunnel. Three of Rahman's followers were convicted for bombing the World Trade Center. 
One of their leaders, El-Sayyid Nosair, spelled out his plans to terrorize the United States: "We have to thoroughly demoralize the enemies 
of God... . by means of destroying and blowing up the towers that constitute the pillars of their civilization such as the tourist attractions they 

are so proud of and the high buildings they are so proud of."^^^ 

Another influential figure in Islamic radical circles — Sheik Mohammad al-Asi, the religious leader of the Islamic Education Center in 
Potomac, Maryland, was quoted on PBS as saying: 

"If the Americans are placing their forces in the Persian Gulf, we should be creating another war front for the Americans in the Muslim world 
— and specifically where American interests are concentrated. In Egypt, in Turkey, in the Indian subcontinent, just to mention a few. Strike 
against American interests there." 

While the Arab underground structure in the U.S. is generally based on the PLO, not all of its members are Palestinian. Many may emigrate 
from Iran, Iraq, Syria, Sudan, and Libya, the five nations most often connected with terrorism. According to former Israeli intelligence officer 
William Northrop, the original PLO structure shifted in 1991, after the PLO/lsraeli peace process began. As Northrop writes: 

The Texas Cell is based in Houston and is supported by several sub-cells, one of which is based in Oklahoma City. This Texas Cell was tied 
into the World Trade Center bombing on 26 February 1993. 

The Oklahoma City sub-cell originated with the Palestinian students who were sent from various Arab countries to study Petroleum 
Engineering at OU in Norman, (the current Deputy Petroleum Minister of Iran is an OU graduate. )^^^ 

Their members may also come from a broader philosophic milieu, and unlike the PLO, have a wider range of targets, including not only 
Israel, but secular regimes in Muslim countries and those states that support them. 

Notes Middle East analyst James Phillips: "Because they are motivated by apocalyptic zeal, and not sober political calculations, their choice 

of possible targets is much wider and more indiscriminate than that of other terrorists. "^^^ 

The goal of this new breed of terrorist was not aimed at influencing U.S. or world opinion over the Palestinian issue, but to prove the strength 
of the Muslim fundamentalist cause. As former Dallas Special Agent in Charge Oliver "Buck" Revell said: 

"...If you listen to what [the Islamic extremist terrorists] are really saying, they're not just aimed at the Israelis, they are not just aimed at the 
Jewish state. Their goals are completely and totally to eradicate any opposition to Hamas and to Islam and to move against the United 

States ultimately."^^^ 

Obviously, these journalists and experts hadn't developed their theories in a vacuum. The evidence was clear, and the warnings were 
imminent. Allan Denhan wrote in ASP Newsletter thai a Jordanian Intelligence official had passed a "target list" to an American businessman 
two months prior to the bombing, and the Murrah Building was on that list. Although this information is unconfirmed, it makes perfect sense, 
since Jordan has a long-standing intelligence relationship with the CIA. 

In March of 1995, Israel's Shin Bet (General Security Services, Israel's equivalent to the FBI), arrested approximately 10 Hamas terrorists in 
Jerusalem, some of whom had recently returned from a trip to Ft. Lauderdale, Florida. According to Northrop, interrogation of those suspects 
was thought to have revealed information concerning the plot to bomb the Murrah Building. "The Shin Bet filed a warning with the Legal 

Attache (FBI) at the American Embassy in Tel Aviv as a matter of course," wrote Northrop. ^^^ 

On April 20, the Israeli newspaper Yediot Arhonot\Nro{e: 

Yesterday, it was made known that over the last few days, U.S. law enforcement agencies had received intelligence information originating 
in the Middle East, warning of a large terrorist attack on U.S. soil. No alert was sounded as a result of this information. ^^^ 

Northrop also said that the German Bundesnachrichtendienst (BND, the equivalent of the American CIA), also sent a warning to the U.S. 
State Department. That was followed by a warning from the Saudis. "A Saudi Major General... informed former CIA Counterterrorism Chief 

Vince Cannistraro, who in turn informed the FBI. There is a 302 (FBI report) in existence. "^^^ 

The agent Cannistraro passed the information to was Kevin L. Foust, one of the FBI's leading counterterrorism agents. Ironically, the 
information was given to Foust on the same day as the bombing. 

According to the information obtained by Stephen Jones, the Saudi Arabian Intelligence Service reported that Iraq had hired seven Pakistani 
mercenaries — Afghani War veterans known as the Mujahadeen — to bomb targets in the U.S., one of which was the Alfred P. Murrah 
Building. They also advised the FBI that — as is often the case — the true identity of the sponsor may not have been revealed to the 


Interestingly, Northrop stated that three Israelis were in Oklahoma before the April 19th attack to "keep an eye on things." AV\ Lipkin and 

William Northrop were two such individuals. ^^^ 

In addition to these warnings — as well as the mighty armada of U.S. intelligence agencies, analysts, and surveillance technology which 
would have undoubtedly been monitoring the situation — at least one local informant tried to warn authorities in advance. His warnings went 

The Drug Connection Informant 

After the bombing, Cary Gagan stepped forward to tell Jones that he had been present at a meeting of bombing conspirators including 

Middle-Easterners, Caucasians, and Hispanics which took place in Henderson, Nevada. ^^^ 

In depositions and interviews with Jones and in numerous interviews with the author, the government informant and former drug courier 
described a number of meetings at the Soviet Embassy in Mexico City. In 1980, the Soviets asked Gagan to assist them in procuring military 
secrets from Dan Howard, a contact of Gagan's who worked at Martin Marietta, a large defense contractor in Waterton, Colorado. The 

Soviets had been watching Howard. Gagan was a friend. He informed the FBI.^^^ 

In June of 1986, the Soviets again asked Gagan's help — this time, to assist illegal Iranian immigrants needing false IDs. The small-time 
hustler and counterfeiter met his contact, a man named "Hamid" who worked at Stapleton International Airport in Denver, and secretly 
recorded the conversation. He turned the tapes over to FBI Agent Bill Maten, and Kenny Vasquez of the Denver Police Intelligence Bureau. 


The 51 -year-old government informant supported himself by ferrying Cocaine between Mexico and Colorado for Colombians posing as 
Mexicans, living in Denver. It was through his association with these Colombians that Gagan met "Omar" and "Ahmed," in Las Vegas in 
March of '94. 

"They tried to first play themselves off as Colombians, " said Gagan "but I knew they were Iranians... or Middle-Easterners. They were multi- 
lingual, with big-time funding. 

It was at this meeting that the drug dealer learned he was to transport kilos of cocaine from Mexico to Denver. He informed DEA Agent 
Robert Todd Gregory. "I told Gregory this dude looked like a banker to me. They had heavy cash. They took care of me. They had all kinds 
of connections." 

On May 16, 1994, Gagan met his new contacts at the Western Motel in Las Vegas, where his brother worked as a pit-boss. There were eight 

men at the meeting, five of whom were Middle Eastern, including Omar and Ahmed. "Two of them didn't say a word," recalled Gagan, "but 
they looked like Colombians to me — you know, Latin." 

One of the Middle Easterners was from Oklahoma City. He appeared to be the leader. The Eighth man was Terry Nichols. In a sworn 
deposition, Gagan told McVeigh's attorney: 

Gagan: "I met with some Arabs, and in that group, and I did not know it at the time, but in that group was Nichols." 

Jones: "Terry?" 

Gagan: "Terry Nichols. "^^^ 

Gagan first recalled seeing Nichols in the parking lot of a bingo parlor the men had stopped at. "He was wearing a plaid, short sleeve shirt 
and dockers.... I remember going, 'That's kind of a dirty lookin' dude.' That's all I said. I thought, you know, he didn't fit in the picture here. He 

looked like a scientist. "^^^ 

The men snorted cocaine at the Western Motel and discussed their plans, then drove to an apartment complex in Henderson called the 
Player's Club. It is not known whom they met with. As far as Gagan knew, they were all there to discuss drug dealing. It wasn't exactly clear 

what the Colombians were doing with the Arabs. ^^^* 

Gagan would soon find out though. Omar and Ahmed, who had been paying Gagan with counterfeit money (mostly counterfeit Iranian $100 
bills), wanted him to take part in a plot to blow up a federal building in Denver, using a mail truck packed with explosives. 

"I was going to be part of it because I could move through... because I'm Anglo and I'm a U.S. citizen and, you know, I wouldn't draw 
attention.... I'm in and out of that federal building every day." 

The truck, purchased from a government auction, was painted to resemble a working mail truck. On January 14, 1995, Gagan picked up the 
truck at the Metro Bar & Grill and drove it to the Mariott Hotel, just outside of Golden, Colorado. 

"Omar came out with me, showed me where the truck was, and said, 'Just get in it and drive down 1-70, and here's where you park it. And as 
soon as you make the delivery, make this call... .' And I gave the FBI the pay phone number saying it was there. And I stayed in there and 
had a drink — in the bar, and came walking out, and the sucker was gone." 

Gagan says he talked to the FBI duty agent from a pay phone at 9th and Logan for over 35 minutes. "I said 'Hey, I need you to tell what to 
do here.' And they never called back." 

In the back of the truck were approximately thirty duffel bags of ammonium nitrate marked "U.S. mail," and boxes from Sandex Explosives 
[in Las Vegas] marked "High Explosives." 

Gagan boarded a bus and went home. He said the agents never showed up. 

"Can you imagine if I'm driving this truck and it blows up in the city of Denver?" said an incredulous Gagan. 

Also in the back of the truck was a Leiy farm mixer. Gagan recalls that it was approximately four feet high, two feet across, and "shaped like 
a diamond." 

Interestingly, this was the same description given by witness David King. King, who was staying at the Dreamland Motel in Junction City — 
where McVeigh stayed — saw a Ryder truck with a trailer attached to it in the parking lot on April 17. Inside the trailer was an object secured 
by a canvas tarp. "It was a squarish shape, and it came to a point on top," said King. "It was about three or four feet high." 

In June, Gagan discovered plastic explosives in an athletic bag packed with cocaine he was to deliver to Denver. The bag, Omar said, was 
to be left at the Postal Center, a shipping and receiving facility owned by George Colombo, who also operated a Ryder truck leasing center 
across the street. A friend of Gagan's, Colombo would occasionally let him stay at an apartment he maintained when things got too heavy. 


Things were definitely getting heavy for Gagan. When the casual cocaine user decided to open the bag and help himself to a little "blow," he 
discovered plastic explosives wrapped in brown paper. "And I'm thinking, 'Jesus, how the hell did this get by the airport'? So I packed it up, 
and I'm thinking, 'I'm going to the feds,' because you know... I'm a felon, this is C-4... I'm going [down] forever." 

Gagan asked Colombo to hold the bag for him. He then called the Denver Police Intelligence Bureau and met them at a Burger King in 
Aurora. Gagan sat in the unmarked car, as his friend Billy, a cab driver, watched from nearby. 

"I said, 'Look, there's some C-4...' I'm feeling them out... I give them some names, you know, what the deal was in Las Vegas. I tell them I'm 

in contact with the DEA — Robert Gregory and all that. They don't say anything. This is June, mid-June of '94. They say they'll get back to 

Three weeks later, after contacting the FBI, the police called Gagan back. "They tell me quote, 'Since you're the source of the information 
Gagan, we're not going to investigate.'" 

Gagan then called Gregory at the DEA. Gregory told Gagan, "Hey, we can't take you on.'" 

The informant claims he continually challenged the police and the FBI to charge him if his information was false. "If all this was a big lie, they 
could have charged me with lying, but they didn't." 

While the FBI and the Denver Police were debating the merits of Gagan's credibility, Omar picked up the bag from Colombo and left. 

Three months later, in September, Gagan was approached by Omar and Ahmed again. "They said 'It's going to involve terrorism, do you 
have a problem with that?' I said 'no.' I asked them, 'What kind of money are we looking at?' They said 'a quarter of a million dollars.' I said 
'up front?' They said 'Yes.' 

Gagan accepted the money, which he believes was paid out of the Call Cartel. "The FBI knew it," said Gagan. "They never got back to me." 

Were Latin American drug dealers conspiring with Arab terrorists to blow up the Federal Building? Said 25-year DEA veteran agent Mike 
Levine: "When you consider terrorist actions like TWA 800 (or Oklahoma City), and you omit any drug trafficking involvement, it's insane — it 
doesn't make any sense... . You know you take for example two years or three years ago the La Bianca plane that was blown out of the sky 
— it was attributed to drug traffickers. I can think right off the top of my head of another case in Colombia of a plane blown up with a lot of 
passengers to kill one person, and probably many, many more." 

Levine, a highly decorated DEA agent, and the DEA's former Argentine Station Chief, told me that countries such as Bolivia, Paraguay, and 
Colombia are full of Arabs doing business with Latinos, including drug dealing. "The first thing you have to keep in mind is that drug 
trafficking is now a half a trillion dollar business around the third-world," said Levine, "and it's mainly a third-world business. The top drug 
traffickers around the world have more power than presidents. The Mujahadeen for instance, which we supported, were always top heroin 
smugglers. They were rated one, two and three by DEA as a source, and they right now support every Muslim fundamentalist movement on 

the face of the earth.... "^^^ 

The parallel may be more than speculative. Shortly after the bombing, on May 8, Tulsa police veteran Craig Roberts received information 
from a law enforcement source in Texas that "Juan Garcia Abrego was involved in the bombing as a 'cash provider' for the event. The 
source said that Abrego had sent two Mexican nationals to Oklahoma City with a satchel full of cash to finance the bombing." 

Abrego was a Mexican Mafia chieftain involved in the cocaine and heroin trafficking through Mexico from Guadalajara to Texas. He allegedly 
was the ground transportation link during the Iran-Contra/Mena affair. 

This information was forwarded to both the FBI and the DEA who were asked for each to check their files and/or computers, using various 

spellings, to see if they had heard of such an individual. Neither replied back that they had knowledge and no further action was taken.... ^^^ 

Considering the FBI's apparent lack of knowledge, is curious that Abrego was at the top of the FBI's "Ten Most Wanted" list since March, a 
month before the bombing and almost two months before Robert's original inquiry. 

It seemed the FBI's lack of interest in Robert's information was suspiciously similar to their lack of interest in Gagan's. ^^-^ What is also 
interesting is that their first effort to discredit Gagan — a drug runner on the periphery of the Iran-Contra drug network — coincided with the 

Iran-Contra affair becoming public.^^-^* 

"In my opinion, people were paid massive amounts of dope to carry this thing out," said Gagan. The informant's belief that he was paid by 
the Call Cartel may be significant in light of Robert's information that Abrego funneled money to the bombing conspirators. 

Was the FBI's attempt to repudiate the Middle Eastern connection tied to their refusal to look at the Abrego lead? 

As Levine said: "The minute you start taking about terrorist actions, and you eliminate drug trafficking, well, then... you're just not credible... 
It's just very unrealistic to look at a situation — any terrorist situation — and not look at a drug trafficking angle anymore. In my opinion, and I 
think there's plenty of substantiation eventhough the government won't talk about it, you can say, this vast ocean of money traveling around 
the world — illegal untapped money — pays for an enormous amount of terrorist activity." 

If the Call Cartel and Gagan's Arabs were connected, and in turn tied to a tentacle of the Iran-Contra Octopus through Abrego, it's only 
natural that the FBI — which played its own role in covering up Iran-Contra — would tend to look the other way. 

In spite of the FBI's apparent refusal to act on Gagan's information, and their subsequent attempts to discredit him, on September 14, 1994, 

Gagan was granted a Letter of Immunity by the U.S. Attorneys Office in Denver. The immunity was arranged through Federal Public 

Defender Raymond Moore. ^^-^ (See Appendix) 

The informant was told to stay with the group and report back to the Bureau. On March 17, Gagan met with his Arab friends at the Hilton Inn 
South in Greenwood Village, Colorado. On the table were the construction plans for the Alfred P. Murrah Building, bearing the name J.W. 
Bateson Company of Dallas, Texas. 

Still, Gagan alleges that federal agents didn't follow up on any of his leads. 

"I knew, when they did not contact me after the truck... when I was moving explosives, I knew something was up. I knew. I figured from that 
point on, without a doubt, they had a government agent in this ring. Because they cannot let me do that type of stuff. 

"And then, after the March 17th meeting, I waited for them to contact me, because I just had a feeling that the dude that had come up [from 
Oklahoma City] — the new guy on the scene there — was an agent. The way he acted and talked... I just felt different than I did around the 

other dudes.... That's just my personal feeling. "^^^ 

Did the feds ignore Gagan's warnings because they had their own agent in the bombing cell and wanted to obtain more information to "sting" 
the bombers later on? Gagan believes this is a possibility. Yet while Gagan had the option of pulling out, he realized it would be too risky to 
suddenly disappear from the scene. Omar and Ahmed were watching him. 

On April 4, 1995, Omar pulled up at the Western Motel in Las Vegas, where Gagan's brother worked. "Come on," said Omar to a somewhat 
startled Gagan, "I want you to drive with me to Kingman." 

The two men then drove to Arizona, where they delivered a package to a man waiting on the corner of Northern and Sierra, wearing a 
cowboy hat and driving a rusty brown pick-up. Could this mystery figure have been Steven Garrett Colbern, who owned the brown pick-up 
seen stopped ahead of McVeigh when he was pulled by Trooper Hanger over after the bombing? The description of the man matched 
Colbern's height and build. But Gagan did not know who he was at the time, or what was in the package. 

On the way home, Gagan recalled Omar saying, "we're taking down a building in two weeks. "^^-^ 

On March 27 and 28, Gagan made over five calls to the U.S. Marshals Office. None were ever returned. Agent Mark Holtslaw of the FBI's 
Domestic Counter terrorism Squad, told me, "I can assure you that any info was thoroughly checked out.... There are things that go on in the 
background that the individual is not aware of." But, Holtslaw added, "there is no statutory obligation to get back to an individual regarding 

our investigation and its status. "^^^ 

Gagan doesn't buy Holtslaw's explanation. The FBI's procedures regarding informants require that they be controlled and supervised. "How 
do you investigate a thing if you don't contact me?" asked Gagan. "So they either had another agent or another informant inside the group." 

Gagan was getting nowhere with the Marshals, the U.S. Attorneys, and the FBI. It was now less than two weeks before the bombing. On 
April 6, Gagan drafted a letter and delivered it to Tina Rowe, head of the U.S. Marshals Office in Denver. While Gagan waited outside, his 
cab driver friend dropped it off. The letter read: 

Dear Ms. Rowe: 

After leaving Denver for what I thought would be for a long time, I returned here last night because I have specific information that within two 
weeks a federal building(s) is to be bombed in this area or nearby. The previous requests I made for you to contact me, 25th & 28th of March 
1995 were ignored by you, Mr. Allison and my friends at the FBI. I would not ignore the specific request for you personally to contact me 
immediately regarding a plot to blow-up a federal bidg. If the information is false request Mr. Allison to charge me accordingly. If you and/or 
your office does not contact me as I so request herein, I will never again contact any law enforcement agency, federal or state, regarding 

those matters set out in the letter of immunity. ^^^ 

Cary Gagan. 

Call 832-4091 (Now) 

Rowe did not respond. When she was confronted by KFOR-TV in Oklahoma City, she said that she had never received Gagan's letter. (See 

Yet Gagan's friend gave New American editor Bill Jasper a signed affidavit showing that he personally delivered the warning to the U.S. 

According to Rowe, the point is moot, because the college graduate and former public school teacher has a history of "psychological 

problems." It seems that Gagan was sent to the Colorado State Mental Hospital in September of 1986 by Dr. Erwin Levy, at the behest of 

the feds.^^^* 

"That was because I wasn't cooperating with my attorney," he said, referring to a 1986 theft case in Arapahoe County. "You tell somebody 


you're involved in espionage with the Soviets, and that's what they do, send you down to the James Bond ward."^ — ^ 

According to Gagan, the Colorado State Mental Hospital's Dr. Green pronounced Gagan sane, and he seemed level-headed when 
Representative Key and I interviewed him in March of '97. 

Others think the informant isn't reliable. A friend of Gagan's who's known him for 30 years told me he thinks Gagan's "full of shit," and "not in 
touch with reality." 

Another, a Federal Public Defender who represented Gagan, told me, "Cary has an encyclopedic memory, of events, places and times." She 
said that Gagan was "bright [and] well-intentioned," although she added, "My gut sense is that the pure facts may be right, but I sometimes 

questioned the legal significance of some of it." Overall, she said she "liked" the informant.^^^^^^^^ 

Moreover, if Rowe's allegations regarding Gagan's credibility are valid, why then did U.S. Attorney Henry Solano grant him a Letter of 
Immunity? If the feds thought Gagan was incompetent, they had a full decade of experience with him [as did the Denver Police] from which 
to establish his credibility or lack thereof. 

"If I had a history of mental illness," explained Gagan, "they couldn't take me on as an informant." 

The feds' opinions may have stemmed from a 1983 incident where the informant was blacklisted by the DEA due to allegations he provided 
false information to the benefit of several drug dealers. Yet Gagan claims he redeemed himself by obtaining sensitive DEA-6 files that had 

been stolen from their office. Gagan said the DEA noted the informant's assistance on his record. ^^^* 

Then in 1986, while Gagan was in jail for insurance fraud, he was visited by Kenny Vasquez, Bill Maten, and two FBI agents: Phillip Mann 
and Stanley Miller. They offered to get him early release if he would work again as an informant. Gagan declined. "They wanted to take me 
out of jail, and bring me back at night," said Gagan. "I Didn't want any part of it." 

In January of 1989, Agents Miller and Mann again asked Gagan to assist them in a joint FBI/Customs counterintelligence sting operation 
known as Operation Aspen Leaf. Their interest centered on one Edward Bodenzayer, a Soviet spy whom Gagan had met in Puerto Vallerta 
in 1982. Bodenzayer had been exporting classified technology to Russia through his import/export company. 

Finally, on September 14, 1994, the Justice Department granted Gagan his immunity. The agreement, printed on an official U.S. Justice 
Department letterhead, read [in part]: 

This letter is to memorialize the agreement between you and the United States of America, by the undersigned Assistant United States 
Attorney. The terms of this agreement are as follows: 

1. You have contacted the U.S. Marshals Service on today's date indicating that you have information concerning a conspiracy and/or 
attempt to destroy United States court facilities in [redacted] and possibly other cities. 

2. The United States agrees that any statement and/or information that you provide relevant to this conspiracy/conspiracies or attempts will 
not be used against you in any criminal proceeding. Further, the United States agrees that no evidence derived from the information or 

statements provided by you will be used in any way against you....^^^ 

In spite of the sensitive nature of Gagan's information, and the Letter of Immunity, "In the period of one year, from September 14, 1994, to 
the first week of September, 1995," said Gagan, "not one agent recontacted me, not one U.S. official of any kind recontacted me except [FBI 
SAC] Dave Shepard in Vegas." 

Naturally, the FBI denied any wrongdoing. 

Assistant U.S. Attorney James Allison was quoted in the August 12, 1995 issue of the Rocky Mountain News as saying, "Why would I grant 
somebody immunity and then not speak with him?" 

When this author contacted Allison, he said, "I'm not going to discuss who is or who isn't a federal informant." 

Yet U.S. Attorney Henry Solano, Allison's boss, granted an interview with Lawrence Myers of Media Bypass magazine, violating the 
informant's confidentiality agreement, placing Gagan in danger. In the October, 1995 issue, Myers printed Gagan's letter which had been 
hand delivered to U.S. Marshall Tina Rowe. When Myers reprinted the letter — which was faxed to him by Solano — "April 6" was changed 
to "April 1 ," a weekend, in an attempt to show that Gagan couldn't possibly have delivered the warning. It is not clear whether Solano or 
Myers changed the date. 

Discharged from a mental hospital in 1980 with a personality disorder, Myers was convicted of extortion in 1985 and was later asked by FBI 
Agent Steve Brannon to work as an informant. Myers denied working for the FBI. 

Yet in 1991 he showed up at the trial of Leroy Moody, working as an "explosives expert" on behalf of the defense. Curiously, he then turned 

around and fed confidential information to the FBI and the state prosecute r.^^^ 

Interestingly, Myers claimed to have worked for the CIA in Central America, apparently at the behest of Wackenhut, a CIA proprietary 
infamous forgathering intelligence on U.S. citizens. Even more interestingly, he wrote several books on explosives for Palladin Press, 
another CIA proprietary, including Counterbomb, Smart Bombs, and Improved Radio Detonation Teciiniques. One Myers title, called 
Spycomm, instructs readers on the "dirty tricks of the trade" regarding "covert communication techniques." 

Myers also showed up at ex-spook Charles Hayes' home in London, Kentucky on the premise of writing a flattering story on the CIA agent 
turned whistle-blower. Hayes subsequently wound up in jail on a murder conspiracy charge — a charge he adamantly denies. 

Hayes says he thinks that Myers was working for the government when he came to Kentucky to write a flattering profile of Hayes for the 


magazine IVIedia Bypass, then privately told FBI agents that Hayes was looking for someone to kill his son.' — ^ 

Were Solano and Myers part of a coordinated effort to discredit Gagan? Said a private investigator and retired Army CID officer regarding 
Myers: "I got the impression he was probably Counterintelligence... just by knowing these parts. The people he mentioned — the people he 

knew — told me that he was probably in the C.I.C. (Counterintelligence Corps) at one time."^^^ 

Conetta Williamson, an investigator for the Tennessee Attorney General's office, described Myers in court testimony as "a professional and 


pathological liar."' — ^ 

Myers also wrote a piece about Federal Grand Juror Hoppy Heidelberg, the only grand juror who dared question the government's line. In 
fact, Heidelberg never consented to be interviewed by Myers, who had obtained the content of a privileged attorney/client interview of 
Heidelberg surreptitiously. The information was then crafted into an "interview" and published in Media Bypass, ultimately resulting in 
Heidelberg's dismissal from the grand jury. 

It seemed that Myers, using IVIedia Bypass as a cover, had managed to put a government whistle-blower in jail, discredit a federal informant 
who had embarrassing information implicating the government in the bombing, and cause the dismissal of a troublesome grand juror. 

If the feds were so intent on discrediting their own informant, why had they granted him a Letter of Immunity? Not only did Solano grant 
Gagan immunity, but the informant had retained it for a full 17 months. If Gagan was actually incompetent, why didn't Solano revoke the 
immunity instead of letting Gagan continue working with terrorists? 


"It doesn't make much sense does it?" said Gagan.' — ^ 

It appears that the Justice Department had granted Cary Gagan immunity so they wouldn't look bad. After all, Gagan had already informed 
Dave Floyd at the U.S. Marshals office in September about the meeting with Omar and Ahmed. 

The cat was out of the bag. 

Gagan believes he was granted the Letter of Immunity as part of a more sinister scheme — a plan to allow him to proceed with the bombing 
plot unhindered — at which point the Letter of Immunity was revoked. 

"What if at that time I was told to go in and get immunity by the terrorists, and somebody working with the terrorists... like the U.S. 
Government?" said Gagan. "I can't get prosecuted, can I? [The terrorists] knew that they would give me a Letter of Immunity and they knew 
that the FBI would cut me loose. So what's that enable them to do? If there needs to be something moved, and I'm the one that's moving it, I 
can't be prosecuted. I can haul as much shit as I want, and I have immunity, as long as I call the FBI, and let them know." 

As a Florida police detective who's investigated connections between Arab-Americans, the PLO, and the Call Cartel told me, "Who has the 


best route for getting something across? Drug dealers."' — ^ 

Was Cary Gagan part of some sinister plot by the feds? Or was he merely used as a "mule," allowing the terrorists to move money, drugs, 
and explosives while another government agent monitored the situation from within? Perhaps the new man from Oklahoma City who 
appeared on the scene in March? 

Was Cary Gagan a "throwaway?" 

Recall that Gagan had transported a duffel-bag filled with C-4 and cocaine, and had driven a truck laden with explosives across the state at 

the behest of his terrorist friends. He claims the FBI did nothing to stop him. 

"You got to understand something here," said Gagan. "Federal law prohibits me from doing what I was doing. You cannot go out as an 
informant — I'm not an agent — I cannot take drugs and explosives from point A to point B...." 

Yet it seems that permitting the informant to commit such illegal acts would focus more light on the government's role — whether it involved 
foreknowledge or an actual conspiracy — as Gagan began to go public with his story. But Gagan, who believes he was scheduled to be 
"terminated" after the bombing, disagrees. The informant displayed medical records showing that he was badly beaten, and claims to have 

been the victim of a drive-by shooting. ^^^ 

Whatever the case, it is interesting to note that authorities alleged that the bombing conspiracy began in September of 1994, the same 
month that Gagan received his Letter of Immunity and began informing the FBI. 

On April 10, four days after he delivered the warning letter to Tina Rowe, Gagan received a note instructing him to appear at the law library 
of the U.S. Courthouse. 

"I just gave the U.S. Marshals a bombing warning," said Gagan. "They didn't call me back. I had to go somewhere to cover my ass. I came 
back, I got a note saying, 'We need to see you; come to the U.S. Law Library.' I thought it was the U.S. Marshals or the FBI." 

When Gagan arrived at the law library, he met his contact: an "athletic looking dude, 40s, short hair," dressed in a blue Nike cap and 
jumpsuit. "I get there and say, 'Hey, you got the shit?' He said, 'Hey, we've got everything taken care of. We need you to do this....'" 

The man was not one of Gagan's Arab friends. "He was government," said Gagan. "He was probably CIA." 

The mysterious figure asked Gagan to drive a trailer to Junction City, Kansas. In the trailer was the same Leiy mixer that Gagan had driven 
to Golden on January 14. This mixer — the one that was driven to the Mariott at the behest of an Arab terrorist — was now on its way to 
Junction City at the request of a government agent! 

The date was now April 1 1 , three days before Timothy McVeigh checked into the Dreamland Motel in Junction City. As previously 
mentioned, David King, who was staying at the Dreamland, recalled seeing a Ryder truck with a trailer attached to it in the parking lot on 
April 17. The trailer contained a "squarish object about three or four feet high that came to a point on top," secured by a canvas tarp. This 


was the exact description Gagan gave of the LeIy mixer.^ — ^ 

On April 13 Gagan drove to Oklahoma City, he said, to case the Murrah Building. 

Three days later, Gagan says he drove a van from Denver to Trinidad, Colorado, that was picked up by Omar and Ahmed. 

According to Gagan, it wasn't until three months after the bombing, in July of '95, that Las Vegas FBI Agent Dave Shepard agreed to meet 

him. "We're sitting in the car behind the Sahara, and Shepard tells me we're not interested in pursuing the lead."^^^* 

That lead — was the two Arab suspects seen running from the Murrah Building towards a late model brown Chevy pick-up minutes before 
the blast — the same suspects that the FBI had issued an All Points Bulletin (APB) for on April 19: 

"...Middle-Eastern males 25-28 years of age, six feet tall, athletic build. Dark hair and a beard — dark hair and a beard. Break."^^^ 

"And these two Middle Eastern dudes that were seen running from the scene — that's the same description I had given," said Gagan. "Gray 
in the beard, you know — Omar and Ahmed — to the FBI... on September 14." 

Gagan had provided that information to the FBI six months before the bombing. After the bombing, Gagan contacted Solano and said, "Isn't 
that amazing. You know, these are the [same] two dudes...." 

In a letter to Gagan dated February 1, 1996, Solano and Allison wrote: 

Attempts by federal law enforcement officers to meaningfully corroborate information you have alleged to be true have been unsuccessful.... 
Therefore, the immunity granted by the letter of September 14, 1994 is hereby revoked.... 

You are warned that any statement you make which would incriminate you in illegal conduct, past, present or future can be used against 
you. You are no longer protected by the immunity granted by letter on September 14, 1994. 

Recall that after ATF informant Carol Howe had revealed that her knowledge of the bombing plot was reported to federal authorities before 
April 19, they tried to discredit her, claiming that she was "unstable," just as they had done with Gagan. While they revoked Gagan's Letter of 
Immunity, they indicted Howe on spurious charges. 

Howe also reported a subsequent bombing plot by neo-Nazi activists, but, like Gagan's warnings both before and after the bombing, she 

claimed her calls weren't returned. ^^^ 

Interestingly, Howe was also told by her ATF handler, Angela Finley-Graham, not to report her informant payments, and was led to believe 
that her debriefings were not being taped when they were. Both are a violation of C.I. (Confidential Informant) procedures. Was this a way to 
discredit Howe in case they needed to distance themselves from her later, as they attempted to do with Gagan? 

One year later, Gagan filed a lawsuit alleging that numerous federal officials had failed to uphold their agreement with him; failed to exercise 
proper procedures in regards to the handling of an informant; failed to investigate a terrorist conspiracy against the American people; failed 
to warn the public; and failed to properly investigate the crime after it occurred. 

It is not surprising that officials wouldn't take Gagan's warning seriously. On December 5, 1988, a Palestinian named Samra Mahayoun 


warned authorities in Helsinki that a Pan Am 747 leaving Frankfort was to bombed within two weeks.' — ^ 

Two weeks later, on December 21, Pan Am flight 103 was blown out of the skies by a terrorist's bomb. Two hundred and fifty-nine people 
plunged to their deaths over Lockerbie, Scotland, and 1 1 more died on the ground. 

State Department official Frank Moss later called Mahayoun's warning a "goulish coincidence." Mahayoun, they claimed, was just not 


Demonstrating the limits of absurdity the government will go to in order to cover up its complicity and negligence, the U.S. Marshals Service 
was still insisting — after 169 people lay dead in Oklahoma — that Cary Gagan was still not credible. ^^^* 

Yet this is not the first time the government has ignored viable warnings. Prior to the World Trade Center bombing, the FBI's paid informant, 
Emad Eli Salem, had penetrated Sheik Omar Abdel-Rahman's Jama a Islamiya and had warned the FBI of their plans. The agent in charge 
of the case, John Anticev, dismissed the former Egyptian Army Colonel's warnings, calling him "unreliable." On February 26, 1993, a large 
bomb detonated underneath the twin towers, killing six people and injuring 1,000 more. 

At the same time as "unreliable" people like Cary Gagan were warning federal authorities in Denver about the pending attack. The Star 
Ledger, a Newark, New Jersey newspaper, was reporting: 

U.S. law enforcement authorities have obtained information that Islamic terrorists may be planning suicide attacks against federal 
courthouses and government installations in the United States. 

The attacks, it is feared, would be designed to attract worldwide press attention through the murder of innocent victims. The Star Ledger has 
learned that U.S. law enforcement officials have received a warning that a "fatwa," a religious ruling similar to the death sentence targeting 
author Salman Rushdie, has been issued against federal authorities as a result of an incident during the trial last year of four persons in the 
bombing on the World Trade Center in New York. 

The disclosure was made in a confidential memorandum issued by the U.S. Marshals Service in Washington calling for stepped-up security 
at federal facilities throughout the nation.... 

According to the source, Iranian-supported extremists have made it clear that steps are being taken to strike at the "Great Satan," a phrase 
that has been used to describe the United States... 

Even more strenuous security precautions are being taken in New York, where 12 persons, including the blind fundamentalist Sheik Omar 
Abdel-Rahman, are currently on trial on charges of conspiring to wage a war of urban terrorism against the United States by blowing up the 
United Nations, FBI headquarters and the tunnels between New York and New Jersey... 

The memo, issued by Eduardo Gonzales, director of the U.S. Marshals Service, warns that attacks may be designed to "target as many 
victims as possible and draw as much media coverage as possible" to the fundamentalist cause... 

The terrorists, possible suicide bombers, will not engage in negotiations," the memo warned, and said "once the press is on the scene, the 

new plans call for blowing everyone up.^^^ 

If that last statement is true, it could explain the presence of a box of explosives found in the Murrah Building with a timer on it set for ten 
minutes after nine. The initial bomb(s) blew up at two minutes after nine. 

The U.S. Marshal's Service — the federal agency charged with the task of protecting federal facilities — had clear warning from at least two 
different undercover informants. Why then was there no security at the Murrah Building on April 19? 

It was also reported that the Israelis, the Saudis, and the Kuwaitis all warned the U.S. about an impending attack. Whatever the U.S. 

Marshals Service felt about Gary Gagan's warning, Gonzales apparently felt his other sources were reliable enough to issue a nation-wide 
alert. Perhaps that memo, like the one issued by the FBI in 1963 to its field offices warning of an attempt on the life of President Kennedy, 
just "disappeared." 

A Trail of Witnesses 

On April 19, Abraham Ahmed, a Jordanian, was detained by authorities as a possible bombing suspect as he attempted to fly from 
Oklahoma City to Amman, Jordan. American Airlines personnel observed Ahmed "acting nervous," prior to his flight, and notified security 
personnel, who in turn notified the FBI. 

Agents detained Ahmed in Chicago, where the Oklahoma City resident explained that he was on his way to his father's wedding, and was 
scheduled to return to the U.S. in July. 

Yet Ahmed's story changes. He told reporters alternately that he had gone back to Jordan: a) for a wedding, b) to build a house, c) to 
replace the youngest son who had moved out, and d) to attend to a family emergency. 

After being questioned for six hours, the FBI allowed Ahmed to continue on his way. Yet he was detained in London the following day, where 
he was questioned for another five hours, then handcuffed and put on the next plane back to the U.S. 

In the meantime, Ahmed's luggage continued on to Rome, where authorities discovered a suitcase full of electronic equipment, including two 
car radios, silicon, solder, shielded and unshielded wire, a small tool kit, and, incredibly enough, a photo album with pictures of weapons and 
missiles! Security sources at London's Heathrow Airport also said that a pair of blue jogging suits and a timing device was found in one of his 

When asked what he was doing with these items, Ahmed explained that they were for his relatives in Jordan, who could not obtain good- 
quality electrical components. Ahmed also had a blue jogging suit similar to what a Middle- Eastern suspect was wearing at the Murrah 
Building on the morning of the blast. According to an account in the London Telegraph, Ahmed was reportedly in Oklahoma City on 

Wednesday — the day of the bombing. ^^^ 

If Ahmed had been cleared by U.S. authorities for the worst domestic terrorist attack in U.S. history, why did British authorities refuse to 
allow him into the country? Did they know something the U.S. did not? 

The Justice Department's Carl Stern downplayed the breakthrough saying only, "There are a number of good, solid leads in this 

Yet in FBI agent Henry Gibbons' affidavit, special mention was made of the items in Ahmed's suitcase, and his coincidental April 19, 10:43 a. 
m. departure time, and Gibbons stated he considered Ahmed's testimony in front of the Federal Grand Jury vital. 

One FBI source interviewed by KFOR's Jayna Davis admitted that he didn't think Ahmed was telling the truth on a polygraph test. Yet 
Ahmed was simply allowed to go on his way, and like so many other suspects and witnesses, was never called before the grand jury. 

Interestingly, the Middle Eastern community was apologized to by President Clinton. This is very interesting coming from a president that 
failed to apologize to Randy Weaver, the Branch Davidians, and the thousands of people wrongly accused, imprisoned and murdered each 
year by U.S. law-enforcement personnel. 

A possible explanation may be found in the bombing of Pan Am 103. In February of 1989, a prime suspect in the case, Jordanian bomb 
maker Marwan Kreeshat, admitted in a statement provided by Jordanian intelligence that he had manufactured at least five highly 
sophisticated, powerful bombs for PFLP-GC (Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command) leader Ahmed Jibril, by 
cleverly concealing them in portable radios — the same type which destroyed flight 103. Jordanian intelligence officials, who have 
maintained a close, long-standing relationship with the CIA, admitted that the Jordanian national was actually an undercover agent, and was 

also an asset of U.S. intelligence.^^^ 

Could this explain why the FBI released Ahmed?^^^ 

Taylor Jesse Clear, a retired State Department Counter-Terrorism expert who has studied the case, disagrees with this analysis. Clear 
believes that Ahmed's conspicuously timed departure, complete with nervous act and a suitcase full of electronic gear, was a diversion. 
"They wanted to inoculate the media to the Arab connection," explained Clear. Letting Ahmed get caught with a suitcase full of that stuff, 
then discovering he was innocent, inoculated everybody to the Middle Eastern connection. Then they could come back, beat their chests. 

and say, 'look what you did to the Arab comm unity. "'^^^* 

Yet the brown Chevy pick-up seen speeding away from the Murrah Building was traced to an Oklahoma City business run by a Palestinian, 
with possible PLO ties. That man... is a good friend of Abraham Ahmed's. According to a witness who worked for the Palestinian, Ahmed 
was seen driving the pick-up in the weeks before the bombing. 

Numerous witnesses also place McVeigh in Oklahoma City in the days before the bombing with a friend of Ahmed's — an Iraqi — a man 
who bares a strong resemblance to the mysterious, stoic passenger seen in the Ryder truck by Mike Moroz on the morning of April 19 at 
Johnny's Tire Store. 

KFOR reporters Brad Edwards and Jayna Davis broke the story on June 7, 1995 with a series of interviews with witnesses who saw 
McVeigh with the Iraqi, first in a bar, then in a restaurant, then in a pawn shop. 

One of the witnesses, a barmaid at the Roadrunner Tavern on South May Avenue, saw McVeigh buying beer for the man on Saturday, April 
1 5. "He was dark, kind of muscular, he had on a ball cap," said the barmaid. "He talked like they do over in Iran or Iraq, or whatever during 
Desert Storm, when you would hear the way they talked on TV." 

When Davis asked her how sure she was that the man they had been tracking was the man she saw with McVeigh, she replied, "I'm sure." 

The tavern owner also saw the Iraqi a few days after the bombing. He picked him out from a group of photos. While the Iraqi claimed he was 
never in any bar on NW 10th Street, a co-worker interviewed by KFOR said he had drank with him at a bar on NW 10th and Indiana, and in 

fact he was arrested for driving under the influence around the corner, at NW 8th and Blackwielder in early June.^^^ 

In another interview, three women who worked at a pawnshop stated that McVeigh and two other men came into their shop twice: "...on 
April 14 and again on April 17, just two days before the bombing." 

"It had to have been McVeigh," said the pawn shop owner. "If it was not McVeigh, it was his twin brother." 

"They spoke in a foreign language," said one of the pawn shop employees. "They huddled together and they all three spoke secretively to 
one another, and it was a foreign language." 

A restaurant owner down the street also remembered McVeigh and the Iraqi. "[McVeigh acted] like a contractor coming in and buying his 
hand lunch, that was the impression I had," recalled the proprietor. 

As previously mentioned, restaurant worker Phyliss Kingsley recalled a Ryder truck pulling into the Hi Way Grill at SW 104 and Portland on 
April 16. Accompanying the truck was a white long-bed Chevy pick-up, and a darker pick-up, possibly blue or brown. She recalls Timothy 
McVeigh strolling in and ordering two "trucker burgers" and fries to go. Accompanying McVeigh was a short, stocky man of about 5'2", either 
Mexican or American Indian (or Arabic) descent, with black, curly hair. She said the man closely resembled the FBI sketch of John Doe 2, 


but with slightly thinner features. Kingsley recalled that the man spoke briefly with McVeigh.^ — ^ 

Waitress Linda Kuhlman described him as having straighter hair and being slightly taller. She described him as wearing green army fatigue 
pants and a white t-shirt. 

Kuhlman, who grew up around trucks and hot-rods, is positive that one of the trucks was a Chevy long-bed, most likely an '87 model. When 
shown photos, including the Iraqi and Michael Brescia, they came close to picking out the Iraqi, but could not positively identify either man. 


The passenger in the Ryder truck, they said, a man with longish wavy, permed-out brown or dirty blond hair and glasses, never got out' — ^ 

Dennis Jackson, a VA worker, recalled seeing two or three Arabic men in the Murrah Building the following day, April 17. "There was a 
distinct air about them," recalls Jackson. "We were working late that day, the office had closed, and they were just kind of hanging around 
the Social Security office. I thought that was kind of unusual... They might have been there for Social Security, but I hardly think so." 

Jackson's co-worker Craig Freeman recalled one of the men as a short, stocky Arabic man, about 5' 2", 150 pounds, wearing khaki military 
style pants, combat boots and a white T-shirt — the same combination seen on the Middle Eastern suspect described by Linda Kuhlman. 

In a bizarre twist, a white Chevy pick-up showed up a Freeman's house several days after the bombing. Freeman recalls a Caucasian 
looking man in the truck, which was parked near his house on two consecutive days. "It was right before and right after the FBI and OSBI 
(Oklahoma State Bureau of Investigation) came and interviewed me," recalls Freeman. "I could tell this guy was watching me because when 
I walked by, he sort of turned away and hid his face. I'm a former Air Force Master Sergeant and a third degree black belt, and I'm trained to 

be observant. "^^^ 

Could the man Freeman saw have been there to intimidate him? 

The barmaid at the Road Runner Tavern also told KFOR's Brad Edwards that after her interview aired, the Iraqi pulled up by the open back 
door of the tavern and stared menacingly at her. What is interesting is that the Iraqi's Palestinian boss owns a white pick up truck — a 
Nissan, however, not a Chevy. Freeman and Linda Kuhlman are positive the truck they saw was a Chevy. 

Yet another witness to a post-bombing incident involving the Palestinian claimed that he also was followed by the man, who was driving a 
white pick-up. 

Back in Junction City, the manager of the Great Western Inn was watching TV with two reporters when the sketch of John Doe 2 flashed on 
the screen. The manager immediately recognized the man as the person who had stayed in room 107 on April 17. "He spoke broken 
English," said the manager. "[He] gave a foreign name and was driving a Ryder truck." 


The man's name would never be revealed, however, because the FBI confiscated the hotel's log book.' — ^ 

Several months later, Newsweek reporter Leslie Jorgensen uncovered information that several men had stayed at the Radisson Inn in 
Oklahoma City the day before the bombing. The men were dressed in Arab garb, but according to an employee, were not Arabs. At the 
same time, phone calls were placed from the Radisson to one of Timothy McVeigh's friends — a man in Idaho associated with the Aryan 
Republican Army. 

A few days earlier, across town, two men had checked into the Plaza Inn. They told desk clerk Tiffany Harper they were Spanish visitors 
from Mexico. But Harper thought they were Arabs because of the way they talked. 

According to employee Ruby Foos, another man checked into the motel a day or two later, went to his room, then emerged wearing flowing 

Arab robes. As far as Foos could tell, the man was not connected with the other two men.^^^ 

While it may not be unusual for Arab-garbed individuals to be in Oklahoma due to its connection with the oil industry, Douglas Boyer, the 
security guard at the Plaza, said a yellow Ryder truck was parked out front. All of the men checked out a day or two before the bombing. 

Interestingly, two Middle Eastern men were spotted driving from Oklahoma City to Dallas immediately after the bombing. The men stopped 
to ask directions from an Oklahoma Highway Patrolman. When the officer ran their plate, he discovered that it didn't match the vehicle. The 
plate belonged to a rented blue Chevy Cavalier, which was later found at a motel in Oklahoma City. The driver of that vehicle, Asad R. 


Siddiqy, a cab driver from Queens, along with the other two men, Anis Siddiqy and Mohammed Chafi, were taken into custody.' — ^ 

While the men were ultimately questioned and released, a blue Chevy Cavalier would be spotted by a witness in downtown Oklahoma City 
— along with a Ryder truck, a yellow Mercury, and a brown Chevy pick-up — the other vehicles in the bombing convoy. 

On the morning of the blast, a woman was riding the elevator in the Murrah building, when she noticed a young Arab man wearing a 
backpack, hurriedly pushing the buttons as if trying to get off. As previously mentioned, she followed him outside, not suspecting anything 
was amiss. Moments later, she was sent sprawling to the sidewalk as the building blew up behind her. 

Gary Lewis, a pressman for the Journal Record newspaper, had just stepped outside to smoke his pipe when he remembered he had left 
something in his car. As he walked down the alley, a yellow Mercury peeled away from its spot near the Murrah Building, jumped a concrete 
barricade, swerved to avoid hitting a dumpster, then bore down on him, forcing him up onto the curb. Lewis got a good look at the driver, 
describing him as one Timothy James McVeigh, and his passenger as resembling the sketch of John Doe 2. He said the car had an 
Oklahoma tag which was dangling by one bolt. 

Several minutes later, Lewis was thrown to the floor as the Journal Record building rocked with the impact of the blast. As he picked himself 
up, another, more powerful explosion sent him sprawling again. As he and his fellow workers rushed outside, he noticed a peculiar sight: an 
Arab man standing nearby, staring at the Federal Building, grinning from ear to ear. 

"It unnerved me," said Lewis, who described how the man seemed out of place among the throng of battered and bloody people. He seemed 

As discussed earlier, another witness saw two men running from the area of the Federal Building toward a brown Chevy truck just prior to 
the blast. The witness described the two men as "males, of possible Middle-Eastern descent, approximately six feet tall, with athletic builds." 
One of the men was described as approximately 25-28 years old, having dark hair and a beard. The second person was described as 35-38 
years old, with dark hair and a dark beard with gray in it — the same description Cary Gagan gave. He was described as wearing blue 

jogging pants, a black shirt, and a black jogging jacket. The witness also described a third person in the pick-up. ^^^ 

Was this the same pick-up seen by Leonard Long and his daughter? Long was driving east on 5th Street at approximately 8:00 a.m. when 
he was forced to swerve out of the way by a erratically-driven brown pick-up with tinted windows. As the truck pulled up alongside, the 
passenger, a stocky, dark-skinned, dark-haired man began hurling racial epithets at the black couple. Long said the driver was a tall, thin 


white man with sharp features, a description not unsimilar to that given by James Linehan. The truck took the 1-35 exit and headed south.' — ^ 

Approximately 50 minutes later, as Margaret Hohmann and her friend Ann Domin were pulling into a parking spot in front of the Murrah 
Building, a brown pick-up peeled away from its parking spot, burning rubber as it tore down 5th Street. "Where's the cops when you need 


them?" Hohmann thought to herself. 

A few blocks away from the Murrah Building, Debra Burdick and her daughter were on the way to the doctor's office. As she stopped for a 
light at 10th and Robinson, she noticed three vehicles parked on the north side of the street between a church and a garage. One was a 
brown pick-up, one was a blue Chevy Cavalier, and the other was a yellow Mercury. 

"I looked across," said Burdick, "and there was that light blue car, it had a white interior, and there were three men in it. They were dark, but 
they were not black... I would say they were Middle Easterners. There was a brown pick-up, but I couldn't see in (because of the tinted 
windows), and behind it was the yellow car with the cream top. 

"Now, I noticed the three men in the car, that guy sitting in the middle was kind of staring out.... I said 'Huh, I wonder what they're looking 

at?' and as I turned around, I said 'there's nothing there but buildings. '"^^^ 

A few moments later, the bomb(s) went off. Hohmann and Domin, who were inside one of the Murrah Building's restrooms, were sent 
crashing to the floor. At the same moment, Debra Burdick and her daughter went skidding to the side of the road. When she looked back, 
the three vehicles were gone. 

Five blocks south of the Murrah Building, at Robinson and Main, Kay H. had just raced out of her office. As she stepped on to the meridian, 
she was nearly run over as the brown pick-up came careening around the corner. The near miss gave her an opportunity to get a good look 
at the occupants. 

"The driver — I made eye contact with him," recalled Kay. "He looked like he was in his twenties — late twenties. [He] had an angry look on 
his face. I'll never forget the look on his face. It just was full of hate and anger. It really struck me, because everyone else — people were 

coming out and they looked scared and confused, and he just looked full of anger. "^^^ 

Kay recalled that two of the three people in the truck were Middle-Easterners. When she was shown photos, she picked out the Iraqi — the 
same one seen with McVeigh — as the driver. 

David Snider, the Bricktown worker who had spotted one of the Ryder trucks that morning, ran outside after the bomb went off, and saw the 
brown pick-up as it flew past. "They were doing about 60 mph," recalled Snider. "They turned north and headed over the Walnut Street 


An all-points-bulletin (APB) was quickly put out on the pick-up: 

Dispatcher: "Be on the lookout for a late model almost new Chevrolet full-size pick-up — full size pickup brown pick-up. Will be brown in 
color with tinted windows — brown in color with tinted windows. Smoke colored bug deflector on the front of pick-up." 

"... Middle-Eastern males 25-28 years of age, six feet tall, athletic build. Dark hair and a beard — dark hair and a beard. Break." 

Officer: "Ok, Is this good information, or do we not really know?" 

. [562] 

Dispatcher: "Authorization FBI. 

Strangely, the FBI canceled the APB several hours later, refusing to say why and demanding that it not be rebroadcast. When KPOC's David 
Hall asked the FBI why they canceled it, they denied ever putting it out. But when Hall played back his copy for the FBI man, he suddenly 


Soon after. Brad Edwards received a tip that the pick-up had been seen several times before the bombing at Sahara Properties (not its real 
name), a real-estate business in northwest Oklahoma City. The owner of Sahara Properties, an Israeli-born Palestinian named Sam Khalid 

(not his real name), was the Iraqi's employer.^^^* 

Not long after KFOR's reports began airing, the Iraqi sued the station, then held a press conference claiming that he was not a suspect in the 
bombing, and that he had a solid alibi for the morning of April 19. His name was Hussain al-Hussaini, and he was at work, he said, painting a 
garage on NW 31 Street. Yet Alvin Devers, a neighbor interviewed by Davis, claimed no one was working on the house that day. "I didn't see 
anybody," said Devers. "I'd remember...." 

In addition, Hussaini's co-worker, Ernie Cranfield, said Hussaini's alibi for the morning of April 19 — a time sheet stating he was at work at 
8:08 a.m. — was patently false. Cranfield told Davis that Hussaini was working at a different house by 10:00 a.m., six blocks away, but 
wasn't there at 8:30 a.m. 

"They was out there acting like they was painting on that garage all morning," Cranfield told me. "They didn't know I was already there 
before.... "iseei 

Moreover, according to Cranfield, Sahara Properties doesn't use time sheets: "They use a time clock. They started about five months ago — 
five, six months ago... I've seem them clocking in every morning." Davis later learned that Khalid's daughter Heather had concocted 

Hussaini's "time sheet" at the request of her father.^^^ 

Hussaini also claimed that he worked a second job as at the Western Sizzlin restaurant — as a janitor, three days a week, from 10:00 p.m. 
to 8:00 a.m. — which would have kept him too busy to be at the Murrah Building on April 1 9. Yet when Davis checked with Jeff Johnston, the 
assistant manager, she was told Hussaini hadn't worked from April 17 through April 20. 

According to Khalid's secretary, none of Hussaini's Iraqi co-workers, who started working for Khalid in November, showed up on the 17th. 
Was it merely coincidental that Craig Freeman and Dennis Jackson saw a suspicious group of Arab men in the Murrah Building on the 
afternoon of the 17th? 

Interestingly, Hussain al-Hussaini reapplied for his job at the Western Sizzlin in May, then quit in June, saying that he didn't need a job. 
Khalid's secretary said that Hussaini also purchased a Cadillac after the bombing. Had he suddenly come into a large amount of money? 

When KFOR shared their evidence with the FBI, they downplayed their findings. FBI spokesman Dan Vogel said that eyewitness accounts 
are "notoriously inaccurate. Their credibility must be checked out, their stories corroborated." 

Yet KFOR was able to corroborate their story with at least eight different witnesses. They not only placed McVeigh with Hussaini in at least 
three different locations in Oklahoma City, they were able to trace the brown pick-up to the business where Hussaini worked — to a 
businessman that had been investigated by the FBI for PLO ties. They determined that Hussaini had a tattoo exactly as described by the 
FBI, and that his alibi for the morning of April 19 was patently false. 

Strangely, the FBI decided to back up Hussaini's story, telling KFOR that it might be difficult to place Hussaini near the Murrah Building on 
the morning of the 19th. Apparently the government had not counted on a local TV station stumbling onto Hussaini. After KFOR's story 
broke, a major damage control apparatus went into motion. KWTV, KOCO, the Daily Oklahoman, and the Oklahoma Gazette all ridiculed 

KFOR's reporting.^^^ 

Interestingly, when Hussaini appeared before TV cameras on June 15 to dispel the "rumors" about him, it was Abraham Ahmed who 
appeared as his interpreter! 

The Gazette and KOCO also both claimed that Hussaini couldn't speak English, implying that he couldn't have been talking with McVeigh. 

Yet KFOR learned that he spoke broken English, and a police D.U.I, report indicated that he replied in English when questioned. ^^^ 

"The information quoted on Channel Four is not true," FBI Agent Jeffrey Jenkins told the Daily Oklahoman. Though Jenkins later denied 
saying that, he admits that "he cringed when he saw the KFOR report." 

Perhaps Jenkins cringed when he saw Hussaini on TV because the news station had, quite accidentally, uncovered the FBI's confidential 
informant. Why else would the FBI act so patronizing towards KFOR, who had clearly established a link between Hussaini and McVeigh? 

The FBI wouldn't say if they had checked out Hussaini. Nor would they clear him. They told KFOR that they were "not in the business of 
clearing suspects." Yet, as Jayna Davis pointed out, they did clear numerous other John Doe 2 suspects, including Robert Jacks, Gary 
Land, and Todd Bunting, the Army private seen at Elliott's Body Shop. Interestingly, they then used the Bunting incident to say that John 

Doe 2 had been a red herring all along. John Doe 2, the FBI claimed, had never existed. ^^^ 

Just why would the FBI issue a blanket "no comment" on a suspect who was seen by numerous witnesses with Timothy McVeigh, and was 
seen speeding away from the bombing? 

For his part, Hussaini claims he was an officer in Iraq's elite Republican Guard, and was imprisoned for distributing anti-Saddam literature. 

According to the Gazette's account, he was released after serving eight years of a 13-year sentence. ^^^ 

But the story changes. According to KWTV, he escaped during a prison uprising at the end of the war, and after searching for his family, he 
"ran to American soldiers and asked for help." He was then interned in a Saudi refugee camp, where he spent the next four years, until he 

was relocated to the U.S. in 1995.^^^ 

The problem with this story is that U.S. forces didn't get within 200 miles of Baghdad, which means that if Hussaini "ran to American 
soldiers," he would have had to run across several hundred miles of open dessert. 

Yet according to his boss, Sam Khalid, Hussaini was never in the Republican Guard at all. A Shiite Muslim, he was imprisoned for his anti- 

Saddam beliefs, and forced to serve as cannon fodder on the front lines, as the Republican Guard withdrew.^^^ 

Yet the story changes once again. According to William Northrop, Hussaini served in the Hammurabi Division of the Republican Guard, and 
"was captured by the American 24th Mechanized Infantry Division in a fight on Highway 8, west of Basra, a few days after the war ended." 
Northrop stated that the Iraqis encountered the U.S. force, and, thinking it was merely a probe, opened fire. The Iraqis were badly beaten in 

the ensuing firefight, and Hussaini was wounded. He claims Hussaini was never in an Iraqi prison. ^^^ 


If Hussaini was trying to concoct a cover-story, he apparently wasn't doing a very good job.' — ^According to Northrop: 

This lad was no ordinary soldier. [He] came to the United States around November of 1991. He triggered a "watch" on the Iraqi community in 
Boston and shortly thereafter, moved to Oklahoma City. I understand that he is currently residing in Houston. 

Northrop also states that "Ramzi Ahmed Yousef (The 'mastermind' behind the World Trade Center bombing) served in the Hammurabi 

Division of the Republican Guard during the Gulf War.... "^^^ 

While it is not known how accurate this information is, there is evidence tying Yousef — a Pakistani Baluchi born in Kuwait — to Iraqi 
intelligence. The Baluch, who are Sunni Moslems, oppose the clerical Shia regime of Tehran, and had forged close links with Iraqi 
intelligence during that country's 10-year war with Iran. According to Dr. Mylroie, Iraq used the Baluch to carry out acts of terrorism against 



Alias Abdul Basit Mahmud Abdul Karim, Yousef arrived in the United States carrying an Iraqi passport. 

Both Yousef and his partner in the World Trade Center bombing, Ahmed Ajaj, worked for Edwards Pipeline Testing and Technical Welding 
Laboratories in Houston, whose CEO is Maunal Bhajat, a close associate of Ishan Barbouti — an international Iraqi arms dealer who built 
Libya's chemical weapons plant at Rabta. Barbouti's son Haidar (like Hussaini) also lives in Houston. According to Louis Champon, who 

went into business with Haidar, "Haidar Barbouti is an Iraqi agent."^^^ 

It was Barbouti who financed Champon's Product Ingredient Technology through his son Haidar. Wackenhut (a company with long-standing 
ties to the FBI and CIA) provided the security. According to Champon, Barbouti (with perhaps a little help from the secretive and mysterious 
Wackenhut) secretly drained thousands of gallons of ferrocyanide — a naturally occurring Cherry extract used to make cyanide gas — from 
Champon's plant. 

Barbouti's ability to procure U.S. weapons technology for sale to Libya and Iraq wasn't exactly hindered by U.S. officials. While the Bush 
administration was publicly decrying Hussein's use of chemical weapons on the Kurds, the potassium ferrocyanide was shipped to Iraq to 
manufacture chemical weapons for Iraq's army, with the full knowledge and complicity of the Bush administration. 

Said Champon, "Not one U.S. agent — not one official, ever questioned Haidar Barbouti — for evasion of taxes, where he got his money 
from, his involvement... in shipping cyanide outside the P.I.T. plant... nothing. I was told — and this is a quote from U.S. Customs [agent 

Martin Schram] — "This matter is highly political. Haidar Barbouti cannot be indicted, and if he were, he would never be convicted."^^^ 

The key that allowed the Iraqi "businessman" (Barbouti doesn't like to be called an arms dealer) to interface with the CIA was one Richard V. 
Secord, an integral player in the Iran-Contra arms-for-drugs network. Secord, it should be noted, was also a business partner of Vang Pao, 
the Laotian General who ran a heroin smugging ring out of Long Tien Airbase during the Vietnam War, and Monzer al-Kassar, the Syrian 
arms and drugs dealer who was involved in the Pan Am 103 bombing — another crime that was successfully covered up by the CIA and the 
FBI. According to Richard Babayan, a former CIA contract employee, "Barbouti was placed in the hands of Secord by the CIA, and Secord 

called in Wackenhut to handle security and travel for Barbouti and his export plans. "^^^ 

Mike Johnston, the attorney who sued Barbouti on behalf of TK-7, an Oklahoma City company, ran into the same sort of stonewalling by the 
Justice Department. As Johnston was told by the federal team investigating this little corner of Iraqgate, "Mr. Johnston, you don't understand, 
we have to limit the objective of the investigation so we can get on with the business of running the government." 

"Going into the investigation... was a disguised whitewash," Johnston later told me, echoing what U.S. Customs agent Martin Schram told 
Louis Champon. 

Former CIA asset Charles Hayes said the CIA-connected Wackenhut was helping Barbouti ship chemicals to Iraq, "Supplying Iraq was 

originally a good idea," he maintains, "but then it got out of hand."^^^ 

Said Champon, "I can assure you, that if drums of cyanide left our plant. Dr. Barbouti had his reasons, either to be used against American 

troops or terrorist acts against the United States at home."^^^ Cyanide is a necessary ingredient in the development of nerve gas. One 
thousand grams of cyanide later wound up in the World Trade Center bomb, constructed by Iraqi agent Ramzi Yousef. 

Yousef s partner, Ahmed Ajaj, a member of the Egyptian-based Al-Gama'a al-lslamiya, lived in Texas. A Texas hamburger stand was 
reportedly used to relay telephone calls between the World Trade Center bombers as a means of avoiding detection. It was owned by some 
Palestinian friends of Ajaj, and Yousef and Ajaj used the number for conference calls while Ajaj was in prison. 

The records may also indicate a tie between Ajaj and Hussaini's boss, Sam Khalid. Records obtained during TK-7's civil suit against Ishan 
Barbouti show a phone call to one of Khalid's properties in Houston. The person who made call was Ahmed Ajaj.^^^ 

Yet Barbouti wasn't just trying to procure material and technology from U.S. companies on behalf of Iraq. Barbouti also built the bunkers 

used to house Saddam Hussein's Mig jet fighters during Desert Storm. It was during TK-7's suit against Barbouti that the Americans learned 
of these bunkers. Barbouti's London head of Security, Tony Davisson, decided to sell the Americans the blueprints. It isn't clear whether 
Davisson had a falling out with Barbouti, or was simply being patriotic. The point may be moot, as Barbouti was apparently dead. The Iraqi 
arms dealer died (or faked his death) around the same time the Israeli Mossad knocked off his contemporary, Gerald Bull, the developer of 

the ill-fated Iraqi "Super-Gun. "^^^ 

Davisson called TK-7's attorney, Mike Johnston, who flew to London, where he purchased the plans for $2,700, and promptly turned them 
over to the CIA. With the plans for Saddam's underground bunkers, the U.S. Airforce was able to practically wipe out Iraq's entire fleet of Mig 
fighter jets at the start of the war. 

This didn't exactly make Saddam happy. In the parlance of the Arab world, this equated to pay-back time. If Hussein thought Barbouti was 
responsible for the destruction of his air force, he may have insisted the arms dealer cooperate in an act of revenge against the United 

Yet the destruction of the Hussein's air force wasn't the only motive Iraq had for seeking revenge against the U.S. While Americans were 
busy tying yellow ribbons on their front porches for our boys in the Gulf, these same brave boys were slaughtering enemy soldiers and 
helpless civilians by the thousands. As reported by Mike Eriich of the Military Counseling Network at the March-April, 1991 European 
Parliament hearings on the Gulf War: 

...hundreds, possibly thousands, of Iraqi soldiers began walking toward the U.S. position unarmed, with their arms raised in an attempt to 
surrender. However, the orders for this unit were not to take any prisoners... 

The commander of the unit began the firing by shooting an anti-tank missile through one of the Iraqi soldiers. This is a missile designed to 
destroy tanks, but it was used against one man. 

At that point, everybody in the unit began shooting. Quite simply, it was a slaughter.^^^ 

The government-controlled sanitized media campaign beamed into our living rooms, replete with scenes of high-tech "smart-bombs" 
whistling through the windows of enemy command centers, merely belied the terrible and deliberate carnage inflicted upon thousands of 
helpless civilians. 

On February 13, 1991, a U.S. Air Force Stealth Bomber dropped two 1,000-pound, laser-guided bombs onto the roof of the Al-Amira air raid 
shelter in Baghdad. Two hundred and ninety four people — mostly women and children — died in what the U.S. military called a "military 
surgical strike." 

According to William Blum, author of Killing Hope: U.S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II, the bombing of the Al-Amira air 
raid shelter wasn't accidental, it was deliberate: 

The United States said it thought that the shelter was for VIPs, which it had been at one time, and claimed that it was also being used as a 
military communications center, but neighborhood residents insisted that the constant aerial surveillance overhead had to observe the daily 


flow of women and children into the shelter. Western reporters said they could find no signs of military use.^ 

An American journalist in Jordan who viewed unedited videotape footage of the disaster, which the American public never saw, wrote: 

They showed scenes of incredible carnage. Nearly all the bodies were charred into blackness; in some cases the heat had been so great 
that entire limbs were burned off.... Rescue workers collapsed in grief, dropping corpses; some rescuers vomited from the stench of the still- 

smoldering bodies. ^^^ 

Said White House spokesman Marlin Fitzwater after the bombing of the shelter: It was "a military target. . . We don't know why civilians were 

at this location, but we do know that Saddam Hussein does not share our value for the sanctity of life."^^^ 

This so-called "value for the sanctity for life" shown by American forces and lauded by the Bush administration, included not only attacks 
such as the one at Al-Amira, but the bombing and strafing of unarmed civilians who tried to flee to the Jordanian border. 

Buses, taxis, and private cars were repeatedly assaulted, literally without mercy, by rockets, cluster bombs and machine guns; usually in 
broad daylight, the targets clearly civilian, with luggage piled on top, with no military vehicles or structures anywhere to be seen, surrounded 
by open desert, the attacking planes flying extremely close to the ground... busloads of passengers incinerated, and when people left the 
vehicles and fled for their lives, planes often swooped down upon them firing away.... 

"You're killing us!" cried a Jordanian taxi driver to an American reporter. "You're shooting us everywhere we move! Whenever they see a car 
or truck, the planes dive out of the sky and chase us. They don't care who we are or what we are. They just shoot." His cry was repeated by 

hundreds of others ^^^ 

Mike Ange, a Gl from North Carolina, described the carnage: 

I actually went up close and examined two of the vehicles that basically looked like refugees maybe trying to get out of the area. You know, 
you had like a little Toyota pick-up truck that was loaded down with the furniture and the suitcases and rugs and the pet cat and that type of 

thing, all over the back of the this truck, and those trucks were taken out just like the military vehicles. ^^^ 

"The U.S. military considers the murdering of our children nothing more than 'collateral damage," said Al Kaissy, an information officer at the 


Iraqi Interests section of the Algerian Embassy in Washington. "They have never apologized or even admitted their mistake."^ — ^ 

At the same time, the American public, fed a daily dose of propaganda generated in Pentagon media briefing rooms, could not understand 
how terrorists could bomb a civilian building in the heartland of America. 

While the estimate of Iraqi forces killed runs as high as 250,000, the actual number of Iraqis killed, including civilians, runs much higher. 
American planes deliberately destroyed Iraq's power plants, its sewage systems, and its hospitals. The economic embargo severely 
compounded the situation, forcing an entire population to struggle amidst massive epidemics of starvation and disease. Their infrastructure 
decimated, without sanitation, food and medical supplies, hundreds of thousands of civilians suffered horrible, lingering deaths — all caused 
by the U.S. military, the greed of Big Oil, and their life-long friend, George Herbert Walker Bush. 

The people of Baghdad have turned the rubble of the Al-Amira air raid shelter into a shrine, complete with mementos and pictures of the 
children who perished. 

In Oklahoma City, victims placed mementos of their dead relatives on a chain-link fence surrounding the remains of the Alfred P. Murrah 
Building and asked, "Who could do such a thing? Who could kill innocent civilians?" 

While the World Trade Center and Oklahoma City bombings may have been the result of Iraqi revenge, what ultimately lay behind the New 
York and Daharan bombings appeared to stem from a broader-based alliance of Islamic militants from Iraq, Iran, Syria, Saudi Arabia, 


Pakistan, and other countries committed to the expulsion of U.S. troops from the region and an all-out attack on the "Great Satan. "^ — ^ 

It has been reported that groups ranging from the Palestinian-based Islamic Jihad, Hamas, the Sudanese National Islamic Front, the 
Pakistan-based al-Fuqra, and groups funded by Saudi Arabian Osama bin-Laden were involved in the World Trade Center bombing and 
related plots. 

In fact, as early as 1990, World Trade Center conspirators El-Sayyid Nossair, Mahmud Abouhalima, and al-Fuqra member Clement Rodney 
Hampton-El (an American Black Muslim) had met in New York City with Sheik Abd-al-Aziz Awadah, who is alleged to have been a senior 


commander engaged in the coordination of terrorist operations with Iranian, Palestanian, and Hizbollah leaders.' — ^ 

Such alliances were also reflected in a major terrorist conference held in Tehran in 1993, where it was decided the terrorists' war against the 
U.S. would include "targeting buildings for bomb spectaculars. "^^^ 

Another major terrorist conference was held in Tehran on June 20-23, 1996, during which it was announced that there would be increased 
attacks against U.S. interests. Two days later, on June 25, the military housing complex in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, was bombed, claiming 
the lives of 19 servicemen. The Movement for Islamic Change, which had already claimed credit for the Riyadh bombing, took credit. 

This was followed by another terrorist conference at the Northwest Frontier Province town of Konii, near the Afghani border in Pakistan on 
July 1 0-1 5, 1 996. The meeting saw some of the most important militant Islamic leaders come together under one tent. They included Osama 
bin Ladin, a Saudi Arabian who funded the Mujahadeen, was implicated in the Riyadh and Dhahran bombings, and was a close associate of 
Sheik Omar Abdel Rahman, Ahmed Jibril of the PFLP-GC (who carried out the Pan Am 103 bombing on orders from Teheran), Abdul Rasul 
Sayyaf, a senior representative of Iranian intelligence, senior Pakistani intelligence officers, and senior commanders of Hamas, HizbAllah, 

and other groups. All resolved to use whatever force was necessary to oust all foreign forces stationed on Islamic holy land.^^^ 

One Arab observer with direct knowledge of the conference said the participants' resolution was "a virtual declaration of relentless war" on 

the U.S. -led West.^^^ A glimpse of that conference can be seen in Defense and Foreign Affairs: 

Rasul Sayyaf stated that "the time to settle accounts has arrived." The senior representative of Iranian intelligence declared that "attack is 
the best means of defense." He urged a combined offensive, both in the Muslim world, particularly the Persian Gulf and Arabian Peninsula, 
and at the heart of the West. He repeated Iran's commitment to the cause and reiterated Tehran's willingness to provide the Islamists with all 
possible aid. 

Another commander concurred, adding that "there is an imperative need for an integrated plan to deal a fatal blow to the international forces 
of arrogance." A UK-based commander from a Persian Gulf state stressed that given the immense strategic importance of the Persian Gulf 
to the U.S. and its allies, the only way to compel the West to withdraw was through the infliction of so much pain on these countries, that 
their governments would find it impossible to tolerate the public outcry and be compelled to withdraw as the only way to stop the Islamist 

terrorism at home.I§S3 

On July 16, one day after the Konii conference, the U.S. Senate passed sanctions against Iran and Libya. With their continued sanctions 
against the innocent civilians of Iraq, and now Iran, the U.S. was building to a confrontation with the militant Islamic community. As Ronald 
W. Lewis wrote in the November, 1996 edition of Air Forces Monthly: 

On the following day (after the KonIi conference), July 17, the Movement for Islamic Change sent a chilling fax to the London-based Arab 
newspaper al-Hayat, warning: "The world will be astonished and amazed at the time and place chosen by the Mujahadeen. The Mujahadeen 
will deliver the harshest reply to the threats of the foolish American president. Everyone will be surprised by the volume, choice of place and 
timing of the Mujahadeen's answer, and invaders must prepare to depart alive or dead, for their time is morning and morning is near." That 
fax, and a warning by Israeli intelligence that Iran was likely to launch an attack against a U.S. aircraft, were ignored. 

At 8:31:10 p.m. (0031:10 GMT) that evening, nobody could dismiss the horrendous explosion of TWA Flight 800 off the coast of Long Island, 
New York. Attack number three had just been carried out.^^^ 

That excerpt appeared in a U.S. military newspaper. But Lewis wasn't the only observer cognizant of these facts. As Dr. Laurie Mylroie noted 
regarding the July 17 attack on TWA flight 800, it occurred precisely on Iraqi national day. The day of the bombing, Saddam Hussein had 
made his own threats, telling the U.S. that they would be unable to avoid "the sweeping flood and flaming fire that is burning under their 



The bombing of the World Trade Center occurred on the second anniversary of Iraq's surrender to coalition forces in the Gulf. 

While reports from the State Department and such institutions as the Heritage Foundation decry the use of Arab state-sponsored terrorism 
against the West, the truth is that the West — and especially the U.S. — has been exporting terrorism in the form of economic sanctions. 

assassinations, coups, death-squads, and covert/overt wars in almost every part of the world since the beginning of the century. ^^^ 

To the Muslim world, and especially terrorist groups such as the PLO, Islamic Jihad, Hizbollah, and Hamas, the U.S. assault on its ally Iraq 
represented a turning point in Islam's struggle against the West. The Gulf War marked the first time the United States had used an all-out, 
full-scale military assault on an Arab country, with devastating results. 

Under the influence of religious figures such as Sheik Omar Rahman, the Mujahadeen (the Afghani freedom fighters who had been trained 
by the CIA) and their allies became staunch opponents of the United States. Thousands of Muslims from almost 40 countries flocked to 
Afghanistan and Pakistan during the war, and thousands remain there, training for the day when Islam will rise up in its final great Jihad 

against the West.^^^ 

To these groups, the Gulf War marked the signal for a new escalation in their war against the U.S. The bombing of the World Trade Center, 
the Federal Building in Oklahoma, the Al-Khubar military complex in Daharan, and possibly the shootdown of TWA 800, were all expressions 
of this rage against the United States. 

On January 25, 1993, less than one month before the World Trade Center attack, Mir Aimal Kansi, a Pakistani, vented his rage by opening 
fire with an AK-47 outside CIA headquarters in Langley, Virginia. Two CIA employees were killed and three others were wounded. Like 
Ramzi Yousef, Kansi was a native Baluchi. He was involved with the Pashtun Students Organization, the student wing of Mahmood Khan 
Achakzai's Pakhtoon Khwa Awami Milli Party, which claimed the CIA's sudden pull-out of Afghanistan resulted in millions of deaths at the 

hands of the Soviets. Kansi claimed the CIA had betrayed his father.^^^ 

Yousef himself spent considerable time in Baluchistan. Located in western Pakistan, Baluchistan is a nexus for the Muslim Jihad, and a 
major arms and drug network. Pakistan has served not only as a training center for the Mujahadeen, but a haven for Philippine terrorist 
groups such as Abu Sayyaf and the More Liberation Front, who have used the free-flowing Pakistani arms and drugs nexus in an effort to 

promote and finance their activities. ^^^ 

Support in the form of arms and drugs flowed from Pakistan and Afghanistan to militant Islamic groups around the world, aided by the CIA, 
rogue intelligence officers, and senior U.S. officials in for their piece of the action — just as Oliver North's "Enterprise" would do with the 
Contras in Nicaragua. In fact, many of the same individuals were involved. 

Yousef next showed up in the Philippines with a Libyan missionary named Mohaimen abu Bakr, leader of the Libyan Mullah Forces. It was 
there that he joined forces with an Afghani named Wall Khan Amin Shah and his old friend from Kuwait, Abdul Hakim Murad. They were 
there to train the Abu Sayyaf. 

Headquartered on the Philippine island of Mindanao, the 400-member strong Abu Sayyaf has conducted over 10 major terrorist attacks in 
the last six years in its bid for autonomy, and is strongly allied with other Islamic revolutionary groups, such the Philippine-based More 
Liberation Front. Abu Sayyafs funding and support comes from high-profile Islamic leaders such as Libyan President Muammar Qaddafi, 
and wealthy Islamic financiers such as Tariq Jana, a Pakistani businessman, and Osama bin Laden. 

Considered by the State Department to be one of the world's preeminent sponsors of Islamic radicalism, bin Laden's threats to wage Jihad 

on Americans in the Middle East immediately preceded the November, 1995 blast at a U.S. military facility in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in which 
five Americans and two Indians were killed. Eight months later, a massive truck-bomb killed 19 servicemen and injured 400 at Dhahran. 

In a March, 1997 interview with the London Independent from his Afghani hideout, bin Laden warned of additional measures against U.S. 

forces in Saudi Arabia, and said he had obtained the support of thousands of Pakistanis. ^^^ 

Readers will also recall that General Wafiq al-Sammara'i, the former head of Iraqi military intelligence, told the London Independents year 
earlier that the 1996 Dhahran bombing "strongly resembled plans drawn up by a secret Iraqi committee on which he served after the 

invasion of Kuwait. . . . "^^^ 

Not surprisingly, in February of 1995, U.S. authorities named bin Laden and his brother-in-law, Mohammad Jamal Khalifa among 172 
unindicted co-conspirators in the World Trade Center bombing and related plots to blow up New York City landmarks, including the Javitz 

Federal Building and the United Nations. Those plots were strongly linked to Iraq.^^^ 

Khalifa also ran an Islamic center in the Philippines linked to similar organizations in countries such as Iraq and Jordan. Given Abu Sayyafs 
close ties with bin Laden, Khalifa, and their connections with the Mujahadeen, it is only natural that Ramzi Yousef, a Pakistani who is 
considered an Iraqi agent, would be involved with the group. 

Abu Sayyafs former military strategist, Edwin Angeles, who surrendered to Philippine authorities in February of '96, admitted that the Abu 
Sayyaf was in fact linked to Yousef and Murad — both of whom recently went on trial in New York for their role in "Project Bojinka" — a 
dramatic plan to blow up 12 U.S. airliners in a single day. The plot was foiled when police raided Yousef s Manila apartment on January 6, 
1995, after a fire caused by the pair mixing bomb-making chemicals in a sink. While Murad was captured, Yousef escaped, making his way 

to Pakistan, where he was captured by police in February. ^^^ 

Nine of his accomplices — six of them Iraqis — were rounded up one year later along with plastic explosives, blasting caps, detonating 
cords, time fuses, and fake passports. The terrorists, including a Sudanese and two Saudis, were part of a plot to bomb various Western 

targets and assassinate Pope John Paul II during his January, 1995 Philippine visit.^^^ 

Before his capture however, Yousef, an engineering graduate of Britain's Swansea University, had time to try out his new bomb — an 
experimental form of nitroglycerin. The small test-bomb, taped under a seat on Philippine Air flight 434, killed one Japanese tourist and 
injured 10 others. Before the explosion, Yousef had safely departed the plane in Cebu City. 

Another temporary resident of Cebu City was Terry Nichols. As discussed, Nichols had moved to Cebu City with his new wife, Marife Torres, 
a mail-order bride whom he met there in November of 1989. After trying life in Michigan and Nevada, the couple moved back to Cebu City in 
early 1993, where they lived for a short time. 

According to Nichols' ex-wife Lana Padilla, her former husband had traveled to the Philippines about four times a year since meeting Marife. 

Although some of the visits were to see his new bride and make arrangements for her entry into the U.S., he occasionally traveled alone. ^^^' 

"Sometimes he went when Marife was in Kansas," wrote Padilla. "It didn't make sense, but I never asked why."^^^ 

Nichols told Padilla he was traveling to Cebu City to meet "potential business partners." The Michigan farmer was making the multi-thousand 
dollar trips, he said, to bring back little paper "butterflies" — curious merchandise for a man intent on setting himself up in the military surplus 

business. ^^-^ 

It is also curious why Nichols carried two stun-guns on his last trip, why he left $20,000 taped behind a drawer for his son, and a note to 
McVeigh telling him "You're on your own," and "go for it!" in case he didn't come back, and why his son cried, "I'm never going to see my 
Dad again...." 

Perhaps Nichols had reason to worry. According to FBI 302 reports and investigations conducted by McVeigh's defense team, Abu Sayyaf 
leader Edwin Angeles spoke of a terrorist meeting in the vicinity of the Del Monte labeling factory in Davao, on the Island of Mindanao, in late 
1992 or early '93. It was there, Angeles said, that Ramzi Yousef, Abdul Hakim Murad, Wall Khan Amin Shah, and several others discussed 

the Oklahoma City bombing plot.^^^* 

One of the men at the meeting, recalled Angeles, introduced himself as "a farmer. "^^^ 

When the "farmer" returned home from his last visit to the Philippines on January 16, 1995, and discovered that Padilla had opened the 

mysterious package and read the contents, he turned "white as a ghost."^^^ 

On April 19, 1995, Abdul Hakim Murad was sitting in his New York jail cell when the word went out that the Oklahoma City Federal Building 
had been bombed. Murad casually admitted to a prison guard that the Liberation Army of the Philippines — a group connected to Abu 

Sayyaf — was responsible. 

Abu Sayyaf leader Edwin Angeles later corrected Murad for the record: "It was the Palestine Liberation Army and/or the Islamic Jihad which 
Murad was referring to," he said. "This army is associated with Hamas and based in Lebanon...." 

However, given the fact that Saudi intelligence informed the FBI that Iraq had hired Pakistanis who might not have known they were 
operating on behalf of Iraq, it is highly possible that Murad (a Pakistani) and Angeles were unaware of their true sponsor. As the Washington 
Post's Jack Anderson reported in 1991 : "A preferable revenge for Iraq would involve having a 'surrogate terrorist' carry out a domestic attack 
that Hussein could privately take credit for... ." 

As Stephen Jones wrote in his March 25th Petition for Writ of Mandamus: 

This terrorist attack was "contracted out" to persons whose organization and ideology was friendly to policies of the foreign power and 
included dislike and hatred of the United States government itself, and possibly included was a desire for revenge against the United States, 
with possible anti-black and anti-Semitic overtones. Because Iraq had tried a similar approach in 1990, but had been thwarted by Syrian 
intelligence information given to the United States, this time the information was passed through an Iraqi intelligence base in the Philippines. 


The sighting of Terry Nichols with Islamic terrorists in the Philippines dovetails with Gary Gagan's sighting of Nichols with his "Iranian" friends 
— Omar and Ahmed — in Henderson, Nevada. Gagan recalled how Nichols looked "out-of-place" among his Arab comrades at the May '94 

Was Terry Nichols associated with World Trade Center bomber Ramzi Yousef, a reputed Iraqi agent? Was Timothy McVeigh associated 
with Hussain al-Hussaini, a former Iraqi soldier? Were Yousef and Hussaini part of a terrorist network set up by Iraq to infiltrate the United 

On January 28, 1991 , the Washington Post reported that an Iraqi terrorist network was being sponsored and planned by Saddam Hussein. 
The article stated in part: 

Highly classified US intelligence reports say that the United States has received information that Saddam has already dispatched more than 
100 terrorists, both experienced and novice, to try to infiltrate the United States. One report, quoting sources inside Iraq, cites a specific 
number of terrorists — 160 — who have been sent off with missions in America. 

That coincides with reports that at least two and possibly as many as four Iraqi diplomats in their embassy in Washington were monitored as 
they attempted to set up terrorist cells in the capital and elsewhere in the United States.... 

...A recent intelligence report says that Saddam has deposited money in several Swiss bank accounts that will automatically be paid out to 
terrorists no matter what happens to Saddam... Iraqis living in the United States who support Saddam strongly enough to resort to violence 
would probably be used to provide bank accounts, safe houses and materials for the experts who sneak into the country. 

According to Northrop, information from a London banker "Sayanin" (source) showed that several million dollars was transferred from the 
Bank of Iraq, through the SWIFT international banking system in Brussels, Belgium, to a bank in Kingman, Arizona under the account name 

of "Nayaad." Attempts by Northrop to confirm this information were unsuccessful.^^-^ 

What is also interesting is that Gary Gagan claimed to have received $250,000 from his Arab friend Omar, who wanted to set up an account 
for him. Omar and Gagan had also traveled to Kingman. The million dollar account was to be wired from a Swiss bank and deposited into 
the Bank of Cherry Creek in Denver. 

Part of the plan was to allow Omar and Ahmed to purchase the Postal Center, a shipping and receiving store in Denver owned by George 
Colombo, who also operated a Ryder truck leasing operation across the street. Omar had asked Gagan to broker a deal to buy the facility 
from Colombo. He believes they were interested in the mail and truck rental facility. For some reason, the deal fell through. 

While Gagan claims he was paid by Omar, there is no direct evidence that McVeigh or Nichols were funded by Gagan's Arab contacts. Yet 
there is circumstantial evidence that the two bombing defendants met with Sam Khalid, who spent considerable time in Las Vegas. The Arab 
high-roller frequented Binyon's Horseshoe, the Glitter Gulch, and the MGM casino, where Nichols would occasionally take his 12-year-old 

son Josh.^^^ 

As Northrop said, "gambling is a favorite pastime of Sunni Moslems. ..." Was Omar simply there to gamble, or did he have another agenda? 

According to Gagan: "Omar and Ahmed were wiring money in and out of MGM. They used to get money — huge amounts of money — they 
were using these wire transfers." 

Former high-ranking CIA operative Gunther Russbacher told author Rodney Stich (Defrauding America) that Binyon's Horseshoe was one of 
the casinos used for money laundering and political payoffs. Khalid is a regular at Binyon's Horseshoe. 

Two other frequent visitors to Binyon's Horseshoe, it appears, were Terry Nichols and Timothy McVeigh. The two men attended the Claude 
Hall Gun Show in Las Vegas in November and January of 1994, stayed at Padilla's house, and reportedly frequented Binyon's and a strip 

joint next door called the Glitter Gulch, where Khalid is also a regular.^^^t 

While no one at the casinos would cooperate in placing Khalid with the two bombing suspects, Padilla said that Nichols had met with "Middle 
Eastern" men while in Las Vegas. ^^^ 

That information dovetails with Gary Gagan's testimony. As stated earlier, the federal informant said he met with approximately eight men — 
five of whom were Middle Easterners — at the Western Motel in Las Vegas on May 16, 1994. There was an Arab man from Oklahoma City 
who Gagan referred to as the "leader." 

The Eighth man was Terry Nichols. 

The question remained, who was Omar, and was he connected with Sam Khalid? Interestingly, Khalid's alias is "Omar."^^^ 

In an attempt to track Khalid's whereabouts in Las Vegas, KFOR's Jayna Davis hired a security guard and part-time P.I. named Louis 
Crousette. Crousette had worked at the Glitter Gulch. In a transcript of the conversation, Davis asks Crousette if Angle (not her real name), 
Khalid's favorite stripper, recognized him: 

Crousette: "She knew who he was. Her eyes. . . her. . . her. . . how do I want to say this? Her whole demeanor changed. She went from being 
a calm person to being a scared little rabbit." 

Davis: "All right. And she said she didn't want to get involved..." 

Crousette: "Does the word getting up and running and leaving the place tell you anything? 

Davis: "Okay. So..." 

Crousette: "She left. She got up and left. She left her money and left. She grabbed her stuff and was out the door." 

According to Crousette, Angle also described an Arab man in the Glitter Gulch acting as a "recruiter," who introduced Khalid to a pair of 
"skinny white guys." Could these two skinny white guys have been Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols? 

Angle declined to say, telling Davis that she'd "wind up at the bottom of Lake Meade" if she talked.^^^^^^^^* 

But just who was this "recruiter" that Crousette spoke of? Crousette saw him hobnobbing in a wealthy part of town with a man in a white 
BMW. Just who was in the car with him wasn't clear. However, the information is curious in light of Gagan's report that he and his Arab 
friends met at the Player's Club, an upscale apartment complex in a Las Vegas suburb. 

Also mentioned in Crousette's phone conversation is "Jaffer," an apparent reference to Jaffer Oshan (not his real name). Oshan, who 
sometimes goes by the name Ossan Jaffar, is an electrical engineer who works for Khalid, and translates for his rusty Arabic. 

Oshan was reportedly the target of FBI surveillance at the same time Khalid was being indicted for insurance fraud. Like Abraham Ahmed, 
Oshan disappeared just before the bombing, traveling to Jordan. And like Ahmed, he gave a similar story, telling Ernie Cranfield he was 
going to the Middle East to attend to family matters — in this case — his own wedding. According to Cranfield, he did not marry. 

A native Jordanian, Oshan showed up in KFOR's surveillance photos with Khalid and Hussain al-Hussaini. Crousette showed the photos to 
his "intelligence" source: 

Crousette: Three people that I know of that went in service — two feds and two of them were ex-company (CIA). They know who these 
guys are. When I showed them these pictures they looked at me and told me, "Get the hell out of it. What the hell are you doing doing this?" 

Davis: Did they tell you they were Iraqi Intelligence? 

Crousette: Two of them did, yes.... The feds know who did it. 

Davis: And they're not arresting them? 

Crousette: I'm not gonna' get involved. 

Davis: Are they Middle Eastern? 

Crousette: I'm not getting involved on this. Okay. I'm sending in my bill. I'm getting out of it now....^^^ 

Crousette has since avoided all attempts to contact him. Gordon Novel, an investigator who used to work for District Attorney Jim Garrison, 
spent a week in Las Vegas attempting to talk with the former security guard. "He was real adamant about not wanting to be talked to," said 

As a frustrated Novel was about to leave, a large goon appeared at his hotel room with an automatic tucked in his belt and some words of 
advice: "You betta' stay da fuck out odda Oklahoma thing," he warned. "Work on da Waco thing if ya wanna, but stay out odda Oklahoma 
thing. There's a lodda sand out dare where no one will ever find ya." 

"He had a very serious big gun," said Novel, "and he wasn't a cop — I don't know what he was."^^^ 

Why would an apparent Mob mule be concerned about steering an investigator away from a Las Vegas connection to the Oklahoma City 
bombing? Was Khalid connected to the Mob? 

KFOR first bumped into Sam Khalid when reporter Brad Edwards received a mysterious phone call from Sharon Twilley. Twilley was working 
at the time for Khalid's real-estate business, Sahara Properties, which he owned with his ex-wife Carol, who died in the bombing. A three- 
year employee, Twilley did a variety of jobs for Khalid, including bookkeeping and acting as rental agent for his 500-plus properties. 

Twilley told Edwards and Davis that she had seen her boss in the company of Abraham Ahmed, who had been detained by the FBI as a 
possible suspect on April 19 as he attempted to fly from Oklahoma to Jordan. 

According to Twilley and Ernie Cranfield, Ahmed had been seen driving the brown Chevy pick-up seen speeding away from the bombing, 
back and forth to Khalid's place in the days prior to the bombing. Ahmed's increasingly frequent visits coincided with the arrival of Hussain al- 
Hussaini and five other Iraqis in November. Twilley also said that Khalid began acting very secretive after the arrival of the six men, and 
would only speak to Ahmed in Arabic. 

Yet, perhaps most incredibly, both Cranfield and Twilley had seen a yellow Mercury Marquis parked at Khalid's office; Twilley said she saw 

Abraham Ahmed in the passenger seat.^^^ 

The presence of Ahmed wasn't the only thing that raised eyebrows at Sahara properties in the days following the bombing. Cranfield told the 
FBI and Edwards that he saw one of Khalid's Arab employees, a man named Haider al-Saiidi, acting strangely ebullient after the bombing. 

"When the news reports first came about some Islamic group being responsible, well Haider kind of laughed about that," recalled Cranfield. 
"I heard they found three babies that was dead from the blast, and I went and told the guys... and John Doe 2 (Cranfield's reference to 
Hussaini) started crying. He went out on the porch to cover his face and he stood by the wall crying. He was upset that children got hurt. He 

was really upset. And Haider was laughing because he was crying. "^^^* 

To make things even stranger, Khalid decided to visit Las Vegas on the evening of April 20, the day after his ex-wife Carol was killed in the 
bombing. It seems Khalid had asked her to help him with his taxes on Monday, her regularly scheduled day at the Department of Agriculture. 
Consequently, she went into work on Wednesday, her day off. As news reports showed Dr. Espe, Carol's boss, being carried down a ladder 
by rescue workers, Khalid's daughter Heather began crying. She knew her mom worked in that office. 

"We was all sitting around the office watching the news," said Cranfield. "And when they showed Espe being carried down that ladder, she 

(Najaya, Khalid's current wife) just burst out laughing. Heather was crying, and Najaya was laughing. "^^^ 

Some might consider it odd that a girl's stepmother would burst out laughing upon learning that her mother had been killed. Some might 
consider it stranger still for a man to be partying on the eve of his ex-wife's death. 

Was there a motive? Did Khalid know there would be a bombing on Wednesday? Did he know Carol would go into work on Wednesday to 
make up for her day off? 

"It was set up," said Cranfield. "I know it was set up. He got rid of her because of the taxes she filed." 

According to Cranfield, Khalid reported to the IRS that his employees were sub-contractors, thus avoiding having to pay benefits. Khalid's 
steady worker of nine years also told me that his boss made up business cards for the employees that purported to show their "independent" 

It was Carol on whom fell the responsibility of preparing the returns. Cranfield caught a glimpse of her on Monday, two days before her death. 

"She didn't look happy that morning when she was doing his taxes," recalled Cranfield. "She did not look happy at all... 'cause he was 

fucking the government over the taxes. "^^^ 

At the time of this writing there was a case pending against Khalid for tax fraud. Carol most likely would have testified against him in that 

The circumstances at Sahara Properties in the days after the bombing were too much for Cranfield. "I left the job site and went to the office 
and said 'I want my money.' I told them I didn't want to work for no terrorists. I was so... I feared that these people were involved, and them 
workers were involved in this. And with all the strange things that was going on, I wasn't going to take no chances. And when they found 
Abraham [Ahmed], that was it. That was all I needed to know. That's all I wanted to know. I wanted to get the hell out of there!" 

The brown Chevy pick-up that Ahmed had been seen driving was found abandoned the Tuesday after the bombing at the Woodscape 
Apartment complex on Route 66. Resident Jeannie Royer recalled a heavy-set Middle-Eastern man getting out of the truck which was left 
near a storage shed. The man gave Boyer a hard look that said, "You'd better forget what you just saw." 

The man showed up a week later and followed Royer while she was out walking her dog.^^^t When shown a photo of a heavy-set Middle 
Eastern suspect by KFOR (one of Khalid's workers), she said, "It sure does look like him. I would sure like to see a close-up of his eyes. 

Those eyes of his were frightening !"^^^ 

The abandoned pick-up, incidentally, had been painted yellow, and the serial numbers ground off. "You could see the yellow over-spray all 

over the chrome fender," said Joe Royer. The FBI then towed the truck to its impound lot, and nothing has been heard about it since. ^^^ 

What is even more interesting (or coincidental, depending on your point of view) is that Khalid owns the property on which a body shop is 
located — Route 66 Auto Collision — a nondescript, run down place on the far side of town. Route 66, curiously, is two miles directly due 
west of the Woodscape Apartments. 

A body shop would be a very convenient place to paint a pick-up. 

Khalid bought the property in 1994 at a tax auction. The sale was disputed by the current owner. Rex Carmichael, and as of this writing, the 
case was in court. "I'm sure it wasn't painted there," said Carmichael. "Khalid hasn't hadn't had anything to do with that body shop.... he's 

tried to get it, he's tried to own it, he's tried to possess it from me... ."^^^ 

Interestingly, an anonymous caller to Oklahoma State Representative Charles Key who claimed to be a friend of the brother of a man 
involved in the bombing, told him that a meeting of bombing conspirators took place at a garage on Northwest 39th Street. Although he didn't 

state the name. Route 66 is located right on Northwest 39th Street.^^^ 

After the bombing. Route 66 changed it's name to Tom's, but is not listed in the phone book or the information directory under either name. 
KFOR's P. I., Bob Jerlow, told me he staked the place out for five days but never saw anybody go in for an estimate. "It's probably a chop- 

shop," said a retired police officer.^^^ 

If so, it may fit into what Cranfield told me next: "They (Khalid and his employees) would always buy cars, then I found out that they was 
taking them and running them to Mexico, running trips to Mexico and selling the cars.... Within two weeks to a month, everyone of them was 
driving a different car. They wouldn't have it but less than a month, then they'd be rid of it, and you wouldn't see it again. 

"I seen them many times up there at this garage (Route 66). It was the same guys that came in [in November]. The same six that came in. 
Just them — them six." 

One of the six was Hussain al-Hussaini. 

The date November, 1994 may be prophetic. Three witnesses in Stillwater, about an hour's drive north of Oklahoma City, saw a man who 
closely resembles Ramzi Yousef in late October, early November, 1994. The man, who called himself Y.T., was managing Boomer's Used 
Auto Sales in Stillwater, along with a man who resembled John Doe 2. He drove a yellow Mercury Marquis similar to Timothy McVeigh's, 
albeit with a vinyl roof. 

Ronnie White (not his real name), who was working as a mechanic for Boomer's at the time, said the men ran a "shoddy" operation and 
were "hostile" towards customers. The business, he said, was buying used cars and shipping them overseas, possibly to Kuwait, while in 
itself not an unusual practice. White said he saw as much as $100,000 pass through per month, which is unusual for such a small operation. 

White says the two men suddenly departed for Ohio the last week of October, 1994. They told him "Don't tell anybody where we're going." 
They left no forwarding address and no way for the customers to pay their bills. (Coincidentally perhaps, Timothy McVeigh was in Kent, Ohio 
on October 5.) 

Said customer Michael Reed, "They were some pretty strange people. They were supposed to be running a car lot, but they were always 

gone." They returned from their supposed car-buying trip the first week of November, with one used Honda. 

White went to the FBI when he saw Yousefs wanted poster in the local police station. Like many witnesses, the FBI appeared to show no 


Was the man these witnesses saw really internationally wanted fugitive Ramzi Yousef? A Washington source familiar with Yousef and the 
World Trade Center bombing doesn't think it likely that Yousef reentered the county after the 1993 attack. The FBI put Yousef in the 
Philippines in November and December of '94, just in time to launch an ill-fated attack on President Clinton during his APEC visit, but his 
exact timeline was never established. 

Yousef himself is a chameleon. One FBI photo depicts him as a thin, haunted-looking criminal, the other a boyish-looking foreign exchange 

student. Yet all three witnesses in Stillwater are adamant. "I was shocked," said Michael Reed, "it looked just like him."^^^ 

Had the Arab cell involved in the bombing reinlisted the aid of expert bomb maker Ramzi Yousef for the Oklahoma City attack? A U.S. 
Marshall told Jayna Davis that he believed the World Trade Center and Oklahoma City bombings were linked. Other sources expressed 
similar opinions. 

Finally, the Justice Department's Office of Inspector General report on the Oklahoma City bombing indicates that nitroglycerin was was 
found at the scene. As previously stated, Yousef had been experimenting with a new form of nitroglycerin. 

If Y.T. was Ramzi Yousef, he didn't seem too concerned that he was operating in the U.S. as a wanted fugitive. 

Samir Khalid, who by now was being investigated by KFOR and surveilled by Jerlow, apparently didn't seem too concerned he was being 
watched either. At one point he casually strolled up to Jerlow and Edwards, who were staking out his house, rapped on their window, and 
said "What do you want with me?" Jerlow, his hand on his gun, watched in amazement. Later, Khalid called him on the phone. "Which 
country hired you to investigate me," Khalid demanded to know, "and how much are they paying you?" 

A curious question. If Khalid wanted to know what country had hired Jerlow, it would subsume, at least in his mind, that the U.S. would have 
no reason to investigate him. Why would he assume such a thing? Was Khalid an operative or an informant for the U.S. Government? 

When Hani Kamal, a Lebanese/Jordanian businessman, occasional FBI informant, and long-time acquaintance of Khalid's was shown 
KFOR's surveillance photos by OCPD officer Don Browning, he reportedly became frightened and said, "You have to leave this alone. This 

is the Mossad. You do not know what you're messing with." After that, Kamal would no longer talk to the cop.^^^* 

Jerlow's sources also came up dry. When the P.I. asked his phone company source to pull Khalid's records, they had mysteriously 
"disappeared." An attorney friend of Jerlow's who had some dealings with Khalid told him, "Khalid is a dangerous motherfucker. You stay 


away from him." He didn't explain why.^ — ^ 

His warning may have been well-founded however. Three months after the bombing, on July 3, a man matching Khalid's description, and 
driving his truck, showed up at Sharon Twilley's house, pulled out a pistol, and fired four shots. Two of the bullets went into Twilley's 
bedroom, one went into her car, shattering the windshield, and another lodged under a neighbor's window. 

A terrified Sharon Twilley rolled out of bed, clutching the phone in her hand, and dialed 91 1 . She then ran over to neighbor Glenn Moore's 
house. "He knows where I slept!" she told Moore, who had watched the scene from his window. "He could have killed me if he had wanted 

Just why Khalid would want to scare Sharon Twilley literally to death is an interesting question. This excerpt from the police report may shed 
some light on the motive: 

Twilley stated she worked for the suspect until after the bombing of the Murrah building when the F.B.I, came out and questioned her about 
the suspect's activity. The next day she was fired. Since that time the suspect has tried to kick her out of his rent [sic] house. He had refused 
to accept her check & had taken her to district court & the judge ordered him to serve a 30 day notice. Twilley stated that since that time her 
residence was burglarized and then this incident of the shooting took place. Twilley stated the F.B.I, had spoke [sic] with her a few times 
since she was fired & then it all started. Twilley stated Khalid was furious when he found out she had spoken to the F.B.I. 

Just what had Twilley told the FBI? When I interviewed the OCPD detective who wrote the report, he told me that Twilley had seen "some 
new deal he was into," and was "nervous." 

"She didn't want him to know that she had talked to the FBI," said the detective. "She was definitely afraid. "^^^ 

FBI agents James Strickland and Dave Swanson's names also appeared on the report. Why would the FBI take an interest in a local assault 
case? Although Khalid later admitted to the author that he had been interviewed and polygraphed by the FBI in regards to the bombing. 

Strickland wouldn't comment.^^^ 

In spite of the bullet holes in Twilley's house and car, and Moore's eyewitness account, the OCPD did little. Assistant DA Sherry Todd 
declined to prosecute the case on "lack of evidence." The police report stated it as follows: 

Moore stated on the morning on 7-3-95 at approx. 3:30-4:00 he heard gun shots. Moore got up & looked out the window and saw a dark 
skinned male running from the house. I asked him if it was Mr. Khalid. Moore stated "I think it was him, but I'm not sure. It looked like him but 
I'm not positive. He was driving the same white Nissan pick-up that he drives. But I'm not sure. 

Moore seemed a bit more certain when I spoke to him. "He was a short guy that smokes a cigar," said Moore. "[He] looked real aggravated. 
He was randomly shooting; he shot four times." 

In fact, the police report had previously stated Moore's identification in more positive terms: 

Moore recognized the suspect as the landlord who rented the house out prior to Twilley living there & knew him as having a white Toyota 
pick up & he said that was him, meaning the suspect. 

As if to add more grist to the mill, Khalid and an associate had shown up at Twilley's house the previous day and had smashed a brick 
through her window. Moore told me he recognized Khalid by his baseball cap, cigar, and white pick-up. 

I began to suspect that Todd's refusal to prosecute came from DA Robert Macy, who had blindly cooperated with the Justice Department by 
refusing to pursue a local investigation of the bombing. Todd dismissed that notion. "It's very, very rare when he's involved in the decline or 

acceptance of charges," she said, then added, "I felt there were some problems with the witnesses statements. "^^^ 

Although initially polite, when I suggested that Khalid might be involved in the bombing, and that she should re-open the case, she turned 
suddenly hostile, and said, "I'm gonna' go back to work. This case is closed," then abruptly hung up. 

Some time later, Mike Johnston, a local attorney familiar with the case, ran into Assistant U.S. Attorney Ted Richardson in the courthouse. 
Johnston raised the issue of Sam Khalid. "Oh you must have been talking to that guy from San Francisco," Richardson replied, referring to 
the author. When Johnston siad that he had gleaned his information from other sources as well, and suggested that Richardson look into the 

matter, Richardson looked at his watch and said, "Well Mike, that's an interesting theory. I gotta' run."^^^* 

As for Glenn Moore, he told me he was being followed by Khalid and didn't want to get involved. And Sharon Twilley? Moore said she was 
scared and had probably moved back to Georgia. 

Was Khalid guilty of assault with a deadly weapon? Was he involved in the bombing? His attorney, Francis Courbois, put it eloquently when 
he said, "...he is typical of those immigrants who work hard to achieve the opportunities America offers." 


In 1973, Khalid was convicted of Grand Larceny. 

In 1991, he was indicted in Federal Court on eight counts of insurance fraud, which included setting fires to some of his 500-plus properties. 

He served nine months out of a year at El Reno Federal Prison. ^^^ 

Robert Kulick, a former employee of Khalid's, told the FBI that Khalid had instructed him to set fires to four of his properties. When agents 
questioned Kulick and his wife about Khalid's associations, Mrs. Kulick blurted out, "We don't want to get Sam [Khalid] in any trouble," 
whereupon the agents immediately advised Kulick of his Miranda rights. 

Kulick later jumped bond and fled to California after claiming he had received "threatening phone calls." He didn't say from whom.^^^* 

Yet the FBI's interest seemed to lay more in Khalid's connections to the PLO than in arson. According to Northrop, the FBI investigated 
Khalid for alleged PLO activity in 1991. Khalid's attorney insisted that it would have been precisely the FBI's interest in Khalid — "the 
microscope under which he, as a Palestinian, has been monitored" — which would have revealed any wrongdoing. 

For all intents and purposes, Sam Khalid appears to be just what his lawyer says he is, a hard-working immigrant out to achieve the 
opportunities America has to offer. A 56-year-old Palestinian, Khalid was born Samir Abdul-Ghani Sharif Khalid, and emigrated to the U.S. 

from Kuwait in 1968.^^^t He received his M.A. from Oklahoma City University in 1975, his Ph.D. in psychology from O.U. in 1979, and went 
on to teach at public schools and at nearby Tinker Air Force base. He also did a brief stint in the Oklahoma Department of Human Services. 


Khalid claims to have relatives in Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Iraq, who provided the money for his education and real-estate investments. In 
1982, Khalid quit teaching and devoted himself full-time to his burgeoning real-estate business. By 1995 he had acquired over 500 

properties, mostly through HUD, the federal agency besieged with corruption in the late 70s and early '80s.^^^ 

Hani Kamal was surprised when I told him Khalid owned over 500 properties: "In the 70s this son-of-a-bitch did not have a dime to his 
name. He couldn't survive. He used to ask me for money. Where did he get 500 properties? Where did the money come from?" 

Kamal, who claimed to have worked with the Insurance Fraud Division of the FBI (Browning said he was merely an informant), believes 
Khalid is a money launderer. "Khalid should be a millionaire with that much property," exclaimed Kamal, "but he lives in a dilapidated shack 
on 32nd Street." Sure enough, Khalid makes his home in a run-down, low-income part of town. It is Kamal's opinion that Khalid is just an 
"errand boy," and somebody else really owns the properties. 

Northrop agrees. He says the money to fund this burgeoning real estate empire comes from the PLO, which instructs him on how to live for 
appearance' sake. Northrop also indicated that Khalid's claim of numerous relatives — an apparently false claim — merely provides a cover 
for the tunneling of money to his business. 

Do these largely circumstantial facts make Sam Khalid a terrorist? That depends on who you talk to. According to Northrop: 

[By information and belief] Khalid is a long-standing participant in PLO fund-raising activities in the United States. He is most probably a sub- 
cell leader, part of the intellectual fringe that guide the cell, a classic Russian Nihilistic Terrorist structure. The destruction of the fringe 
leadership can be seen in the so-called Spool< l/l/ar between the Israelis and the PLO that took place in Europe and the Middle East between 
1972 (the Munich Massacre) and 1986 (the death of Abu Jihad). 

Khalid fits the pattern of the well-funded, well-educated father figure who takes care of his flock, remaining outside the center core of sub-cell 

foot soldiers {tiie iiel in the Nihilistic structure). ^^^ 

A West 57th Street documentary described how fund-raising by insurance fraud is a classic PLO technique. The May, 1989 episode, 
entitled, "Palestinians: Dirty Business," focused mostly on insurance fraud in Miami in the early to mid-'80s. Sunrise, Florida Police detective 
Don Cannon said the money was "being sent back to fund the PLO or the PFLP or the Intifida." 

The principals of this fund-raising scheme, CBS reported, hailed from the West Bank town of Deir Dibwan. Reporter Karen Burnes received 

confirmation from the FBI that a number of scams were going on throughout the U.S. at the time.^^^ 

One method of raising money involved small store owners who would open businesses, buying merchandise on credit, then quickly close 
shop and vanish with the proceeds. There were other scams. California insurance lawyer Gordon Park told CBS, "What they would do is 

. [651] 

throw a brick through their front window and say, 'Ok, gosh, I got burglarized.' 

In Brooklyn, investigators discovered a phony coupon redemption center run by Mahumud Abouhalima — currently serving 240 years in 

prison for his role in the World Trade Center bombing. ^^^ 

"Insurance scams first surfaced in the United States in the mid-1 970's," wrote Northrop, "when California authorities busted a PLO cell in Los 
Angeles." The Israeli said that Khalid travels to Israel at least once a year, and avoids any contact with the PLO, but communicates through 
a "cut-out," a member of his family. Northrop also stated that Khalid had been transferring funds from the Bank of Oklahoma in Tulsa to Bank 
Hapolim, an Israeli bank in Jerusalem: 

The signatory on this particular account in Israel is a member of the Nashashibi clan, a prominent Palestinian family who live in Jerusalem 

and the surrounding area (West Bank). These funds have been used to help finance 'Palestinian aspirations" (and all that implies). ^^^ 

While this information in itself is largely circumstantial, it begins to look less exculpatory when combined with other evidence. 

In May of 1996, U.S. Customs agents in Los Angeles seized a shipment of weapons — Semtex plastic explosives and small arms — bound 
for Florida. The North Korean-manufactured ordinance had been shipped through Manila, and was bound for a Hamas group in Miami. 

The co-founder of Islamic Jihad — a close cousin of Hamas — Fathi Shikaki, had been assassinated in Syria by the Shin Bet (Israeli Secret 
Service) in October of 1995. Islamic Jihad now needed a new leader, and they sought him in Professor Ramadan Abdullah Shallah, an 
adjunct political science teacher at the University of South Florida in Tampa. 

Shallah co-founded the World and Islam Study Enterprise (WISE), linked to the Islamic Committee for Palestine, both of which have been 
accused by federal authorities of fronting for terrorist groups. 

While Shallah vehemently denied these allegations, he suddenly appeared in Syria in November of 1995 as the new head of Islamic Jihad. 

Cary Gagan claims to have seen Shallah in late 1994 and February of '95 at Caesar's Palace and The Racetrack — two Las Vegas casinos. 
"Who is this dude?" Gagan asked Khalid about the short, fat, balding man with a mustache and beard. Gagan was simply told he was a 

professor from Florida. 

Shallah also appeared in Teheran in June of 1996 as HizbAllah International was organizing its joint working committee to coordinate 

international terrorist attacks. Authorities later discovered that Shallah had been Jihad's number two man in Tampa. ^^^ 

While the Florida group had made threats over the extradition of one of their operatives — Mousa Mohammed Abu Marzuk — to Israel, the 
FBI and the Jewish community hadn't taken them seriously. After the Oklahoma City bombing however, and the interception of the arms 
shipment in May, the scenario changed. The FBI and the Jewish community were now taking a keen interest in the Miami group. 

Back in Houston, Northrop was checking into some PLO suspects. He punched up an inquiry into the Aman (Israeli military intelligence) 
computer on Hussain al-Hussaini. It came up empty. 

But the FBI had a list of 27 PLO and Hamas operatives in Florida and Oklahoma. Ten of those individuals had previously been arrested by 
the Israelis in March of '96, and the FBI needed their help. When an Israeli agent in New York named Avi ran the names through the 
computer, he noticed Northrop's inquiry on Hussaini. He called Northrop and asked him to fly to Miami. 

What Northrop discovered when he arrived was that the same group he had been investigating in Oklahoma and Houston had been seen in 
Miami. Hussain al-Hussaini, Sam Khalid, Jaffer Oshan, and Haider al-Saadi — six to seven in all — were positively ID'd by Israeli Sayanim 
in Ft. Lauderdale. They were there, according to sources, meeting with members of Hamas. 

It appears that the Khalid family's activities in the terrorist underworld date back at least to 1982. According to Army CID (Army Criminal 
Investigation Division) records, Khalid's brother Mike, (AKA: Ahmed Khalid, Mike Yousif, Wahid S. Yousif), was involved with a group of 

Iranians in Huntsville, Alabama who were romancing local female enlisted personnel in an attempt to procure military secrets. ^^^ 

Yousif/Khalid's mission was to court a woman named Walker from Tuskumbee, AL, whom he had met in Oklahoma City in late 1982, when 
they worked together at Shotgun Sam's Pizza Parlor. Walker's brother, Jimmy, was the pilot for General Robert L. Moore, Commander of the 
Redstone Arsenal U.S. Army Missile Command in Huntsville. As commander, Moore had responsibility for the Army's missile program 

worldwide. ^^^* 

"What he had wanted, according to her," said a retired Army criminal investigator who wishes to remain anonymous, "was all kinds of 

information about General Moore. "^^^ 

Moore also recalled the case. He told me the Army had stepped up security around him during this time. Interestingly, this was around the 

same time that attacks on U.S. military installations were occurring in Europe. ^^^ 

The Army investigator also recalled that "Huntsville, Alabama, at that time, was a hotbed of espionage. There were 27 known KGB agents in 
Huntsville. They were known. They were known to the Bureau (FBI); they were known to military intelligence." 

This espionage activity was due to the close proximity of Redstone Missile Command, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, and similar 
high-tech facilities located throughout the area. The investigator has no doubts that the Iranians and the KGB were cooperating. 

This account also jives with Gagan's story. The Soviets had asked Gagan's help in obtaining classified information from his friend at Martin- 
Marietta. Later, the Soviets introduced the informant to a man named Hamid who needed fake documentation for illegal Iranians entering the 

"Back at the time we had a big problem with Iranians," said the former CID investigator, "a big problem. They were always trying to infiltrate 
the arsenal. A number of them were attending Alabama A&M University under student visas, but most of them didn't go to school. They were 
involved in a lot of different criminal enterprises, drugs, stolen property, prostitution, all sorts of things...." 

The suspects were also linked to a string of convenience stores. Interestingly, Northrop believes that Sam Khalid is a "money man" for Arab 
immigrants wishing to open businesses — namely convenience stores. Those wishing to do so must split the profits with the "money man" 
fifty-fifty. Could this be another PLO funding scam? 

CID opened their case on Yousif/Khalid in September of 1982. "During the course of all this, to verify that the guy was real, we got his phone 
number... and I called the number one night, and I asked for Ahmed Khalid, and this guy got on the phone and said, 'I don't know him.' And I 
said, 'Well, it's got to be you. I got to talk to you — it's important' Twenty-four hours later that guy was in Tuskumbee, AL." 

Like his brother Sam, Wahid was never prosecuted. "The FBI [officially] took no interest.... Another CID investigator got reprimanded by our 
SAC, because he went and did this (interviewed Walker). That was the total gist of the FBI's involvement."^^^ 

The Army investigator's experiences paralleled that of Gagan's. "That's a pretty common thread when you deal with them (the FBI)," Gagan 
explained. "You bring them information, and you never hear another word about it." 

Florida police who investigated Arab links to insurance scams and organized crime received the same treatment from the FBI. "People didn't 
want to investigate this," said a police detective I spoke with. "Things weren't right. It was as if someone was looking at this and saying, 'stay 

r -1 ...[6601* 

away from it. ^ — ^ 

In spite of the FBI's stonewalling, the Army investigator remembers the case well: "The female soldiers would go out at night to the different 
clubs and discos and stuff... we caught one out there, and he supposedly ran a convenience store.... And we caught him on the arsenal.... 

"Hassan Niakossary — he was the big leader of this gang. He was associated with a local gangster named Dewy Brazelton, who ran a club 
called the Plush Horse. He had a lot of Cosa Nostra connections into New York — a lot. Hassan worked for him."^^^t 

Middle Eastern terrorists involved in espionage with the KGB, associated with the Mob? The Army investigator said Niakossary traveled 
frequently to Las Vegas, a known Mob town. So does Wahid's brother, Sam Khalid. A regular high roller, Khalid reportedly shows up with at 
least $10,000 in his pocket. 

As Hani Kamal pointed out, the Cosa Nostra has cooperated with Iranians in money laundering in the past. Could this explain Khalid's 
frequent visits to Las Vegas? Were his trips part of a money laundering operation? 

As Gunther Russbacher explained, several Las Vegas casinos, including Binyon's Horseshoe, are pay-off points for political and judicial 
slush-funds. Federal judges and others are allegedly paid off through Shamrock Development Corp. in Ireland, via off-shore banks and Las 
Vegas Casinos. The bribe recipients collect their money in the form of gambling chips, then cash them in. 

Is Khalid receiving money this way? It's hard to say, but it is worth noting that the CEO of Shamrock, Donald Lutz, was on the management 
staff of Silverado Savings & Loan, the S&L case tried by Judge Matsch, who would later try McVeigh and Nichols (Neil Bush, a board 
member of Silverado, walked). 

And what about Omar's trip(s) to Kingman? It was there that Omar and Gagan drove from Las Vegas, two weeks before the bombing. Why 
would a high-roller like Omar drive to the dusty, isolated desert town of Kingman? One possible reason may have been to make contact with 
Timothy McVeigh, who was holed up in the Imperial Motel at the time. 

Another reason may have revolved around drugs. Recall that Gagan's original relationship with Omar was under the guise of drug dealing. "I 
brought some back from Puerto Vallerta for him," said Gagan, "using a camper with a false top... through San Diego. At one time I saw 10- 
15 kilos. That's quite a bit of dope." 

Recall that Gagan had delivered a bag of cocaine from Kingman to Denver (which contained plastic explosives), and he believes the 

$250,000 Omar paid him came from the Call Cartel.^^^ 

As mentioned earlier, on April 4, 1995, Gagan and Omar delivered a package to a man in a cowboy hat in Kingman, driving a rusty brown 
pick-up. Authorities reported that a brown pick-up, belonging to Steven Garrett Colbern, was caught on Trooper Hanger's video camera as 

he stopped McVeigh on 1-35 an hour and-a-half after the bombing. ^^^* 

A chemist who knew McVeigh under the alias of "Tim Tuttle," Colbern had recently been spotted with a bag of ammonium nitrate in his truck. 
His roommate, Dennis Malzac, was being held on charges of arson for a small explosion that had damaged a house in town two months 
earlier. That house was owned by Rocky McPeak, a friend of McVeigh's. Colbern, who shared a mailbox in Kingman with McVeigh, was 

absent from work four days prior to and ten days after the bombing. He claimed he was in California visiting his parents. ^^^t 

Interestingly, FBI agents digging in the desert outside Kingman for evidence, found more than 150 pounds of ammonium nitrate buried in the 


Colbern was arrested in May of 1995, and released on April 23, 1997, after serving time in Lompac Federal Prison on illegal weapons 

Despite the incriminating connections, Colbern disappeared from the official radar screen almost as quickly as he had appeared. The 
Oklahoma Highway Patrol video showing the brown pick-up — like the numerous surveillance tapes showing the activity at the Murrah 
Building on the morning of April 19 — was "seized" by the FBI. 

Was Colbern the man to whom Omar delivered the mysterious package on April 4? Was the it meant for Timothy McVeigh? 

Did Khalid meet Terry Nichols in Las Vegas in May of 1994? Were Nichols and McVeigh the "two skinny white guys" he met at the Glitter 
Gulch in November? 

Was McVeigh's yellow Mercury at Sahara Properties as Ernie Cranfield claimed? And was McVeigh with Hussain al-Hussaini at the pawn 
shop and the Roadrunner Tavern in Oklahoma City as KFOR's witnesses said? 

Ultimately, were McVeigh, Nichols and their friends in fact plotting with Arab extremists to blow up the Alfred P. Murrah Building? 

"He (McVeigh) had mentioned before that he wanted to become a mercenary in the Middle East, because they paid the most," recalled 
former Army buddy Greg Henry, "But we just took it as a joke. But he's the kind of person that would have become that."^^^ 

Was McVeigh some sort of intermediary between neo-Nazi groups and Arab terrorists? While this may sound bizarre, as previously noted, 
cooperation between such groups has been well documented. 

The origins of Arab-Nazi collaboration go back to WWII. The Mufti of Jerusalem, who was Hitler's guest, actually raised Muslim SS units for 
the Nazi war effort, culled from Bosnian Muslims and Arabs. 

ODESSA, the Nazi organization formed to funnel support to ex-SS members, arranged rendezvous with representatives of various Arab 
organizations after the war, as part of the Dulles/McCloy/OSS Ratlines. This secret CIA operation also funneled Nazis to various Latin 
American countries, where they set up "security services" (death squads) for their respective government employers. 

One ODESSA member, former Gestapo Chief General Ernest Rhemer, settled in the Middle East, where he set up intelligence operations 
for several Arab countries, including Syria and Egypt. Rhemer, who is currently active in the "Revisionist" scene, for several decades played 
a key role in coordinating German Right-wing activity with the Arab world. 

Alois Brunner, Aldoph Eichmann's chief, who murdered 128,500 people during the Nazi Holocaust, played an early role in Arab-Nazi 

II [6681 

collusion.^ — ^ 

Also playing a role in Arab-Nazi cooperation was Hitler's "favorite commando," Otto "Scarface" Skorzeny, who helped install Gamel Abdul 
Nasser as Egyptian president with the assistance of an elite corps of former SS storm troopers. Skorzeny also helped train early PLO groups 
for commando raids into Israel. The ardent Nazi, who conveniently missed his day at the Nuremberg trials courtesy of the U.S. Government, 

was stationed in Egypt at the behest of the CIA.^^^ 

One of Skorzeny's subordinates, a Swiss Nazi named Frangois Genoud, served with Skorzeny's troops in Egypt. Genoud also befriended AN 
Hassan Salameh, the leader of Black September, the group which murdered nine Israeli athletes during the 1972 Munich Olympics. 
Currently a banker in Geneva, Genoud reportedly masterminded several airplane hijackings for the PLO. 

A close friend of Genoud's, French attorney Jacques Verges, defended several members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine 
(PFLP), and spoke as a "character" witness on behalf of the notorious Gestapo chief Klaus Barbie (the "Butcher of Lyon"), who murdered 
hundreds of French resistance fighters, and deported 7,000 Jews to the death camps. 

And as recently as the early 1980's, a neo-Nazi named Odifried Hepp was responsible for attacks against at least four U.S. military and 
NATO installations, as well as German nightclubs frequented by U.S. servicemen. Hepp worked with the PFLP, and was also financed by 
Yasser Arafat's Al Fatah, who in turn was supported by Frangois Genoud. 

As another example of Arab-Nazi collaboration, when members of Abu Nidal, and Abu Abass' Palestine Liberation Front (PLF) hijacked the 
Greek cruise ship Achille Lauro in 1985, they demanded Hepp's release. "I know Hepp quite well," Abass told the French daily Liberation in 

1985. "He is a friend. "^^^ 

The German magazine Der Speigel reported on a group of neo-Nazis called Kampfsportgruppe, headed by a man named Hoffmann (a 
Hoffmann member had blown himself up, along with 11 others, at the Oktoberfest celebration in Munich in 1981). Kampfsportgruppe, it 

seemed, was connected to terrorist groups in Beirut.^^^ At the same time, a number of German terrorists have reportedly been trained in 
Palestinian camps in Jordan, South Yemen, Syria, and Iraq. 

Iraqi arms dealer Ishan Barbouti met with former Nazi scientist Volker Weissheimer in order to recruit other former Nazis to work on Libyan 

and Iraqi chemical weapons projects. ^^^ 

The Syrians — who are well-known sponsors of terrorism — offered funding to Robert Mathews, the former leader of The Order, also known 
as "Der Buders Schweigen" (The Silent Brotherhood). Mathews, who was killed in a shoot-out with police in 1984, had issued a "Declaration 
of War" against the so-called "Zionist Occupied Government, including Jews, blacks, Hispanics, Asians and white "race traitors" who didn't 
agree with white supremacist goals. Mathews' Order was responsible for a string of armored car robberies and the machine-gun killing of 
Jewish talk show host Allen Berg in Denver. 

As discussed earlier, reports of other Middle-Eastern "terrorist" states such as Libya funding or offering funding to neo-Nazi and other 
dissident groups such as the Black Muslims and the El Rukns has been reported. One of Libya's primary beneficiaries was the Nation of 
Islam (NOI), whose leader, Louis Farrakhan, received $5 million dollars from Libyan President Muammar al-Qaddafi. 

As previously discussed, Farrakhan's predecessor, Elijah Muhammad, had formed a pact with the KKK and American Nazi Party in 1961. 

This unusual alliance stretched right up to the present day. In the fall of 1992, WAR leader Tom Metzger appeared on the Whoopi Goldberg 
Show preaching the benefits of young blacks joining the NO!. 

In 1985, Metzger and Farrakhan spoke together in Los Angeles, and in October of 1996, David Irving, a British Nazi Holocaust Revisionist, 
showed up with a pair of NOI bodyguards. 

Twenty-five year DEA veteran Mike Levine described to me the unique connection between Nazis and Arab terrorists: "Years ago I was 
undercover in the American Nazi party, and it was an odd mix of people that I ran into. First of all, I'm very dark, and my undercover I.D. said 
I was Italian — Mike Picano. But, what I found interesting was that members of the American Nazi party were Arabs, you know, [and] there 
were light-skinned Latinos... There were Arab members of the American Nazi Party going all the way back to 1968, when I was a member. 

The mutual hatred was the Jews and the blacks. ^^^ 

As Levine says, the ties that bind these two seemingly disparate groups is a loathing of the U.S. and hatred of "World Jewry," which they see 
as the dominating force behind all world political and financial power. 

In April of 1991, Ahmed Rami, European correspondent for Al Shaab newspaper, urged a "Western Intifada" against alleged Jewish 
dominance. Rami's call was duplicated in several Right-wing German publications, including Deutsche Rundschall, Remer Depesche, and 
Recht Und Wahrheit, which wrote: 

One can say that the only winner of WWII was the organized World Jewry... attained through Auschwitz, a never-before existing freedom to 
unrestricted development of power. Today, Jews control all important positions of power in the U.S.A. 

Similar twisted sentiments were echoed by the Islamic Association of Palestine, which published a communique urging Muslims to die in a 
holy war against Jews, who they call "enemies of humanity, the bloodsuckers, and the killers of prophets." The principle American support 
group of Hamas, is the lAP in Dallas, Texas. 

According to ABC 20/20 reporter Tom Jarriel, law-enforcement sources said that Iranians had emigrated to the U.S. for the purpose of 
"recruiting" Americans for homegrown terrorism. The January, 1996 episode focused on David Belfield (AKA Daoud Salahuddin), a young 
black man who became disenchanted with American social and economic life and was drawn to the militant Islamic movement. 

In 1980, Salahuddin assassinated a former Iranian Embassy official, AN Tabatabai, who had advocated the overthrow of the Ayatollah 
Khomani. Like Gary Gagan's "Iranian" friends who had planned to bomb a federal building using a postal truck packed with explosives, 
Salahuddin used a postal jeep to gain entry into the official's home. He then fled the U.S. and assimilated himself into the Arab terrorist 
underground. According to the report, Salahuddin was typical of many young black males indoctrinated into the Islamic faith by Iranian 
agents, who convinced them that terrorism was a legitimate means of protest. 

With the help of Washington, D.C. private investigator Carl Schoffler, ABC 20/20 investigators were able to obtain police intelligence reports 
which established that "the Ayatollah had established a recruiting and training program within the U.S. for home-grown terrorists." 

Calling themselves the Islamic Guerrillas in America (IGA), the group, originally comprised of approximately a dozen young black men, 
became involved in murder, bank robbery, and threats on the lives of judges and prosecutors. 

Regarding the assassination of Tabatabai, Salahuddin told 20/20, "I assume that the decision came from what was the Revolutionary 
Council in Iran, in Tehran. That's my assumption." 

Another of Salahuddin's close pals was Cleven Holt, who under his Islamic name, Isa Abdullah, fought against the Israelis in Lebanon and 
was seen extensively outside the Marine Corps compound in Beirut just before it was bombed in 1983. Shoffler recalls that Abdullah was 
once arrested while casing Air Force One, the Presidential jet.... 

According to Schoffler, "There are clear signs that constant recruitment's going on...."^^^ 

Some of this recruitment was for a group known as al-Fuqua, which claims between 200 and 300 operational members. A splinter from the 
Da'ar al-lslam sect, al-Fuqra was founded in Brooklyn in 1980 by a Pakistani cleric named Shaykh Mubarik AN Gilani. Al-Fuqra's international 

headquarters is in Lahore, Pakistan, and they maintain strong ties to both Pakistani intelligence and the Mujahadeen.^^^ 

The group, which is based on the classical terrorist cell structure, is thought to have at least five operational cells in the U.S., and is 
suspected of 17 bombings and assassinations throughout the country, including the murder of at least 12 people.^^^ 

In September of 1989, the FBI confiscated the contents of a storage locker in Colorado Springs owned by al-Fuqra members, including 30 
pounds of explosives (three pipe-bombs, homemade plastic explosives, hand-grenades, mines, fuses, mercury switches and timing 
devices), weapons (10 handguns and silencers), military manuals, bomb-making instructions, a photo of Sheik Omar Abdel Rahman, target- 
practice silhouettes with such headings as "FBI Anti-Terrorist Team" and "Zionist Pig." Also included in the lot were plans to attack Colorado 

military installations, and Colorado utilities and aviation infrastructures. ^^^ 

Gary Gagan was already familiar with Al Fuqra from his time in prison. Omar had asked Gagan to "take care of an al-Fuqra member named 
"Eddie," should he call. Gagan believes the man was Edward Flinton, a Colorado-based al-Fuqra member charged with conspiracy to 
commit murder in the August 1984 firebombing of a Hare Krishna temple, and the February 1993 murder of Rashid Khalifa, an Iman of a 

-r [6781 

Tucson mosque.^ — ^ 

In August of 1995, six months after the bombing in Oklahoma City, "Eddie" called. Gagan met the al-Fuqra member, and the two allegedly 
discussed plans to detonate car bombs outside the Governor's Mansion, the Attorney General's office, the Department of Labor and 

Employment, and the Colorado Bureau of Investigation (CBI).^^^ 

The plan included not only blowing up buildings — but assassinating a federal judge — Lewis Babcock. Babcock was one of several judges 
and federal agents on the terrorists' hit list. 

"He was my guy up here," said Gagan. "I was to take him out." 

The idea was to take Babcock's upstairs neighbor, John Strader, hostage, tie him up, then plant a bomb in his apartment. Apparently, this 
time the U.S. Marshals took Gagan's warning seriously. A call to Babcock and Strader confirmed that the judge had extra security around 

him during this time. Nevertheless, Gagan said Agent James Tafoya didn't want to follow up.^^^ 

On October 20, 1995, Gagan returned to Denver at the behest of his "Hizbollah" contact, where he met two Americans named "Paul" and 
"Daniel" at the Broadway Plaza Motel. "I had just come back from Kingman, where I dropped off money to a militia-looking dude," said 
Gagan. The men discussed bombing targets in Denver and Phoenix. "Daniel deals with these dudes (al-Fuqra)," said Gagan. "They were 

connected to Hizbollah. "^^^ 

Although the agencies targeted for the attacks stepped up security at these facilities, the FBI began a concerted effort to discredit Gagan. 

Then in early February, Gagan says he met at the Tomahawk Truck Stop in Watkins, Colorado, where he helped load approximately 300 
pounds of high-grade explosives allegedly stolen from Explosives Fabricators. Also loaded into a van were anti-tank weapons stolen from 
the Army, electronic circuitry, and boxes of chemicals marked Ammonium Silicate. Gagan says he drove the van to Denver, whereupon he 
contacted Agent Matt Traver of the ATF. 

Gagan said he informed FBI Agents Johnson and Holtslaw and U.S. Attorneys Allison and Solano. Gagan told Holtslaw he would take a 
Polygraph test, requested that he confirm the status of his Immunity Letter, and meet with his family to assure them that precautions would 
be taken for their safety. Gagan alleges that Holtslaw refused, and ceased all contact with him. The FBI claims that Gagan refused to take a 
Polygraph, and was therefore unreliable. 

Yet Gagan's involvement with al-Fuqra is significant in light of several factors. First, Clement Rodney Hampton-El and Earl Gant, both al- 
Fuqra members, were indicted in the World Trade Center bombing and the subsequent plot to blow up four New York City landmarks by 
Sheik Omar Abdel Rahman's Jama a Islamiya. Hampton had fought with Gulbaddin Hekmatyar's Hizb-l-lslami (Islamic Party) during the 
Afghan War, and assisted in the testing of explosives for the New York City bombings, although he didn't actually take part in the final plot. 


Second, al-Fuqra is aligned, not only with Pakistani intelligence, which supports the Mujahadeen (World Trade Center bomber Ramzi Yousef 
is a Pakistani who reportedly fought alongside the Mujahadeen), but to the HizbAllah International through leaders such as Gulbaddin 
Hekmatyar. Al-Fuqra's contacts also include Hamas, and the More Liberation Front, based in the Philippines, where Terry Nichols and 
Ramzi Yousef allegedly rendezvoused. 

Third, an individual claiming to be the brother of the friend of a man involved in the plot called Oklahoma State Representative Key to 
provide him with information after the bombing. According to the anonymous caller, one of the bombers was a black Muslim. He spoke of a 
man named "Colonel Hardin" from Arizona, whose "supposed to be deeply involved in this, along with some with some Middle Eastern and 
some black Muslims." 

The reader should take note that this conversation occurred before any discussion of Middle Eastern involvement became public as a result 
of Stephen Jones' Writ or other investigations: 

Caller: So, according to him there was nine people that he knows of that was supposedly involved in this. Now there was... there was two 
white guys and a black dude. And he said that he thought one of the white guys could possibly be a short-haired girl that she looked like she 
might be from the Middle East or something. 

But the second time that he saw the car, he said it was about ten minutes before the bombing, he said they drove up to him and told him to 
get the hell out, that there was gonna' be a bomb. And he said it was the same car only that it had the white guy and the black dude in it. The 
other person, he said thought might be a female wasn't in the car at that time. Now this about ten minutes before. . . . 

And this black dude-he's a member of the Nation of Islam, but he's also prior service military. And this stupid asshole, he supposedly called 

Channel Four after the bombing, claiming credit for it. 

Key: Well I heard that... I forget who called in to where but somebody called in and said, you know, it was the Nation of Islam. 

Caller: Well, he was supposed to have been the one. And another thing... Channel Four said late last night that this leg was supposed to 
have had some PVC embedded it. And, you know, you use PVC pipe to pack plastic explosives in. It greatly increases the detonation of it 

and the shear power of it, and it's also a tidy way of handling it.^^^ 

Finally, there is the unidentified leg found in the rubble of the Murrah Building. The severed leg, allegedly belonging to a black female, was 
clothed in combat boots, two pairs of socks, and an olive military-issue blousing strap. 

Authorities eventually claimed the leg belonged to 21 -year-old Air Force Airman Lakesha Levy, who was in the Social Security office at the 


What is strange is that there were eight bodies with missing or severed limbs. If the leg was clothed in military garb, it should have been a 
simple task to match it with Levy, who likewise would have been wearing a military uniform. Eventhough Levy was buried before this leg was 
found, it should have been a simple task to go back and see which of the bodies with severed limbs belonged to military personnel wearing 
military uniforms. Yet authorities originally buried a different leg with Levy before finding this one on May 30. 

The State Medical Examiner's Office originally claimed the leg belonged to a white or light-skinned male, most likely under 30 year of age. 
This finding was later recanted by the FBI, who "decided" that it belonged to Levy. Of course. By stating the leg belonged to Levy, the FBI 
conveniently removed all speculation as to whom the leg really belonged to. As Stephen Jones stated, "[Perhaps] the experts are more 

interested in proving the non-existence of a different bomber at the scene than validating the Oklahoma Medical Examiner. "^^^ 

Could the unidentified leg have actually belonged to the real bomber — a black Muslim prepared to sacrifice himself or herself for the cause? 
Perhaps this explains why authorities allegedly recovered no bodies that matched this leg. It is possible the leg belonged to an additional 
bomber who was disintegrated by the blast. This could also explain the confused look Daina Bradley witnessed on John Doe 2's face after 
he walked to the back of the Ryder truck. Perhaps upon opening the door, he was confronted with a comrade who ordered him away, then 
set off the device, neatly severing himself or herself in the process. 

While the Nation of Islam (NOI) are supposedly enemies of Al Fuqra, it should be pointed out that the NOI has forged links with the KKK, the 
American Nazi Party, and Tom Metzger's White Aryan Resistance (WAR). 

The Tulsa, Oklahoma leader of WAR, Dennis Mahon, freely admitted to William Jasper and other journalists that the Iraqis paid him $100-a- 
month — $4800 total — between 1991 and 1995, to stir up dissent among the neo-Nazi/White Supremacist community against the Gulf War 

sanctions. (At least Mahon believes the money came from the Iraqi embassy. )^^^ 

A former Grand Dragon of the Ku Klux Klan, Mahon had visited Germany in an effort to recruit young Germans into the KKK. Also recall that 
during the Gulf War, the Anti-Zionist League's Michael KCihnen, working with his old mercenary friend Michel Faci, negotiated a contract to 
provide 200 German, American and British neo-Nazi volunteers to fight alongside Iraqi troops. 

As previously discussed, KCihnen was succeeded by a man named Hubner, who has spoken with Kirk Lyons at meetings of the group 
"Deutsche Alternative." Lyons' client was Michael Brescia's roommate Andreas Strassmeir, a good friend of Dennis Mahon's. A frequent 
visitor to Elohim City, Mahon was close friends with Brescia. He almost certainly knew Brescia's friend, Timothy McVeigh. 

Again, the question must be asked: Were McVeigh, Nichols, and their comrades in fact plotting with Arab extremists and their black Muslims 
counterparts to blow up the Federal Building, and was Iraq behind it? 

As the Washington Post's Jack Anderson stated: "A preferable revenge for Iraq would involve having a 'surrogate terrorist' carry out a 
domestic attack that Hussein could privately take credit for..." 

Anderson's analysis may be rather prescient. States and their intelligence agencies have being using terrorist groups as "cut-outs" for years 
in order to maintain deniability. Defense & Foreign Affairs, stated it thusly: 

...despite the important evolution in the role of the terrorist organizations and other entities through the HizbAllah International, the actual 
control over the operations themselves remains firmly in the hands of, and under the tight control of, the sponsoring states, being 
perpetrated by operatives of intelligence services.... 

It is through these "organizations" that the sponsoring states in effect take credit for their terrorist operations and have their message clear 
and explicit. Given the marked escalation of international terrorism and the higher stakes involved, the importance of the front groups 
"speaking" for the sponsoring states — particularly Iran and the global Islamic Revolution it is running — is of growing importance and 

centrality to international terrorism. ^^^ 

Another example of such methodology was the World Trade Center bombing. As Ramzi Yousefs accomplice Mahmud Abu Halima put it, 
"The planned act was not as big as what subsequently occurred.... Yousef showed up on the scene... and escalated the initial plot... 

Yousef used [Salameh and the others]... as pawns and then immediately after the blast left the country. "^^^ Some terrorism experts think 
Yousef was working for Iraq. 

Stephen Jones believes a similar plan unfolded in Oklahoma City. As he stated in his March 25th Writ of Mandamus: 

The plan was arranged for a Middle Eastern bombing engineer to engineer the bomb in such a way that it could be carefully transported and 
successfully detonated. There is no reported incident of neo-Nazis or extreme Right-wing militants in this country exploding any bomb of any 
significant size, let alone one to bring down a nine (9) story federal building and kill 168 persons.... This terrorist attack was "contracted out" 
to persons whose organization and ideology was friendly to policies of the foreign power and included dislike and hatred of the United States 

government itself, and possibly included was a desire for revenge against the United States.... ^^^ 

In November of 1994, Gagan said he made a trip to Mexico City with Omar, where he ran into a familiar face amongst the terrorist crowd — 
Frank Terpil. "I saw him down in Mexico City... with Omar," recalled Gagan. "We met him in the Zona Rosa area." 

A retired CIA communications specialist, Terpil had been convicted, along with rogue CIA agent Edwin Wilson, of selling 20 tons of C-4 
plastic explosives and 50,000 electronic timers to the Libyan government. 

Terpil had also lined his pockets by supplying torture devices to Ugandan Dictator Idi Amin, and sophisticated detonators and 
communications equipment to the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. He and Wilson had also set up a terrorist training camp in 
Libya, and had recruited U.S. Green Berets to train Arab terrorists in bombing and assassination techniques. 

After being indicted, Terpil fled the country, and was last seen hiding out in Cuba, until he showed up in Mexico City... with Omar. "They met 
at the bar," said Gagan. "Terpil and Omar spoke for about fifteen minutes, alone." 

"Who's that dude?" Gagan asked Omar as they left the bar. 

"An ex-CIA agent named Terpil," came the answer. "He lives in Cuba." 

"Frank Terpil? I thought he was dead? What's up with him?" 

"He lives in Cuba. He's hands-off...." 

Considering Terpil's well-documented relationship with Arab terrorists, and his "wanted" status in the U.S., it is understandable why he would 
choose to meet Omar in Mexico City. 

Gagan himself was no stranger to Mexico City. As previously discussed, the Soviets had solicited Gagan's help in 1980 to procure military 
secrets from his friend at Martin Marietta. They requested his help again in 1986 to assist illegal Iranian immigrants who needed false IDs. 

While in Mexico Gagan had also met an Austrian, Eduard Bodenzayer, a Soviet spy, and had been to the Russian embassy repeatedly. As 
he told Stephen Jones, "My contacts there were a guy named Vallery and Elyia." 

Did Omar, Sam Khalid, or their associates have contact with the Russians? Considering Khalid's reported ties to the PLO and Hamas, and 
the long history of Soviet-Arab cooperation, it is highly likely. 

Like Nazis and neo-Nazis who've forged links with Arab terrorists, the Soviets have provided wide-ranging support to Arab terrorist groups 
throughout the years. As James Phillips of the Heritage Foundation writes: 

During the 1970s the Soviet Union and its satellites greatly expanded their support for terrorist groups. Moscow often used Middle Eastern 
client states such as Iraq, Libya, Syria, and the former People's Democratic Republic of South Yemen as intermediaries to mask Soviet 

arms, training, intelligence, and logistical support for a wide variety of terrorist groups. ^^^ 

If the Russians were sponsoring their Arab friends in terrorism, it is likely the Arabs may have wished to maintain further deniability by 
engaging the assistance of American neo-Nazis. This possibility became more apparent as connections were drawn, not only between 
Dennis Mahon and Iraqi embassy officials, but between Terry Nichols and Iraqi terrorist Ramzi Yousef, and between Timothy McVeigh and 
former Iraqi soldier Hussain al-Hussaini. 

This likelihood became clearer after interviewing Michele Torres, the daughter of a former Communist Party official (P.R.T. Party) in Mexico 
City. An intelligent young woman, Michele had been raised under the harsh regimentation of a person destined for a position in the 
Communist Party, but had rebelled, and at age 17, fled to the United States. 

Torres recalled the numerous and strange faces that would often pass through her home and her father's office. Arab men from Jordan, 

Palestine, Iraq... she was not allowed to ask them their names or their business. ^^^ 

Torres also claimed to have overheard conversations between her father and PLO representatives some years earlier. The meetings, she 
said, involved discussions of a bombing plot to be carried out in the U.S. 

It was the winter of 1992, and Michele's father, Hirram Torres, was working in the office of the PLO in Mexico City. He was speaking with a 
man from Palestine, and another from Jordan or possibly Iraq. In broken English, Torres recounts the conversation: 

Torres: They were saying: "What do you think about the new plan?" And the other man says: "Well, we can... the Russian officers told us 
we can probably blame the fascists." You know what I mean? "Americans — the American Patriots, and all the stupid stuff with the white 
supremacists and the neo-Nazis. So we can give two strikes at once." 

Hoffman: Did he explain what he meant by two strikes? 

Torres: They didn't explain it but I understood it. 

Hoffman: Did they say anything about the Patriot Movement or the Militia Movement? 

Torres: They don't say anything about militia. When they want to talk about militia, they say fascists or neo-Nazis. And when they speak 
about Patriots, or Yankees... the way they say. They used to speak about white supremacists... all Americans... white Americans are white 
supremacists. Yankees and fascists. 

Hoffman: Tell me what they meant by the two strikes at once. 

Torres: They wanted... the Arab people wanted... to make a terrorist act. They needed to make a terrorist act. There was like, some of the 
Arab leaders — wanted to make — wanted to give a strike to the United States. They didn't even understand why. But at the same time, the 
Communist Party tells them that it was a great idea to... 

Hoffman: Now are you relating the actual conversation? 

Torres: Yes. They were saying that it was... all the time they were talking about... what the Russian officers told them to do. So that man 
who was talking was the Palestinian man — my father told him that it was very good, and that they would probably find an easy way — an 
easy way to blame that kind of people. That he was trying... that he had tried to contact neo-Nazi people to help him... 

Hoffman: Did he say who? 

Torres: Yes. He tried to contact any kind of National Socialist people (American Nazi Party)... I tell you the way I heard it: "We can probably 
use those neo-Nazi bastards. I tried to contact them, but they refused to do it, and they don't want to get involved in that kind of stuff with 
Communists. And I don't think anyone can get those fucking idiots, but I don't care." He said something like, "I don't care. We are anyway 
going to blame them." 

Hoffman: We don't want to get involved with Communists and that kind of stuff and what... 

Torres: "But anyway can blame them. No matter if they want to cooperate with us or not." Then he told me... he told that guy that... he was 
going to hire a white man. 

Hoffman: To act as a neo-Nazi? You mean to play the part of a neo-Nazi? 

Torres: To play the part of a neo-Nazi. And... and to participate with his comrades... he spoke about his Arab comrades. 

Hoffman: In what respect? 

Torres: His Arab comrades... and he used to call them brothers or some kind of thing... 

Hoffman: Your father spoke of them this way? 

Torres: Yes. But, well, he told it in Russian, that he was — that boy who they were going to hire, was going to work together with the 
Tobarich (Russian for comrade). With the Tobarich. 

Hoffman: Do you remember any names — any specific names of any people — anybody? 

Torres: No. That time, they were just going to plan it. That was the plan... 

Hoffman: This was in the winter of '92? 

Torres: Yes. They were just discussing the plan. They didn't even know the names. My father was. . . by that time my father was. . . deciding. 

Hoffman: Now why do you think so long ago? That's four years between now and then. 

Torres: They always plan it in that way. They take their time, and always a very long time. They always take a very long time... 

Hoffman: Is there anything else about what they discussed that you haven't told me that you think is important? 

Torres: They said they were going to do it in the middle of the country. And they were going to do it in a business office. 

Hoffman: Did they say how big? 

Torres: Yes, big. And they wanted... children to be victims of it. There must be children there — it must be an office where children were 
somehow. They had to kill children. Because it was a very important part of the emotional part of the strike. . . . 

Hoffman: Did they ever mention Pan Am 103 or the World Trade Center bombings in reference? 

Torres: They talked something about... trade centers. Anyway they spoke about trade centers — about places where business were made, 
because Americans regard so much their money and their business. That was the explanation my father gave to the Palestinian guy. They 
spoke about places where business were made, and that it was not the only strike they were going to make. 

You know one of the reasons I am not scared of this conversation (this interview) is because I heard — I listen to this kind of conversation all 
of my life. My father — he has killed a lot of people — he has done a lot of wrong things. He was involved... 

While Torres' mention of Russian intelligence seems to have all the makings of a Claire Sterling novel, it should be mentioned that Mexico 
City is home to one of the largest Soviet consulates in the Western hemisphere, with its attendant Soviet intelligence apparatus. 

It appears that what Torres was describing was more than a loose-knit group of terrorists, but a sophisticated centrally-controlled state- 
sponsored terrorist apparatus. As Defense & Foreign Affairs stated: 

Despite the unprecedented role of the HizbAllah International in the decision making process, all major terrorist operations remain state- 
controlled. These operations are conducted by agencies of states and in pursuit of the long-term and strategic interests of the controlling and 
sponsoring states. The "names" and "profiles" of the organizations and groups issuing the communiques and claims constitute an integral 
component of the state sponsorship mechanism. These named entities serve a specific function: stating the identity of the interests involved 
in, and the outlining of the logic and objectives behind, these operations without having the sponsoring states assume formal responsibility.... 

Incredible as it sounds, Torres' story may be the key piece of the puzzle linking the Arab and neo-Nazi contingents. Her story is significant in 
light of the fact that Dennis Mahon was being paid by the Iraqis to stir up dissent amongst the white supremacist community. 

Her story also ties into the fact that Omar allegedly met with Frank Terpil in Mexico City; and Terry Nichols reportedly met with Ramzi Yousef 
in the Philippines. 


Finally, Timothy McVeigh, an alleged white supremacist, was seen with Hussain al-Hussaini, an Iraqi.' — ^ 

Interestingly, within hours of the blast in Oklahoma City, Radio Teiiran in Iraq had the answer, "...the perpetrators were Christian extremist 
militias from Montana and Oklahoma observing the two-year anniversary of the U.S. government killing of 86 men, women, and children in 

the Branch Davidian Waco massacre. "^^^ 

Was Timothy McVeigh the "neo-Nazi bastard" that Michele's father talked about hiring?^ 

And were the Russians using Middle Eastern terrorists as proxies — who in turn were using American neo-Nazis — to destabalize the West 
while maintaining deniability? While the apparent demise of the Soviet Union convinced a lot of people that the long-feared Communist 
threat was over, many within the intelligence community disagree. 

A recent Rueters report quoted Raymond Mislock, Chief of the FBI's National Security Division, as saying that the Russians "still are on the 
scene," and continue to employ intelligence officers in this country. In fact, the FBI was investigating over 200 cases of suspected Russian 

espionage activity at the time of this writing. ^^^ 

And what about Khalid's employees trips to Mexico? Was Khalid liasoning with terrorists there? Ultimately, the question was, who was 

Khalid working for? 

Although Louis Crousette avoided any further attempts to contact him, he left Jayna Davis with one final word of advice. Echoing Hani 
Kamal's words of warning regarding Israeli intelligence, Crousette said, "You know who's your best bet to talk to, if you haven't thought about 
it... the Mossad." 

That final adage led me straight back to Northrop, who stated in his report that Khalid "fit the role" of a PLO operative, and insisted that the 
bombing was the work of Iraqi terrorists. But if Khalid, Hussaini, and Oshan were simple Arab terrorists — and they had left a trail of 
evidence a mile long — why were they still walking around? 

In spite of Novel's and Davis' unsuccessful attempts to positively I.D. Khalid with McVeigh or Nichols, Gagan stated that he had seen Nichols 
with Omar, at a meeting which took place just outside of Las Vegas. 

The FBI had also investigated Sam Khalid for PLO fundraising activities, and had looked into the shooting assault of Sharon Twilley. 

They had put out an APB on the brown pick-up driven by Hussain al-Hussaini, which was seen speeding away from the scene of the 
bombing. And Hussaini's alibi for the morning of the April 19 was patently false. 

KFOR's witnesses who placed Hussaini with McVeigh seemed perfectly credible, and KFOR had passed on their information to the FBI. 

Khalid had access to an auto body shop, and one of Khalid's employees had been seen abandoning the re-painted pick-up in a nearby 
apartment complex. 

Then there was the mysterious disappearance of Khalid's phone records, and the strange comments he made to Ernie Cranfield when he 
was asked why Abraham Ahmed had been seen hanging around Khalid's place in the brown pick-up. 

Khalid had been placed by Northrop's sources with the same Hamas operative in Miami — Ramadan Shallah — that Gagan had seen in Las 

Finally, Omar (Khalid?) was seen meeting with Frank Terpil — a rogue CIA agent who had supplied Arab terrorists with several tons of C-4. 

Although circumstantial, the facts were sufficient to make an incontrovertible case, and yet these people seemed to walk through walls. 
Could the FBI be so inept? Were their agents so compartmentalized that they couldn't put two and two together? Or had the Justice 
Department's investigation become so politicized that bureaucratic ineptitude had become the desired and inevitable result? It would seem 
all of the above, and yet this still seemed too simple an answer. 

Even Northrop's report seemed a bit one-dimensional. While the former Israeli intelligence agent drew a picture of Arab terrorists forged in 
the fire of the PLO, the image that lurked just beneath the surface, one drawn in invisible ink, was that of intelligence operatives conceived in 
the secret chambers of the Mossad... or the CIA. 

This was the one remaining possibility that lent credence to the seemingly irreconcilable facts which presented themselves. After all, why 
had the FBI ignored a veritable mountain of damming evidence? Why had they suddenly and mysteriously canceled the APB on the brown 
pick up? And why, after 48 hours of reporting nothing but Middle Eastern connections, did the Justice Department and their obedient lap 
dogs of the mainstream press suddenly announce that no Middle Eastern connection existed? 

Certainly the capture of McVeigh and Nichols did not repudiate the still-standing Middle Eastern connection. Nor could the sudden change 
have been the result of information from low-level agents in the field. No. It could have only been the result of one thing — a strategic 
decision from the Justice Department, which had as its basis, a political directive from the White House. 

It was to Washington that Khalid traveled shortly after the bombing, according to employees, to meet with a Congressional representative. 
The purpose? As an emissary to discuss the problem of "Muslim bashing." 

Yet KFOR's P. I., Bob Jerlow, claims he spoke to the Representative's aide who checked the Congressman's schedule and claimed she 
never saw the name Khalid. 

If Sam Khalid was a run-of-the-mill Arab terrorist who had just played a role in the biggest terrorist attack in U.S. history, why would he 
attract attention to himself by firing shots at Sharon Twilley? A convicted felon like Khalid would easily earn a stiff prison sentence for 
possession of a firearm and assault with a deadly weapon. 

Unless he was "protected." 

This would tend to explain why he acted so non-chalant towards Ernie Cranfield, Bob Jerlow, Brad Edwards, and the author. It would 
likewise tend to explain the FBI's lack of interest in Khalid. 

If Khalid and Hussaini were run-of-the-mill Arab terrorists, what was Khalid doing meeting with such high-level U.S. officials? It would seem 
that President Clinton's publicly televised admonishment not to blame the Arab community also served as a handy excuse to cover up the 
Middle Eastern connection. 

Yet why would Clinton want to cover up their connection to the bombing? There are two reasons: First, Clinton needs an excuse to crack 
down on the Patriot/Militia community, who represent a threat to Clinton's anti-constitutional plans for America, and the establishment's plans 
for a "New World Order." This Clinton did with a vengeance. Once the Justice Department had announced the capture of McVeigh and 
Nichols, the mainstream media, with information supplied mainly by the Anti-Defamation League of the B'nai B'rith (ADL), and the Southern 
Poverty Law Center (SPLC), was able to focus their anti-militia spotlights, launching vitriolic attacks against anyone connected with the far- 
Right. Under the orchestration of the ADL, attacks on the Patriot/Militia movement continued for months, eventhough there was no 
documentable proof of the suspects' connections to the militias, or the militias' connection to the bombing. 

Number two, Clinton and Bush were responsible for bringing individuals like Hussain al-Hussaini into this country. Between 1992 and 1995, 
over 18,000 Iraqi refugees and their families were resettled into the U.S. under a largely unknown and hotly debated program initiated by 
President Bush and followed up by President Clinton. They were part of a contingent of Iraqi refugees that flooded the Saudi border during 
and after the war, including many former Iraqi soldiers and deserters. 

According to Oklahoma Senator David Boren, approximately 950 of these former soldiers were resettled in the U.S. in 1992 and 1993. 
Congressional Research Service figures indicate that an additional 549 soldiers were resettled in 1994, and 219 in 1995. 

A "Sense of the Congress" resolution initiated by Republicans Don Manzulla of Illinois and Clifford Stearns of Florida attempted to halt the 


"We're rolling out the welcome wagon to prisoners of war, yet our own veterans who fought there are having trouble getting any help," Sterns 
said. Some of the refugees included Shi'ite Muslims who were oppressed by Iraqi President Saddam Hussein and in some cases rebelled 
against him. Others included Iraqi soldiers who Hussein vowed to execute because they didn't fight to the death. "I'm sympathetic with the 
idea that people who opposed Saddam Hussein should not be allowed to be massacred," said Tennessee State Republican Representative 
John L. 'Jimmy' Duncan Jr., "but we should give the benefit of the doubt to our own people and put the burden of proof on the people who 

want to come in."^^^ 

In spite of the resolutions, the White House backed the program, officially admitting approximately 18,000 Iraqi refugees into the U.S. 
According to Manzulla's office, the figure may be higher. Some figures put approximately 5,000 Iraqis in the Tulsa and Oklahoma City areas 

Others fear that such a resettlement would create a sort of "blowback." The U.S. already has Muslim extremist cells, and it is difficult to 
gather accurate intelligence on all those admitted under the program. According to the Congressional Research Service Report, "...there 

has been no contact with Kuwaiti intelligence services in the effort to verify that the refugees are not Iraqi agents. "^^^ 

If Hussain al-Hussaini, a former Iraqi officer, was resettled into the U.S., it is possible — highly possible in fact — that he was recruited by 
the CIA or DIA as part of a deal. 

There is a precedent for such collaboration. In 1949 and 1950 the National Security Council issued NSC Intelligence Directive 13 and 14, 
which expanded the CIA's authority to function inside the U.S. (in violation of the CIA's charter.) One of their programs involved bringing 
"favored European exiles" into the country. 

"Favored European exiles" was a euphemism for Nazi war criminals. 

It may not be fair to compare Iraqi war refugees with Nazi war criminals or Islamic terrorists. But given the United States' precedent in using 
expatriated Nazis and Cubans for their covert operations, and the extremely low-key nature of the Bush/Clinton Iraqi resettlement program. 

one has to wonder what Hussaini's real purpose was.^^^ 

As former Pentagon investigator Gene Wheaton observes: "Every major Middle-Eastern terrorist organization is under surveillance and 
control of the intelligence agencies in the U.S. None of these guys move around as freely as they'd like you to think." 

If Hussaini was working for the Mossad, the FBI, the DIA, or the CIA, who have been known to cooperate with each other on "special 
projects," he may have been a double-agent, working for Iraq at the same time. Remember that Saddam Hussein had threatened revenge 
against the United States ("Does the United States realize the meaning of opening the stores of the world with the will of Iraqi people?... 
Does it realize the meaning of every Iraqi becoming a missile that can cross to countries and cities?") 

If an element of the United States Government played a role in the destruction of the Alfred P. Murrah Building, using an Arab to do its dirty 
work would prove far easier than attempting to recruit an American citizen. 

Sam Khalid's ability to monitor the activities of a group of Middle Easterners with dubious connections (through hiring and renting homes to 
Arab immigrants), and his status as former felon, make him a likely candidate as an operative or informant. 

Was he playing both sides of the fence? 

Politically, the government's refusal to concede the complicity of Iraq in the World Trade Center bombing, and possibly to the Oklahoma City 
bombing, may stem from its desire to halt any public outcry against U.S. policies. One major example is the government's refusal to face the 
consequences of its immoral, brutal, and devastating actions in the Gulf. 

Dr. Laurie Mylroie believes the Clinton administration's failure to address the problem lies in its refusal to face the specter of state-sponsored 
terrorism. Instead it chooses to adopt a microcosmic "law-enforcement" approach to what she perceives as an international problem — 
hence the focus on "domestic terrorists." 

Moreover, the White House may not want to admit the specter of state-sponsored terrorism because it might panic the populace. Such is the 
case of a state-sponsored biological attack which has been increasingly threatening our population. ^^^ 

If Iraq indeed proved to be behind the Oklahoma City bombing, it would not fare well for the Clinton administration, who followed up on 
President Bush's Iraqi resettlement program. It would not fare well for Bush and his business and political cronies — the same CIA/Iran- 
Contra coterie who armed and fueled Saddam Hussein's military machine with conventional and biological weapons. 

And it would preclude this same international arms/drugs cabal from profiteering by re-supplying Iraq in the future. In short, it would preclude 
"business as usual. "^^^ 

Whatever the reason, certainly the public wasn't being told the full truth about the Oklahoma City bombing. They would never be allowed to 
glimpse any evidence of the Middle Eastern connection. 

Yet this was only part of the picture. 

Brought to you by 

I O N A L r s 

;ws Portal 


"No Stone Unturned" 

"We will leave no stone unturned in our effort to get to the truth. " 

— Attorney General Janet Reno 

"McVeigh and Nichols are going to hell regardless. I'm just looking forward to sending them there a little sooner. " 

— U.S. Attorney Joseph Hartzler 

Almost from the beginning, the Justice Department and the mainstream press focused their attention on Timothy McVeigh, painting him as a 
spurned ex-soldier who was angry for failing to make the Special Forces; an extremist Right-wing "Patriot" who hated the government with a 
passion for their atrocities at Waco. McVeigh, the angry misguided loner, it is alleged, conspired with anti-government tax protester Terry 
Nichols to teach the Federal Government a lesson in Oklahoma. 

Like the arrest of Lee Harvey Oswald, the "capture" of Timothy McVeigh was an incredible stroke of timing and luck. Like Oswald, who was 
arrested for walking into a movie theater without paying, McVeigh would be arrested for speeding down the highway with a conspicuously 
missing license plate. 

In both cases, the FBI was quickly notified that their "suspect" was in custody. With their extraordinary run of good luck, the FBI was able to 
instantly trace the serial number found on the bomb truck to Ford, then to Ryder, then to Elliott's rental agency, then to a "Bob Kling," and 

finally to "McVeigh. "^^^ 

Like Oswald's Mannlicher-Carcanno rifle, which the FBI traced from its entrance into the U.S., to an importer, to Klein's Sporting Goods, to a 
sale to an "A.J. Hidell," then to Oswald — all without computers and over a weekend — the FBI would quickly trace the Ryder truck to the 
lone bomber. 

Finally, like "lone nut" Lee Harvey Oswald, "lone nut" Timothy James McVeigh would be transferred from the Noble County jail, paraded in 
front of onlookers and the press as the mass murderer. While there was no Jack Ruby to intervene this time, McVeigh would be led away in 
a bright orange jumpsuit, without a bullet-proof vest, which he had specifically requested. 

Ironically, his departing words were, "... I might be Lee Harvey Oswald, Jr. . . . You remember what happened with Jack Ruby."^ 

As in the arrest of Lee Harvey Oswald, the circumstances surrounding the arrest of McVeigh and Nichols would prove highly questionable. 
The media widely reported that McVeigh was stopped by Highway Patrolman Charles Hanger 78 minutes after the blast(s), heading north on 
1-35, near Perry. McVeigh was driving without a license plate. As Trooper Hanger's affivadit states: 

"...That I stopped the vehicle and the defendant was the driver and only occupant of the vehicle.... That as the defendant was getting his 
billfold from his right rear pocket I noticed a bulge under the left side of his jacket and I thought it could be a weapon.... That I then told the 
defendant to pull his jacket back and before he did he said, 'I have a gun under my jacket. . . . ' That I then grabbed a hold of the left side of his 
jacket and drew my own weapon and pointed it at the back of his head and instructed him to keep his hands up and I walked him over to the 
trunk of his car and had him put his hands on the trunk...." 

Yet accounts vary. Some acticles stated that McVeigh was speeding at 81 miles per hour. Yet Hanger only cited him for no license plate, no 
insurance, and possession of a concealed weapon. Were these accounts meant to suggest that McVeigh was trying to make a fast get- 
away? If so, why would a man who had just committed such a heinous crime wish to draw attention to himself? 

McVeigh supposedly just blew up a building and killed 1 69 innocent people — men, women, and children — including a number of federal 
agents. It is 78 minutes later, and he is being pulled over by a state trooper. He has no tags, no insurance, and is carrying a concealed 
weapon without a permit. He is most likely going to jail, where his name. Social Security number, and description will be uplinked to the 
National Crime Information Center (NCIC) at the FBI — an FBI that is now on full alert. 

McVeigh is carrying a large combat knife, and a Glock model 21 automatic pistol loaded with deadly hollow-point bullets. McVeigh is a 
trained soldier, a top marskman, and a hardened combat veteran. 

The cop is exiting his vehicle and walking over to McVeigh's car. McVeigh's life outside the electric chair is very likely about to come to an 
end. What does McVeigh — this hardened combat veteran, this brutal killer of 169 innocent people — do? He casually informs the cop that 

he has a concealed weapon, and meekly hands himself over for arrest.^^^ 

Of course the mainstream press wouldn't make any attempt to analyze this bizarre inconsistency in McVeigh's behavior, only reporting that 
he was "uncommunicative," (Time), "calls himself a 'prisoner of war,'" {New York Times), and is refusing to cooperate with investigators and 
prosecutors..." (U.S. News & World Report) — a story which would be repeated by numerous other papers. 

Yet as McVeigh stated to Newsweek, "I never called myself a prisoner of war. "^^^ McVeigh's account is backed up by the Los Angeles 
Times, which obtained McVeigh's arrest records. As the Times' Richard Serrano notes: 

. . . .They reveal a McVeigh sharply different from the one sources had earlier portrayed. He was not the silent soldier who gave jailers only 

his name, rank and serial number. Rather, he was often polite. And smooth. ^^^ 

With only the serial number of a truck differential and a sketch to work with, the FBI fanned out through Junction City. Upon examining the 
rental receipt at Elliott's Body Shop, the FBI discovered all the information on it was false. As Agent Henry Gibbon's affidavit states: 

The person who signed the rental agreement identified himself as Bob Kling, SSAN 962-42-9694, South Dakota driver's license number 
YF942A6, and provided a home address of 428 Maple Drive, Omaha, Nebraska, telephone 913-238-2425. The person listed the destination 
as 428 Maple Drive, Redfield, South Dakota, b. Subsequent investigation conducted by the FBI determined all that information to be false. 

Yet employees of Elliott's Body Shop did recognize the sketch of Unsub #1 as the man who rented the truck used in the bombing. The FBI 
then took the sketch of Unsub #1 to the Dreamland Motel, where they found that Unsub #1 had rented a room from April 14 through the April 
18. As the FBI affidavit states: 

An employee of the Dreamland Motel in Junction City, Kansas, identified Timothy McVeigh as a guest at the motel from April 14, 1995, 
through April 18, 1995. This employee, when shown a photo lineup identified Timothy McVeigh's picture as the individual who registered at 
the motel under the name of Tim McVeigh, listed his automobile as a Mercury bearing an Arizona license plate, and provided a Michigan 

address, on North Van Dyke in Decker Michigan. ^^^ 

On April 21, only hours before McVeigh was due to be released from the Perry County Jail, "District Attorney John Maddox received a call 
from the FBI telling him to hang onto the prisoner.^^^ 

As the New York Times reported, "...a routine check of his Social Security number matched one flagged by the FBI as belonging to a 

suspect in the bombing. "^^^ This subsumes that the FBI had obtained McVeigh's Social Security number from the accurate registration 
information at the Dreamland, not the false information at Elliott's. 

Why would Tim McVeigh — who was bent on committing such a terrible crime — use a fake name and address at the Ryder rental agency, 

yet use his real na 
the rental agency. 

yet use his real name and address at a motel right down the street?^^-^ Perhaps because, as will be explained below, McVeigh never visited 

While in custody, McVeigh listed James Nichols as a reference. Why would McVeigh list the brother of his so-called accomplice as his only 

On April 21 , Terry Nichols was busy with chores around his new home in Herrington. Unbeknownst to him, a team of 1 1 FBI agents had 
already staked out his house. 

Later that afternoon, Nichols heard his name being broadcast as a possible suspect. At 2:42 p.m. he and Marife got into their blue pick-up, 
and drove to the Herrington police station, with the FBI on his tail. According to Marife, Terry was frightened, and anxious to know why his 
name was being broadcast. Inside, Nichols asked why his name was being mentioned on the radio in connection with the bombing. The 
cops replied that they didn't know, but they had some questions for him. "Good," Nichols said, "because I have some questions for you." 

Strangely, FBI agents then read Nichols his Miranda rights, something not normally done unless someone is under arrest, and told him three 
times he was free to go. 

In fact, Nichols wasn't free to go. An arrest warrant had been issued five hours earlier, but Nichols wouldn't be informed of this until almost 
midnight. In the interim, he and Marife were questioned by the FBI for over nine hours. 

Back at his house, a SWAT team had already arrived, and agents were sealing it with crime tape, and checking it for booby traps. It was 
there that agents would claim to discover 55-gallon barrels, rolls of primadet detonator cord, non-electric blasting caps, and a receipt for 40 
50-pound bags of ammonium nitrate with McVeigh's thumbprint. 

If Terry Nichols was an accomplice in the bombing, why would he leave such incriminating items in his house? Wouldn't he have attempted 
to hide the items before driving over to the police station? 

Moreover, if Nichols was a co-conspirator in the largest domestic terrorist attack in the history of the country, why would he casually stroll 
into the police station asking why his name was being broadcast on TV? This makes about as much sense as Timothy McVeigh casually 
pulling over for Officer Hanger and meekly handing himself over for arrest. 

Several days after McVeigh's arrest. Hanger claimed to have recovered a crumpled business card from behind the front passenger seat of 
his patrol car, where McVeigh had been sitting. The card for Paulsen's Military Supply of Antigo, Wisconsin, contained a handwritten note: 
"Dave. TNT at $5 a stick. 708-288-0128. Need more. Call after 1 of May, see if I can get some more." 

Had McVeigh actually left such a note in the cruiser? When McVeigh defense team investigator Marty Reed attempted to interview Hanger, 
he was told by OHP chief legal counsel John Lindsey, "The FBI has requested that no one interview Trooper Charlie Hanger." 

And as in the Kennedy case, the evidence collected by the FBI in their case, code-named "OKBOMB," would prove just as specious. The 
FBI quickly claimed that they had traced the Ryder truck from a serial number — 6 4 PVA26077 — found on its rear differential, which had 
flown 575 feet through the air "like a boomerang" and landed on a Ford Fiesta. (For those confused about the FBI finding the serial number 

on the "axle," it was actually on the axle housing. )^^^^^^^^^ 

Curiously, while Deputy Sheriff Melvin Sumter told me he had found the axle, an Oklahoma City Policeman, Mike McPherson, claimed that 
he had in fact discovered it, as did an FBI agent. These three accounts were contradicted by Governor Frank Keating, who claimed that he 
had actually found the axle. 

The Ryder truck belonging to the axle, rented under the alias of "Bob Kling," the FBI claimed, was the instrument of the deadly destruction in 
Oklahoma City. 

But had it actually been rented by Timothy McVeigh? 

The "McVeigh" Eldon Elliott described to the grand jury was 5' 1 0" to 5' 1 1 ", with medium build, weighing between 1 80-1 85 pounds. Elliott's 
mechanic Tom Kessinger stated that the man had a "rough" complexion with "acne," and employee Vicki Beemer said he had a deformed 

Not only is McVeigh clear-skinned, he is a lanky 6', 2", and weighs only 160 pounds. He does not have a deformed chin.^^^ 

Readers will also recall that ATF informant Carol Howe, who had penetrated the Elohim City enclave, told ATF and FBI agents that the 
sketch of John Doe 1 who rented the truck appeared to be Elohim City resident and close Strassmeir friend Peter Ward. ^^-^ 

According to J.D. Cash, so did Dennis Mahon. Mahon told the reporter that Ward was "known at Elohim City as 'Andy's shadow'... Ward 

went everywhere Strassmeir did and is dumb as dirt." Mahon also added, " know his brother, Tony, has a pocked complexion... "^^^ 

Yet authorities insist that it was McVeigh who rented the truck on April 17. They introduced surveillance footage from a Junction City 
McDonalds, slightly over a mile from Elliott's, showing McVeigh walking towards the cashier at approximately 3:55 p.m. Yet McVeigh was not 
wearing military attire as was "Kling." Nevertheless, the prosecution contends that McVeigh left the restaurant, walked the 1.3 miles to 
Elliott's during a light drizzle, then showed up nice and dry, wearing completely different clothes. 

Eldon Elliott would play along for the prosecution. In spite of his previous grand jury testimony, and the FBI 302 statements of his 

employees, Elliott testified at McVeigh's trial that Timothy McVeigh was the man who rented the truck.^^^ 

Interesting that he could make such an assertion, when the FBI hadn't brought him before a line-up eventhough they had questioned him 
just 48 hours after the bombing. In fact, the FBI didn't show Elliott a photo line-up until 48 days later. During McVeigh's trial, Elliott attempted 
to compensate for the discrepancy in McVeigh's height by stating that McVeigh had "leaned" on the counter while filling out the reservation 

Had Elliott been coached by the prosecution?^^^ 

"From his body language, the way he acted nervous, avoided my questions, I could tell he was under some sort of pressure," said former 
Federal Grand Juror Hoppy Heidelberg. 

When defense team investigator Richard Reyna went to interview Elliott, he was told the FBI had instructed him not to talk to anyone about 
the case because "they didn't want to get things distorted." He then handed Reyna the card of FBI Special Agent Scott Crabtree. 

When Marty Reed and co-investigator Wilma Sparks approached Elliott a week later, he referred them to a man named Joseph Pole. Pole 

stated that he was "working for Ryder... indirectly." He refused to speak with the investigators and excused himself, saying he had to make a 
phone call. When Sparks and Reed went outside, they noticed a government car with the license number G-10 03822, parked in front of the 

When they returned the next day, they were again met by the mysterious "Ryder employee" who didn't produce a business card. When they 
asked the body shop's employees why the government car was there, they were told it was being worked on. But the investigators saw no 

signs of damage. Upon returning the following day, the car was parked between two campers, ostensibly in an attempt to conceal it.^^^ 

Was the FBI attempting to influence a key witness? A reporter who worked the case later told me, "They were very hooked in with the FBI... 
the Ryder security was obtained through the FBI... and they're in constant touch with the FBI for briefings, or they were. And I got that from 
the PR guy who's the Vice President of Ryder in Miami... A Newsweek reporter that I work with got Elliott on the phone, and somebody 
clicked down the phone as he was talking to her. Elliott was saying 'let me just finish, let me just finish,' and all of the sudden, the phone 

went dead. "^^^ 

Such a symbiotic relationship between the FBI and Ryder shouldn't be surprising. According to one bombing researcher, Ryder's CEO, 
Anthony Mitchell, is a member of the Trilateral Commission — the New World Order folks. She also uncovered the fact that both the FBI and 


the ATF have leasing contracts with the company.^ — ^ 

To rent his Ryder truck, "McVeigh" allegedly used his pre-paid phone card, obtained in November of 1993 through the Spotlight under the 
name "Daryl Bridges," to call Elliott's and make the reservation. Vicki Beemertold the FBI she recalled speaking to a man named "Kling." 


Records supposedly indicate the call was made on April 14, from a Junction City, Kansas bus station.' — ^ 

Yet the FBI had no way of proving that the call placed to the Ryder agency under the name "Kling" was actually made by McVeigh, or even 
that the Spotlight car6 was used for the call. OPUS Telecom, which runs the system used for the pre-paid card, maintains no records 


indicating exactly who placed a specific call.' — ^ 

As an example of the uncertainties promulgated by the FBI, they originally asserted the call was made at 8:44 a.m. from a pay phone at Fort 
Riley. They later decided it was made at 9:53 a.m. from a pay phone in Junction City. However, Beemer, who took the call, said it came at 
10:30 a.m. 

At the time the FBI alleged McVeigh made the 9:53 a.m. call, he was at a phone booth down the street from a Firestone store, where he had 
been negotiating a deal on a 1977 Mercury. The store manager who sold McVeigh the car, Thomas Manning, testified that his customer 
excused himself, then came back 10 or 15 minutes later. The FBI contends that McVeigh used this period to make two calls, one to Terry 
Nichols' house, and one to Elliott's. Yet, as the Rocky Mountain News noted: 

An early version of the FBI reconstruction showed two calls within two minutes from phones 25 miles apart, which implied involvement by 
someone other than McVeigh and Nichols, since neither was then in the second location. 

But the location of that call later was reassigned to a place fitting the government's case.^^^ 

How convenient. 

Moreover, as the defense pointed out. Manning hadn't bothered to mention the fact that McVeigh left the Firestone store for over a year-and- 

a-half, despite being interviewed by defense attorneys and FBI agents 1 1 different times. ^^^ 

Additionally, while rental receipts and employee testimony indicates "Kling" rented his truck on the 17th, a Ryder truck was seen days earlier 
by James Sargeant and other eyewitnesses. Sargeant reported seeing several unidentified men crawling in and out of the cargo area for 
three days, backed up to the lake so that no one ashore could see inside. "I really began to wonder about why someone would be wasting 

their money on a rental truck out there... no one was ever fishing, either. "^^^ 

Barbara Whittenberg, owner of the Sante Fe Trail Diner in Herrington, recalled seeing a Ryder truck, along with McVeigh, Nichols, and John 
Doe 2, on Saturday, April 15. The men had stopped by the restaurant for breakfast at 6:00 a.m., and Whittenberg reported seeing a large 

Ryder truck at Geary State Fishing Lake later that afternoon. ^^^ 

Lea McGown, owner of the Dreamland Motel in Junction City, and her son Eric, both recall seeing McVeigh pull into the motel with his truck 
on the afternoon of Easter Sunday, April 16, as did residents Renda Truong, Connie Hood, David King, and King's mother, Hetta. The truck 
appeared to be an older, privately owned Ryder truck. McGown had just returned from Manhattan, Kansas, where he and his mother were 
having lunch. The time was approximately 4:00 p.m. Truong testified she had seen it after Easter Sunday dinner, which would have been 
around dusk. 

Yet under examination by the prosecution during McVeigh's trial, Eric McGown would not testify as to the exact date he saw the truck. Yet 
his FBI 302 said: "He thinks the man came there with a truck on April 16, 1995, and that the Ryder truck sat at the motel all day on April 17, 


His mother, like both Hood and Truong, was certain it was the 16th. As she stated in her FBI 302: 

She is certain that the Ryder truck she saw parked at the DREAMLAND MOTEL and in which she observed TIM MCVEIGH sitting on one 
occasion was driven into the motel grounds on Sunday, April 16, 1995. 

She recalls that the Ryder truck that was parked at the DREAMLAND MOTEL on April 16, 1995, through April 18, 1995, did not have the 
word Ryder on the back doors as do other Ryder trucks she has seen. She recalls the back doors of the Ryder truck in which she saw TIM 


MCVEIGH were a plain faded yellow color, with no printing visible on them.^ 

Hetta King was also sure it was Sunday the 16th. "There's no question in my mind — it was Easter Sunday," King testified. 

The reader will recall that this is the exact same day that Phyliss Kingsley and Linda Kuhlman saw the convoy, including "McVeigh," John 
Doe 2 and 3, and the Ryder truck at the Hi Way Grill just south of Oklahoma City. It was approximately 6:00 p.m. 

The two locations are hundreds of miles apart — too far apart to drive in two hours. 

This is also the same day the FBI alleged Nichols drove from Kansas to Oklahoma City to pick up McVeigh, who had left his Mercury 
Marquis near the YMCA as the "get-away" vehicle. Yet a witness at the Dreamland recalled seeing McVeigh's yellow Mercury at the motel 
the next day. 

Interesting that "McVeigh" and his car could be in two places at once. 

Real estate agent Georgia Rucker and her son also saw a Ryder truck at Geary Lake days before "Kling" rented his. Then on Tuesday 
morning, as Rucker again drove by lake, she not only saw a Ryder truck, but two other vehicles as well. She thought this was "very 

■ ■ ..[7301 

suspicious. ^ ^ 

On Monday, April 17, Connie Hood saw the Ryder truck again. This time, there were several men "fiddling with the back of the truck." Hood 
thinks one of those men was Michael Fortier; she recalls he had scraggly hair and a beard. Those who recall the photo of Fortier taken after 
the bombing may recall that Fortier had just shaved off his beard, leaving a clearly visible demarcation line. 

While these are all blatant discrepancies in the FBI's official timeline, the Bureau was apparently interested in McGown's testimony because 
the Dreamland is the only place where McVeigh, or someone purporting to be McVeigh, signed his real name. 

What is curious is that the FBI has consistently promoted the idea that there was only one Ryder truck involved. Yet the statements of 
McGown, Bricktown warehouse worker David Snider, and others indicate that there were two Ryder trucks involved. When a Newsweek 


reporter spoke to the security guard at Elliott's, he said "Think about two trucks."^ — ^ 

This fact was reiterated by grand juror Hoppy Heidelberg. "A small number of people testified during the grand jury hearings about two 
trucks," said Heidelberg. "McVeigh picked his truck up on Monday. John Doe 2 had his truck the weekend before. The fact that there were 


two trucks I'm very comfortable with.'" — ^ 

If McVeigh had rented his truck on April 17, as the FBI contends, why did witnesses report seeing a Ryder truck at Geary State Fishing Lake 
as early as April 10? It was at this lake, on April 18, the FBI originally asserted, that the two suspects built their magic ANFO bomb. FBI 


agents reported finding diesel fuel and strands of detonator cord on the ground.' — ^ 

Yet at the time witnesses first saw the truck at the lake, neither McVeigh or Nichols were in Kansas. As the Denver Post reported: 

Nichols was returning from a gun show in Michigan, and McVeigh was holed up in a residence hotel in Kingman, Arizona. The government's 
key witness, Michael Fortier, also was not in Kansas. ^^^ 

Interestingly, shortly before the start of McVeigh's trial, the prosecution dropped its contention that the bomb was built at Geary Lake. It's 
possible they did so because had the defense brought up the witness sightings on the 10th, it would have conflicted, not only with the 

prosecution's carefully constructed timeline, but the fact that there were additional suspects. ^^^ 

As will be seen, this is not the first time the government excluded witnesses who's testimony didn't fit with their carefully crafted version of 

Nevertheless, it was this truck, rented by "Kling" on April 17, authorities insisted, that was loaded with ammonium nitrate and guided by the 
lone bomber to its final and fateful destination at the Alfred P. Murrah Building. 

To build their magic ANFO bomb, the FBI reports McVeigh and Nichols began searching for racing fuel and detonator cord in September of 
'94. Using the calling card McVeigh and Nichols had obtained under the pseudonym of "Daryl Bridges," ostensibly inspired by the film "Blown 
Away" staring Jeff Bridges, McVeigh allegedly made over 22 calls to various companies who supply chemicals, racing fuel, and even one of 
the country's largest explosives manufacturers. 

His first call was to Paulsen's Military Supply, just outside of Madison, Wisconsin, looking for detonators. According to authorities, McVeigh 
left Paulsen's business card in the patrol car upon his arrest, that read, "Dave" (presumably David Paulsen, Ed Paulsen's son, who McVeigh 

had met at a gun show), with the notation, "More five pound sticks of TNT by May 1 ."^^^ 

A salesman at Fatigues and Things, a military store in Junction City, said McVeigh and another man bought a book entitled Improvised 
Munitions two weeks before the bombing. The other man was not Terry Nichols. 

Prosecutors also called an old friend of McVeigh's, David Darlak, who allegedly received a call from him in an attempt to obtain racing fuel. 

Another friend was Greg Pfaff, whom McVeigh had met at gun shows. Pfaff testified that McVeigh had called him seeking to buy det cord. 
McVeigh was so eager to obtain the cord, Pfaff said, that he offered to drive to Virginia. 

Another of the calls reflected on the mens' calling card was to Mid-American Chemical. Linda Juhl, an employee of the company, 
remembered receiving a call in the Fall of 1994 from a fellow in Kansas who wanted to purchase Anhydrous Hydrazine, a rocket fuel which 
can be used to boost the power of an ANFO bomb. 

The FBI also reported that two individuals, one named "Terry Tuttle," visited Thumb Hobbies, Etc. in Mariette, Michigan in mid-December, 
1993, looking to buy 100 percent nitromethane model airplane fuel. According to Sanilac County Sheriff Virgil Stickler, the store clerk 
inquired about ordering it, then told the customers several weeks later that he could not or would not do so. The clerk said that "Tuttle" 

replied that it was okay, that they had found another source. ^^^ 

Another incident not made public until the County Grand Jury investigation was the recollection of Gary Antene, who saw McVeigh and John 
Doe 2 at Danny's Hobby Shop in Oklahoma City the Saturday before the bombing. The two men asked him if Danny's carried 100 percent 
nitromethane fuel. 

"I explained that no one in the RC (remote-controlled) airplane hobby used 100 percent nitromethane as a fuel, that at most we generally 
used nothing over 20 percent," said Antene. 

Antene reported the incident to the FBI a couple of times, but was not called to testify at McVeigh's trial, probably because his account didn't 

fit into the FBI's "official" timeline.^^^ 

On October 20, the FBI alleged that McVeigh checked into a motel in Pauls Valley, Oklahoma. The next day, he drove 170 miles to the Chief 
Auto Parts Nationals drag race in Ennis, Texas. Timothy Chambers, an employee of VP Racing Fuels, testified at McVeigh's trial that he and 
co-worker Brad Horton sold a man resembling McVeigh three 54 gallon drums of Nitromethane racing fuel for $2,775. The man said the fuel 
was for him and his friends who race Harleys once a year in Oklahoma City. Chambers testified it didn't make sense for a few motorcycle 

racers to buy that much fuel, and had never seen anyone pay cash for that large a purchase. ^^^ 

Interestingly, the FBI didn't announce this new lead until one month before the start of McVeigh's trial, as other evidence, including that from 
the FBI's crime lab, began falling apart. The Rocl<y Mountain News reported that Glynn Tipton had alerted the ATF to the strange purchase 

as far back as October of 1994.^^^ 

Yet this "new" evidence would coalesce perfectly with the government's emerging case, now that many Americans were convinced that a 
simple ANFO bomb hadn't destroyed the Murrah Building. A bomb built with volatile, highly-explosive racing fuel would make the 
prosecution's case much more convincing. 

The startling discovery of McVeigh's racing fuel purchases, like the new revelations of Thomas Manning, or those of Eldon Elliott, were 
reminiscent of the sudden discoveries by Lockerbie investigators of Libyan terrorists. The 1988 bombing had originally been attributed to 
Iran, contracted through former Syrian army officer Ahmed Jibril of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command 
(PFLP-GC), in retaliation for the American downing of an Iranian passenger liner a year and-a-half earlier. Now that George Bush needed 
the cooperation of the Syrians for his Gulf War coalition, the blame needed to be shifted to someone else. 

Then, ten months after the bombing, Lockerbie investigators discovered new evidence. The owner of a clothing store on Malta suddenly 
remembered to whom he had sold some baby clothes that had been found in the bomb suitcase onboard the plane. In fact, not only had he 
recalled the customer, he remembered the precise date of the purchase, and recalled the man clearly enough for artists to render a sketch. 

He was Abu Talb, a PFLP-GC member who was known to have visited Malta shortly before the bombing. ^^^ 

At least that's what the FBI wanted the public to believe. In fact, owner Tony Gauci and his brother Paul made 18 different statements to 
authorities, most of which were vague and contradictory. They then signed statements eventhough they couldn't read English. Nevertheless, 

investigators quickly placed 24-hour guards around the shopkeepers bearing this valuable "new evidence," just as the FBI had done with 
Eldon Elliott. 

Yet records show that the calls to chemical companies continued in October of '94 from Kingman, around the same time that the suspects 
allegedly drove there to hide stolen explosives, and around the same time they allegedly began purchasing ammonium nitrate. The 
indictment states that Nichols allegedly stole Dynamite and an explosive called Tovex from the Martin Marietta quarry in Marion, Kansas, not 
far from where Nichols had been working as a ranch hand. 

Bud Radeke, a blaster and driller for Martin Marietta, testified at McVeigh's trial that 299 dynamite sticks, 544 blasting caps, detonator cord, 
and Tovex was stolen over the long Labor Day weekend. FBI agents discovered a drill bit in Nichols' home that they claim matched the hole 
drilled in one of the magazine's locks. The suspects had allegedly made the mistake of leaving one of the five locks they had drilled into 

Yet could the FBI actually tell from a hole drilled in a lock which particular bit had made the impression? The FBI hadn't discovered the bit in 
Nichols' tool kit until six months after the robbery. No doubt it had been used since, as Nichols, a handyman, had recently moved into his 
new house. The signature of the drill bit would undoubtedly have been altered. 

How could the FBI be so sure it was the bit which had drilled the locks at the quarry? 

Ed Hueske, a firearm and tool examiner at Weckerling Scientific Laboratory near Dallas said a drill bit can "leave marks that are 
characteristic of the nose of the bit," especially "if the bit is worn or damaged." A former forensic specialist with the Tulsa Police Department, 

Hueske added that such a test is "not routine," but is "theoretically possible. "^^^ 

Yet if the bit was used afterwards on metal, or if it had been sharpened, it would change the striations of the markings. If it still contained bits 
of metal shavings from the lock, however, then a match could be made. But agents testified that no shavings were found. 

Then how did the FBI match the bit? Frank Shiller, a firearm and tool examiner at Forensic Consultant Services in Fort Worth, offered his 
opinion: "Some of that type of work has been done, but it's not a very frequent thing. I don't think it would be very productive." 

Shiller, who has 36 years experience in forensic science, has never even been asked to conduct such a test, nor has his boss. Max 
Courtney, with 27 years experience. 

"It would be extremely difficult to match a drill," said Shiller, "because of the random motion of the drill moving through its... moving up and 
down the hole. So it would be hard to track any imperfections or microscopic markings that might be present. That would be a pretty tough 

Even Hueske, who admitted the theoretical possibility of such a test, said that the two or three drill bit tests he's conducted over the years 
produced no results. 

The quarry also had pre-mixed professional grade ANFO in stock. Why didn't Nichols steal that too, since, as the government alleges, it was 
the prime ingredient in the bomb? This certainly would have been easier and more discreet than buying large quantities of ammonium 
nitrate, diesel, and racing fuel, then attempting to mix it into a gigantic bomb. But for some reason, our prime suspects decided to leave the 
professional grade ANFO behind, and go to the trouble and expense of making their own. 

The two men then allegedly drove to Kingman on October 4, where McVeigh rented a storage locker to hide the goods. ^^^ It was in 
Kingman that McVeigh allegedly showed his dangerous booty to his friends, Michael and Lori Fortier. Lori testified at trial that McVeigh 
asked her to wrap up the blasting caps as Christmas presents for the long ride back to Michigan. 

A friend of Nichols and McVeigh, Kevin Nicholas, testified that he helped McVeigh unload his car upon returning to Decker. "I was just 
grabbing stuff and just throwing it in the back of my truck; and Tim said, "Don't handle them. I'll take care of them two Christmas-wrapped 

. [745] 

packages there. 

Phone records also show that McVeigh called military surplus dealer Dave Paulsen on December 17 from Kingman, and Nicholas testified 
that McVeigh drove to Chicago to see Paulsen in late December to sell him the blasting caps. 

On September 30, 1994, according to the FBI, McVeigh and Nichols, who used the alias "Mike Havens," purchased forty 50-pound bags of 
ammonium nitrate at the Mid-Kansas Co-Op in Manhattan, Kansas. Then, on October 17, after renting a room in Salina under the name 
"Havens," Nichols rented storage locker No. 40 at Boots U-Store-lt in Council Grove, under the alias "Joe Kyle." On October 18, the dynamic 
duo was back again at the Mid-Kansas Co-Op, stocking up on more fertilizer, buying another forty 50-pound bags to be stored at the locker 
in Council Grove. 

Nichols attorney, Michael Tigar, attempted to explain his client's use of aliases by stating that Nichols wanted to hide his assets from Chase 
Manhattan bank, which had won a large credit card lawsuit against him. This explanation does not explain why Nichols used the alias while 
purchasing fertilizer. 

Finally, there would be the ordinance found at Nichols' home and the farm of his brother James. The Decker, Michigan farm contained 28 
fifty-pound bags of ammonium nitrate, non-electric blasting caps, a 55-gallon drum containing fuel-oil, and large fuel tanks which appeared to 
contain diesel fuel. As previously mentioned, neighbors Daniel Stomber and Paul Isydorak told authorities that the Nichols brothers and 
McVeigh would experiment with the items to make small homemade bombs. 

A search of Terry Nichols' home by the ATF and FBI allegedly turned up 33 firearms, an anti-tank launcher (which was inert), five 60-foot 
Primadet detonator cords, non-electric blasting caps, ammonium nitrate, a fuel meter (which was inoperable — a fact that was never 
mentioned), and four 55-gallon blue plastic drums. (Nichols' son Josh, who frequently played at his dad's house, believed the barrels were 
white with blue tops.) 

While some accounts indicate that the drums were of the type used in the bombing, the New York Times wrote on April 30, " is not clear 

that they match blue plastic fragments found at the blast site."^^^ In fact, the FBI never stated that the fragments removed from bombing 
victims matched those from Nichols' home. Certainly the FBI, with the most sophisticated crime lab in the world, would have been able to 
determine whether the fragments were of the same type. Moreover, most of the fragments, if they had come from Nichols' home, would have 
been white, not blue. 

Nichols' attorney, Michael Tigar, raised this issue while cross-examining an FBI agent during a pre-trial hearing. According to Tigar, the FBI's 
inventory list described the barrels simply as white without blue lids. The agent replied that the FBI doesn't list the lids separately. When 
Tigar asked the agent why they had inventoried a collection of 5-gallon buckets with the lids listed separately, he had no response. 

Those blue fragments may very likely have been from the 80 or so blue trash barrels distributed throughout the building for the purposes of 
trash collection. As Richard Williams, a 51 year-old GSA manager testified at McVeigh's trial, "They were placed throughout the building for 
pickup during the week." 

One month later, Nichols would write his cryptic letter to McVeigh, instructing him to extend the lease on unit number 37, which allegedly 
contained stolen coins and guns, and "liquidate 40," in case Nichols failed to return from his last trip to the Philippines. It was this letter that 
contained the infamous phrase, "You're on your own. Go for it!" 

Was this a message inspiring McVeigh to bomb a federal building, or a note encouraging him to make a success of himself in the military 
surplus business? According to James Nichols, it was the later. Nichols claims his brother was about to make a large cash loan to McVeigh 
for this purpose, and the note was simply in case of his death. Terry, he said, was a very meticulous and thorough man who always made 

certain his affairs were in order.^^^ 

Nichols family friend Bob Papovich also claims the pair was selling fertilizer at gun shows as plant food, along with an odd assortment of 
other items sold at gun shows, repackaging it in smaller bags to increase their profit margin. 

Yet two tons of fertilizer is an awful lot to sell at gun shows. Had McVeigh and Nichols actually purchased that much fertilizer? What is 
interesting is that employees of Mid-Kansas Co-op were never able to positively identify McVeigh or Nichols during the purported fertilizer 
buying trips. Although employee Frederick Schendler thought one of the men may have been Terry Nichols, he said during a pre-trial 
hearing that the second man wasn't McVeigh. He was driving a truck that didn't appear to be Nichols', with a red trailer attached. Papovich 
told me that Nichols owns no such truck. 

Federal prosecutors were also counting on a receipt found in Nichols' home for the purchase of a ton of ammonium nitrate, allegedly 
containing McVeigh's thumbprint. Had Nichols foolishly kept a receipt for bombing materials that could be traced back to him? Was he as 
stupid as Mohammed Salemeh, the World Trade Center bomber who returned to the Ryder agency after the bombing in an attempt to 
retrieve his rental deposit? Or was McVeigh's fingerprint actually on the receipt after all? 

FBI agent Louis Hupp testified at trial that he hadn't found McVeigh's fingerprints at Elliott's, in motel rooms where McVeigh stayed, or in the 
storage lockers where McVeigh allegedly stored the bomb-making materials. ^^^ 

Ramsey: Agent Hupp, you identified — or handled many documents with regard to fingerprints, didn't you, with regard to this case? 

Hupp: Yes, ma'am. 

Ramsey: Did you also test the Ryder rental truck reservation form? 

Hupp: Yes, I did. 

Ramsey: And did you find Timothy McVeigh's fingerprints on that? 

Hupp: No, ma'am. 

Ramsey: Did you find Timothy McVeigh's fingerprints on the Ryder rental truck form where he actually — where it was actually rented? 

Hupp: No, ma'am.... 

Ramsey: Did you check the counter at Elliott's Body Shop for fingerprints? I don't recall if I asked you that or not. 

Hupp: The countertop was removed by me and transported back to headquarters and was in fact processed for latent prints. 

Ramsey: And did you find any fingerprints of Timothy McVeigh? 

Hupp: No, ma'am. 

Ramsey: And did you also check to see if there were any fingerprints on any of the storage units that have been discussed in this case? 

Hupp: Yes, ma'am. 

Ramsey: And did you find any fingerprints of Timothy McVeigh? 

Hupp: No, ma'am. 

Hupp also testified that he had not found McVeigh's prints on the rental paperwork, or the key belonging to the Ryder truck, found in a 
nearby alley. Yet Hupp explained, "There are many times a person doesn't leave prints. It's a chance impression." 

What if the FBI /7ac/ claimed it had discovered prints? 

On November 22, 1963, after JFK's murder, the FBI took Oswald's Mannlicher-Carcanno rifle to their Washington, D.C. crime lab. The 
technicians concluded that Oswald's prints were not on the weapon. The FBI then returned the rifle to the Dallas Police Department. Shortly 

thereafter, the DPD excitedly announced that they had "discovered" Oswald's palm print.^^^ 

This "new evidence" forced even the Warren Commission's chief counsel, J. Lee Rankin, to conclude, "Because of the circumstances which 
now exist there is a serious question in the minds of the Commission as to whether the palm impression that has been obtained from the 
Dallas Police Department is a legitimate palm impression removed from the rifle barrel or whether it was obtained from some other 

In 1984, FBI Agent Vincent Drain, who handled the weapon, was questioned by JFK researcher Henry Hurt. Drain concluded that there 
never was such a print. "All I can figure is that [Oswald's print] was some kind of cushion because they were getting a lot of heat by Sunday 
night. You could take that print off Oswald's card and put it on the rife. Something like that happened." 

In spite of this, the Warren Commission made no effort to resolve the issue, and presented Oswald's so-called palm print as fact.^^^ 

Yet the fertilizer receipt containing McVeigh's thumbprint wasn't the only ammunition in the FBI's arsenal of specious evidence. Prosecutors 
would rely heavily on an explosive component called PETN, allegedly found on McVeigh's clothing. A pair of earplugs found on McVeigh 
also reportedly tested positive for EGDN, a chemical found in dynamite. Finally, there was a piece of plywood from the Ryder truck which 
contained glazed ammonium nitrate crystals. 

Yet once again, this evidence was highly questionable. It seemed the crystals had disappeared before independent experts for either the 
prosecution or defense could confirm its existence. 

Interestingly, affidavits of Frederick Whitehurst, a Special Agent in the FBI's lab division, announced to an incredulous public in September of 

1995 that the Bureau had been mishandling evidence and slanting results to favor prosecutors for years. ^^^ 

As one FBI lab technician told the New York Times, "You get an inadvertent bonding of like-minded individuals supporting each other's false 

After federal agents searched the residence of Richard Jewell, a private security guard who was an early suspect in a bombing at the Atlanta 
Olympics... FBI scientists and other specialists warned that "you've got the wrong guy," an FBI laboratory official said. But their cautionary 

remarks, based on the absence of even trace amounts of explosive materials, went unheeded for months. ^^^ 

In March of 1997, the Los Angeles Times reported the findings of the Justice Department Inspector General's office, which concluded that 
the lab made "scientifically unsound" conclusions that were "biased in favor of the prosecution" in the Oklahoma City bombing case. 

The still-secret draft report, obtained by the paper, also concludes that supervisors approved lab reports that they "cannot support" and that 

FBI lab officials may have erred about the size of the blast, the amount of explosives involved and the type of explosives used in the 

According to the Times, the draft report shows that FBI examiners could not identify the triggering device for the truck bomb or how it was 
detonated. It also indicates that a poorly maintained lab environment could have led to contamination of critical pieces of evidence, the 


Whitehurst also told the Inspector General that the agents who conducted the tests in Oklahoma City, including Tom Thurman, Chief of the 

Explosives Unit, and Roger Martz, Chief of the Chemistry and Toxicology Unit, were not even qualified to do so.^^^ 

During the 1993 World Trade Center bombing investigation, Whitehurst decided to secretly test efficiency and procedures at the lab. He 
mixed human urine with fertilizer and added it to some of the bomb material being tested. Martz subsequently excitedly identified the urine- 


fertilizer mixture as an explosive.' — ^ 

Whitehurst also contended that Martz's examining room was contaminated, making it impossible to accurately test for explosives and other 

substances, including the PETN allegedly found on McVeigh's clothes. ^^^ 

During the prosecution's closing argument, Martz made an interesting Freudian Slip: "The evidence shows that Mr. McVeigh's clothing was 
contaminated with... excuse me, Mr. McVeigh's clothing was filled with bomb residue." 

Whitehurst also claimed that Martz had perjured his testimony in prior cases. Whitehurst himself was even asked to alter his reports. 
Materials-analysis-unit chief Corby "had me come into his room one day and told me they — I don't know who 'they' were — wanted me to 

take statements out of my report.... Whitehurst refused. ^^^* 

During the 1991 trial of Walter Leroy Moody, convicted of killing Federal Judge Robert Vance with a letter-bomb, both Thurman and Martz 
"circumvented established procedures and protocols... [and] testified in areas of expertise that [they] had no qualifications in, therefore 
fabricating evidence in [their] testimony," Whitehurst wrote in a memorandum to the Bureau's Scientific Analysis Chief James Kearny. 

Both Martz and Thurman were fully aware of the fact that they were in violation of procedures and protocols of the FBI Laboratory and did 

knowingly and purposely commit perjury and obstruction of justice in this matter.^^^ 

Interestingly, the chief prosecutor in the case was none other than Louis Freeh, who was an Assistant U.S. Attorney at the time. According to 
Whitehurst, Freeh did not have a single piece of evidence tying Moody to the crime. Thurman got around this little inconvenience by sending 
the evidence to his friend Roger Martz, who, like Thurman, was not qualified to perform the examination. Both Thurman and Martz were 
recently removed from their positions due to allegations of falsification of evidence and perjury. 

Thurman's original claim to fame was the Pan Am 103 case. He had concluded that a tiny fragment of microchip, amazingly discovered two 
years after the bombing, was part of a batch of timers sold to the Libyans by the Swiss firm MEBO. This "new evidence" allowed the U.S. 
government to point the finger of blame at Libya, conveniently letting Syria — originally implicated in the bombing — off the hook. 

After the assassination of JFK, nitrate tests conducted on Lee Harvey Oswald concluded that he had not fired a rifle on November 22. Yet 

this fact, like the false palm print, was kept secret for 10 months, then buried deep inside the Warren Commission Report.^^^ 

In the Moody case, Freeh possessed copies of reports that disproved the prosecution's allegations, but did not even make them available, or 
known, to the jury. Freeh also failed to inform the jury that his chief witness, Ted Banks, failed a lie-detector test regarding his association 
with Moody. In 1995, Banks testified at an appeal hearing that Freeh had threatened and coerced him into testifying against the defendant. 


In the World Trade Center case, Whitehurst testified that he was told not to provide any information or evidence, such as alternate 

explanations to the urea-nitrate theory, that could be used by the defense to challenge the prosecutors' hypothesis of guilt.^^^ 

In Oklahoma, Whitehurst conducted a test on McVeigh's clothes, but found nothing. 

While the FBI claimed it found traces of PETN in McVeigh's pants pocket, on his shirts, and on a set of earplugs. Agent Burmeister 
acknowledged on cross-examination that no PETN or ammonium nitrate was found at the blast scene. 

Nor was ammonium nitrate found in McVeigh's car, his personal effects, hotel rooms he had stayed at, the various storage sheds the 
suspects allegedly used to store the bomb-making components, or in Nichols' Herington, Kansas home. The Bureau also found no evidence 

of explosives residue in samples of McVeigh's hair, or scrapings from his fingernails. ^^^ 

Burmeister also testified that crystals of ammonium nitrate, which he found on a piece of wood paneling from the Ryder truck, later vanished. 

"That piece has gone through a lot of hands since the time that I've seen it," Burmeister testified, "and I can't speak to how they could have 

disappeared. "^^^ 

As Canadian County Sheriff Deputy Clint Boehler said, "The FBI disturbed and removed evidence. They don't tell anybody else; they don't 
work with anybody else.... How did they know it was the truck? They never looked at so many obvious things. "^^^ 

Yet, as in the Kennedy case. Federal Prosecutors went to trial armed with deliberate lies and other distortions that favored their somewhat 
questionable version of events. 

While the FBI's evidence procedures would be called into question, prosecutors would seek to impress the jury with evidence of the 
suspects' militant Right-wing leanings. Prosecutors began with letters McVeigh sent to his sister Jennifer, expressing his rage over the 
events at Ruby Ridge and Waco, at the same time millions of Americans were expressing the very same anger. 

"The Federal Government was absolutely out of control," said Sarah Bain, the San Antonio school teacher who served as forewoman of the 
jury that acquitted the [Davidian] sect members of most of the serious crimes they were charged with. "The wrong people were on trial," Bain 

complained. "It should have been the ones that planned the raid and orchestrated it."^^^ 

But it was other evidence — more incriminating and disturbing — that would provide the critical elements needed to convince the jury of 
McVeigh's malicious intent. In November of '94, McVeigh visited his family in Lockport, New York, where he confided to his sister Jennifer 
that he had been driving around with 1,000 pounds of explosives. 

In a letter sent to her in March, a month before the bombing, McVeigh wrote, "Something big is going to happen in the month of the bull." 

Finally, to prove McVeigh's malevolent intentions, prosecutors introduced a letter stored on Jennifer's computer. The letter, addressed to the 
ATF, warned, "ATF, all you tyrannical motherfuckers will swing in the wind one day, for your treasonous actions against the Constitution and 
the United States. Remember the Nuremberg War Trials. But... but... but... I was only following orders! Die, you spineless, cowardice 


McVeigh also supposedly left a letter to a "girlfriend" (which media psychojournalists claimed he didn't have) in the glove compartment of his 
car, outlining plans to bomb additional targets. 

Had McVeigh actually left such a letter in his vehicle, and dropped Paulsen's business card in the patrol car? While it is possible, such 
scenes are reminiscent of the doctored photograph of Lee Harvey Oswald holding a rifle and Communist newspaper, or Earth First! activist 
Judi Bah holding a machine gun, which was loaned to her for the photo by an FBI informant — a photo which he took. 

In Oklahoma City, as in all criminal conspiracies, the old adage, "follow the money" would apply. Certainly a pair of lone nuts with a fertilizer/ 
fuel bomb wouldn't need much — a couple of thousand dollars at most — considering they didn't have to pay off a web of co-conspirators. 

A November '94 robbery in Arkansas would prove to be just the crime investigators needed to put the final piece of the puzzle in place. 
When the indictments were returned, the grand jury concluded the bombing was financed by the robbery of gun dealer Roger Moore (AKA: 
Bob Anderson), who had known McVeigh and let him stay at his home. 

Yet what is interesting is that the FBI had already come to the conclusion that the bomb components were already purchased or stolen by 
the date of the robbery. 

The indictment was also incongruously worded: "McVeigh and Nichols "caused" the robbery of $60,000 worth of guns, coins and precious 
metals. Exactly how had they "caused" the robbery? The prosecution first presented the testimony of McVeigh's friend Kevin Nicholas: 

Nicholas: He said that he screwed him some way out of some money or something. 

Mackey: Who is "he"? 

Nicholas: That Bob did for when Tim worked for him. 

Mackey: And as a result? 

Nicholas: He said he — that he'd be an easy guy to rob because he lived way back in the sticks and, you know, there was woods around 
his house and stuff. 

Yet McVeigh had a solid alibi. He was at a gun show in Kent, Ohio on November 5. 

Still, the government attempted to have Michael Fortier implicate his friends at trial by testifying that McVeigh called him and said, "Nichols 

got Bob!" This largely hearsay testimony would not be backed up by further evidence. 

Authorities never proved that McVeigh or Nichols actually robbed Moore, but did prove that on November 7, 1994, Nichols rented a storage 
locker — number 37 — in Council Grove, under the alias "Ted Parker" to store some of the stolen items. 

In his "confession" to authorities, Fortier said that McVeigh met him in Kingman on the 15th, whereupon they drove to Kansas. On the way, 
Fortier testified, McVeigh pointed out the Murrah Building as the target of the upcoming attack. When they reached the storage locker, they 

loaded 25 guns into Fortier's rented car.^^^ 

Back in Kingman, Fortier pawned the weapons, or sold them to friends, including his neighbor, James Rosencrans. 

On November 16, Nichols rented locker Q-106 at AAAABCO Storage in Las Vegas, where ex-wife Lana Padilla discovered gold and silver 
bars, jade, along with wigs, masks, and pantyhose. A safety deposit box key belonging to Moore was found at Nichols' home. 

The 60-year-old Moore claimed he was surprised one morning shortly after 9:00 a.m., when two masked men accosted him outside his 
kitchen door. The men, wearing woodland-style camouflage fatigues, bound him and ransacked his house, taking guns, coins, jewels, and 
personal effects. 

What is strange is that the thieves left a number of expensive handguns and large-capacity magazines, both highly desirable items. The 
private gun dealer, who had enough weapons to supply a platoon, did not have an insurance rider for the guns, and most of the serial 
numbers weren't registered. 

Moore told the author he didn't have a rider because he was afraid some insurance company secretary would see his large collection and 
tell her boyfriend, who would then come and rob him. A curious explanation for failing to insure a highly valuable collection. Moore claims he 
only got a limited settlement — approximately $10,000. 

Interestingly, one well-connected source I spoke to asserted that "the [Moore] robbery was staged.... that's the truth.... He (Moore) used a 
lot of aliases, he had eight different social security numbers, eight different dates of birth, and that's only the ones that I know about..." 

This source also claimed, long before defense attorney Michael Tigar's allegations were made public, that the motive of the "robbery" was 
insurance fraud, staged with the help of Nichols and McVeigh. "Nichols had simply bought weapons [from Moore].... Moore approached 
Nichols about the fraud originally.... Moore took payment of some odd items that winds up in Terry Nichols' [storage locker]." 

This assertion was reinforced at Nichols' trial, when Tigar questioned Moore's girlfriend, Karen Anderson, about why she had included on her 

list — a list she claimed had been drawn up in late 1 992 or early 1 993 — a gun that hadn't been purchased until late 1 994!^^^ 

When I spoke to Moore's friend and neighbor, Nora Waye, she told me Moore had complained to her that the local Sheriff who investigated 
the robbery, "blew [Moore's] cover." 

Could a phony robbery set-up explain the wigs, masks, and pantyhose in Terry Nichol's storage locker? Given the relationship between 
McVeigh and Moore, it is possible the two men made some sort of deal. 

Former grand juror Hoppy Heidelberg is another person who had doubts about Moore: "Something wasn't right about him," said Heidelberg. 
"It wasn't that his testimony wasn't believable. He was just cocky. He had a strange attitude for a man testifying before a grand jury. He was 
so casual about it, that was strange. He testified like a man who had done it many times before.... It wasn't anything he said, it was his 

attitude. You'll see the same attitude in an FBI agent whose testify ing."^^^ 

"Moore's being protected," said my source. "No matter how this thing's going to get played out. He'll talk to you all day long and won't tell you 
a thing. He knows how to talk." 

John Doe Who? 

"We have no information stiowing anyone otiiertlian Mr. McVeigii and Mr. Nictiols are ttie masterminds" - U.S. Attorney Betti WiH<inson 

On the day of the deadly attack. Attorney General Janet Reno announced, "The FBI and the law enforcement community will pursue every 
lead and use every possible resource to bring these people responsible to justice.... It is very important that we pursue each lead... it is 
going to be very important that we leave no stone unturned..." 

In fact, numerous stones were left unturned. 

While the Justice Department (DoJ) focused its efforts on McVeigh and Nichols, scant attention was focused on other suspects — John Doe 
2, the mysterious entity who was seen with McVeigh, and had accompanied him the morning of the bombing. Witnesses also saw him with 
McVeigh in the Murrah Building, in stores, at restaurants, at a bar, and at the truck rental shop before the bombing. Still others claim to have 

seen him speeding away from the scene. All in all, there are almost two-dozen witnesses who reported seeing John Doe 2. 

The FBI made a big show of tracking down this illusive, menacing-looking suspect. "The FBI has conducted over 9,000 witness interviews 
and has followed every possible lead in an intensive effort to identify and bring to justice anyone who was involved in this disaster," stated U. 

S. Attorney Patrick Ryan in a letter to the victims' families. ^^^ 

The search for John Doe 2 quickly became the biggest man-hunt in FBI history. What authorities weren't saying however, was that not only 
was there a John Doe 2, there were least four John Does! Yet the issue was quickly and quietly narrowed down to just one John Doe 2. 

On April 23, four days after the bombing. The Washington Posf quoted a senior law enforcement official who said "at least four" men were 

involved in the terrorist act last week and "there very well could be more."^^^ 

The FBI then requalified its position on May 15: "Wherever we look, it's Terry and Timmy, Terry and Timmy — and nobody else," quipped an 
unnamed FBI official in Time magazine. 

Yet on June 1 1 , another FBI official was quoted in the Post as saying, "I think when this is over we'll have at least six or eight guys indicted 

and in custody. It's just too big for two guys to pull off."^^^ 

Then on June 15, the FBI backtracked again. "Periodically you just get something in an investigation that goes nowhere. John Doe 2 goes 
nowhere. It doesn't show up in associations, it doesn't show up in phone calls. It doesn't show up among the Army buddies of 

McVeigh... "^^^ 

The previous day, the FBI put out a story that John Doe 2 may have actually been Todd Bunting, a soldier at Fort Riley, Kansas who had 
rented a truck at the same dealer McVeigh had. The FBI stated that Bunting wore clothing similar to that ascribed to John Doe 2, that he had 
a tattoo in the same place, and that he wore a hat similar to John Doe 2's. 

Yet Elliott's employees dismissed Bunting as the person who was seen with McVeigh, and Bunting held a press conference stating that he 
had in fact rented a truck at Elliott's — 24 hours after McVeigh allegedly rented his. 

The Bunting story was officially dropped. 

Then, on January 28, 1996, the prosecution switched tracks again, officially resurrecting the Todd Bunting story. In a long brief, the 
government disclosed that Elliott's employee Tom Kessinger was the only one who could recall John Doe 2 well enough to describe him. 

Now, after a November interview with a prosecutor and two FBI agents, Kessinger was "confident that he had Todd Bunting in mind when he 
provided the description for the John Doe 2 composite." Kessinger, the brief continued, is "now unsure" whether anyone accompanied 
McVeigh. But his two co-workers "continue to believe that two men came in to rent the truck." 

In that brief, the prosecution speculated that the defense might use "Kessinger's admitted confusion" to challenge his identification of 

It seemed it was less "Kessinger's admitted confusion" than a deliberate fabrication by prosecutors and the FBI to cover up the existence of 
John Doe 2. As Kessinger told bombing victim Glenn Wilburn, who conducted his own investigation, "I don't know how they came up with 
that one." 

Kessinger later changed his story at the urging of federal prosecutors Patrick Ryan and Joseph Hartzler. During a pretrial conference, Jones 
challenged Kessinger: 

"How can you be so wrong 60 hours after the event and so right a year and a half later?" Jones asked him. "Could you be changing your 
mind because the government wants you to?" 

"No," Kessinger replied. ^^^ 

Yet on March 25 and April 5, Hartzler had written Jones that "The existence and identity of this John Doe 2, whom we are confident is not 
Mr. Bunting, is the subject of a continuing investigation." 

And in a May 1, 1996 letter written by Hartzler, the government prosecutor informed Jones that Kessinger and Beemer had been shown a 
picture of the cap Bunting wore when he picked up a truck on April 18. "They both stated that the cap was not the same one they saw on 

John Doe II," Hartzler wrote, "and they reaffirmed that this second individual accompanied 'Kling' when he rented the truck."^^^ 
Yet at a hearing on April 9, federal prosecutor Beth Wilkinson stated that the government "has no information showing anyone but Mr. 

Nichols and Mr. McVeigh were the masterminds of this bombing. "^^^ 

"They keep telling us they're looking for John Doe No. 2, but then they turn around and give statements indicating that they don't believe 

there is a John Doe No. 2," said a woman whose husband was killed in the bombing. ^^^ 

Other victims, like naive children, blindly placed their faith in the government's dubious assurances. Hartzler held one meeting with bombing 
victims in which he "discussed and disposed of some of the more bizarre theories." 

"I just got a better feeling about what's going on," said Bud Welch, whose daughter, Julie, died in the attack. "The prosecution assured us 
that there was no evidence that was suppressed. We really didn't know that," added Welch. 

"We know what's going on now and that they're there for us," Pamela Weber-Fore said of the prosecute rs.^^^ 

Other victims weren't as easily fooled. "I don't think that there's any question about the fact that they're covering up who was involved in the 
bombing," said V.Z. Lawton, a HUD worker who was injured in the blast. "I've talked to five witnesses myself who saw McVeigh with John 

Doe number two in Oklahoma City that morning, within fifteen minutes of the blast... tells me that there is something wrong. "^^^ 

As Nichols' attorney Michael Tigar said, "It's strange that the official version has focused on Nichols and McVeigh, and that the government 

is now busily engaged in denying all possibility that there could be anybody else."^^^ 

Grand Jury Bypass 

"The FBI has thoroughly investigated all leads and I am confident in the investigation, "-lead prosecutor Joseph Hartzler 

Naturally, while many eyewitnesses stepped forward to tell the FBI they had seen additional suspects, not one was ever called before the 
grand jury. 

Yet federal prosecutors still had one hurdle to overcome before they could make their case. They had to deal with Hoppy Heidelberg. 
Heidelberg, who often quoted from the grand juror's handbook, was aware that the grand jury was charged with the task of determining the 
relevance of the evidence, and asking those questions pertinent to the case. So far, all the evidence centered around Timothy McVeigh and 
Terry Nichols. Heidelberg wanted to know why prosecutors had not subpoenaed the many witnesses who had seen John Doe 2. 

"No one who saw McVeigh with other suspects, was ever allowed to testify before the federal grand jury," said Heidelberg. The obvious 
inference being that those who saw McVeigh would have also seen John Doe 2. 

But Patrick Ryan seemed to be controlling the jury. He did not like Heidelberg's tendency to go against the flow. In a letter to the victims' 
families, Ryan states: 

The United States has never maintained or even suggested, that no other person or persons were involved with McVeigh and Nichols in the 
commission of these crimes. As stated earlier, the question of involvement of others is the subject of intensive investigation by federal 
investigators and prosecutors who are totally devoted and committed to identifying and prosecuting all persons involved in the planning or 
commission of these crimes. 

Yet, as in the Kennedy assassination, federal prosecutors simply paraded before the grand jury those witnesses favorable to their 
preordained view of the case, ignoring leads and witnesses that conflicted with their highly dubious version of events. 

Although Heidelberg attempted to question grand jury witnesses, he was repeatedly stonewalled by prosecutors. In an interview with 
journalist Jon Rappaport, Heidelberg stated, "They said I'd have to get the prosecuting attorney's okay for each question I wanted to ask. But 
you know, in dialog one question leads to another right away, so you can't cross-examine that way. 


"They kept promising and promising to answer all my questions, but ultimately they stalled me. I was had.'" — ^ 

In an interview on CBS This Morning, Stephen Jones said, "...what is troubling here is that the prosecutors, in effect, according to this grand 
juror's allegation, took away from the grand jury their duty to go after the full story, not just concentrating on the two people that had already 

been arrested. "^^^ 

Not buying the government's story of a couple of pissed-off whackos with a fertilizer bomb, Heidelberg also asked that bomb experts be 
called in to identify the type of bomb used. "Let's get the answer... Let's get the architects and engineers who built the building in there and 
question them," Heidelberg told Rappaport. 

"Did you request that?" asked Rappaport. 

"Of course! I demanded bomb experts all along. And engineers and geologists. They said — do you want to know what they said? They 

didn't have the money! I said I'd go down to the University of Oklahoma and bring some geologists back myself for free. They wouldn't let me. 


"The bomb is the key to the whole case.'" — ^ 

In order to satisfy the grand jury that an ANFO bomb blew up the building, prosecutors called in one bomb expert — Robert Hopler. Hopler, it 
turns out, recently retired from Dyno-Nobel, an explosives manufacturer in Salt Lake City. Dyno-Nobel used to be Hercules Powder 
Company — a reputed CIA front. 

"I knew he was CIA," said Heidelberg. "It was pretty obvious to me and most of the jury. "^^^ 

Judge David Russell eventually dismissed Heidelberg from the grand jury for having the audacity to question the government's case. In a 
letter to Heidelberg dated October 24, 1995, Russell states: 

Effectively immediately, you are dismissed from the grand jury. Your obligation of secrecy continues. Any disclosure of matters that occurred 
before the grand jury constitutes a contempt of court. Each violation of the obligation of secrecy may be punished cumulatively. 

The government's excuse for dismissing Heidelberg was an anonymous interview he supposedly gave to Lawrence Myers of Media Bypass 
magazine. As previously noted, Heidelberg never consented to be interviewed by Myers, and in fact, Myers had surreptitiously obtained the 
content of an interview conducted by the investigator for Heidelberg's attorney, John DeCamp. 

But Heidelberg claims the real reason was a letter he wrote to Judge Russell dated October 5th, in which Heidelberg states: 

The families of the victims deserve to know who was involved in the bombing, and there appears to be an attempt to protect the identity of 
certain suspects, namely John Doe 2.... 

"I think they (the government) knows who John Doe 2 is, and they are protecting him," said Heidelberg in an interview in Jubilee Magazine. 

"This is because John Doe 2 is either a government agent or informant and they can't afford for that to get out."^^^ 

Eventually, the FBI dropped the John Doe 2 lead altogether. John Doe 2 had been a red herring, a false lead, the Justice Department 

claimed. John Doe 2 had never really existed. ^^^ 

Dozens of credible witnesses think otherwise. 

Catina Lawson, who was friends with McVeigh, remembered John Doe 2 from the Summer of '92, when she and her friends would hold 
parties and invite soldiers from nearby Fort Riley. McVeigh showed up with Andy Strassmeir, Mike Fortier, and Michael Brescia. In fact, 
Lawson's roommate, Lindsay Johnson, dated the handsome, well-built Brescia. 

Two days after the bombing, Lawson called the FBI and told them that Brescia closely resembled the sketch of John Doe 2. 

Yet in spite of overturning 21 ,000 stones, the FBI never even bothered to follow up on her story. 

Robert Gohn, who lived across the road from McVeigh in Kingman, recalled seeing one of the mysterious John Does around the early 
Summer of '94. According to Gohn, one day a short, stocky man who looked "like a weight lifter" arrived at McVeigh's trailer with Terry 


On April 7, Dr. Paul Heath was working in his office at the Murrah Building when "McVeigh" and two of his companions stopped by for a 

chat. Heath recalled one of the men as "American-Indian looking" and "handsome. "^^^ 

As the Associated Press reported on April 27, 1995: 

... [U.S. Attorney Randy] Rathburn said neighbors of Nichols'... reported that Nichols spent April 12-14 with McVeigh and several 
unidentified men. One of the men resembled sketches of John Doe 2....^^^^^^^^ 

On Saturday, April 15, Barbara Whittenberg served breakfast to three men at the Sante Fe Trail Diner in Herrington, Kansas. One of the 
men was dark-skinned and handsome. When he told her they were on their way to Oklahoma City, McVeigh shot him a hard look that said 

"keep quiet."^^^ 

Early the next day, around 1:00 a.m., Melba was working the deli counter at Albertson's Supermarket on South May in Oklahoma City, when 


"McVeigh" and John Doe 2 stopped by for sandwiches.^ — ^ 

"McVeigh," it seems, was still in town when Phyliss Kingsley and Linda Kuhlman saw three vehicles pull into the Hi-Way Grill, just south of 

Oklahoma City, around 6:00 p.m. on Sunday. McVeigh came in and ordered hamburgers and fries to go, and was accompanied by a short. 

stocl<y, handsome man, of either Mexican or American Indian descent. The man closely resembled the FBI sketch of John Doe 2.^^^ 

That same day, back at the Dreamland Motel in Junction City, Connie Hood was returning to her room around 12:45 a.m. when a man in 
room 23 quickly opened the door as if expecting a visitor, then quickly closed it when he saw Hood. The man, who startled her, was in his 
early 20s, about 5'8" tall, 180 lbs., with dark hair brushed straight back and an olive complexion. Hood recalls he closely resembled the 

sketch of John Doe 2, but with slightly fuller features. She described him as a "foreigner. "^^^ 

The following day. Hood and her husband Donald returned to the Dreamland to visit their friend David King in room 22. A Ryder truck pulled 
up at the same time they did, the driver strongly resembling the man Hood saw the previous day. 

Shane Boyd, a helicopter mechanic who was also staying at the Dreamland, later told reporters and investigators that he saw a bushy-haired 
man resembling the John Doe 2 sketch in the parking lot near room 25 — Timothy McVeigh's room. 

One exit away from the Dreamland Motel sits the Great Western Inn. According to the manager, a Middle Eastern man stayed at the motel 
on the 17th. "He spoke broken English," said the manager. "[He] gave a foreign name and was driving a Ryder truck." The man closely 
resembled the FBI's sketch of John Doe 2. 

"Sometime on Monday," recalled Connie Hood, "those two — McVeigh and the foreigner — loaded up together, in a Ryder truck, and pulled 

out of the Dreamland parking lot together... that was the last I saw of them. "^^^ 

Later that day, janitors Katherine Woodly and Martin Johnson were working the 5-9 p.m. shift in the Murrah Building when they saw 

"McVeigh" and John Doe 2. McVeigh spoke to Martin about a job, and John Doe 2 nodded to Woodly. ^^^ 

At 3:00 p.m. on Monday, or possibly Tuesday, Jerri-Lynn Backhous and Dorinda Hermes were working at the Easy-Mart in Newkirk, 100 
miles north of Oklahoma City, when a convoy pulled in. One of the vehicles — a light blue pick-up with a camper top — was being driven by 
Terry Nichols. Backhous recalled Nichols' passenger as average height, dark-skinned, with black hair and a muscular build. "He looked just 

like the John Doe 2 sketch," she said.^^^ 

Debbie Nakanashi was working at the Post Office across the street from the Murrah Building around on Monday or Tuesday when 
"McVeigh" and John Doe 2 stopped in and asked where they might find federal job applications. Nakanashi helped provide the description 
for the well-known profile sketch of John Doe 2 in the baseball cap. 

Guy Rubsamen, a security guard at the Murrah Building saw a large Ryder truck pull up to the curb in front of the building around 4:00 p.m. 
on Monday, the 17th. Rubsamen later concluded it was a dress rehearsal. 

"There was either two or three men, but one jumped out the driver's side, and one or two out the passenger side," Rubsamen told the Rocky 

Mountain News. "The first thing that struck me was how quickly they jumped out. Those guys were in a hurry. "^^^ 

The Ryder truck would make its appearance the following evening at the Cattle Baron's Steakhouse in Perry, Oklahoma. Jeff Meyers and 
another customer recalled seeing McVeigh and a companion, who stopped by for a few beers. The man was approximately six feet tall and 


weighed 260 pounds — a description not befitting the John Doe 2s described by other witnesses.' — ^ 

Richard Sinnett, the assistant manager of the Save-A-Trip convenience store in Kingman, Kansas, sold fuel to McVeigh and three other men 
at approximately 1 :30 a.m. on April 1 9. Sinnett saw three vehicles in all, including a Ryder truck, an older brown pick-up (possibly belonging 
to Steven Colbern?), and a light colored car. 

Sinnett described John Doe 2 as muscular, 170 to 180 pounds, with short light brown hair and a light complexion. He recalled the Ryder 

truck was towing a trailer that contained a large, round tank filled with clear liquid. The store is about 1 75 miles north of Oklahoma City.^^^ 

Fred Skrdia, a cashier at a 24-hour truck stop near Billings, told the FBI he sold fuel to McVeigh between 1 and 3 a.m. on April 19. The 
station is about 80 miles north of Oklahoma City. 

As the sun rose, McVeigh and a friend sat down for coffee at Jackie's Farmers Store in Mulhall, Oklahoma. Mulhall Postmaster Mary 
Hunnicutt stood right next to McVeigh as he ordered his coffee. She was "advised" not to discuss what she had seen, lest she be summoned 

before the Federal Grand Jury. She wasn't.^^^ 

Ten minutes before the blast, Leroy Brooks was sitting in his car at the Sooner Post Office across from the Murrah Building, when a Ryder 
truck pulled up across the street, trailed by a yellow Mercury. The drivers of both vehicles got out and walked to the back of the truck, where 
they spoke for a few seconds, and exchanged a small package. After Brooks came out of the Post Office, he saw that the Ryder truck, which 
contained a passenger, had moved in front of the Murrah Building. "McVeigh" was walking briskly across 5th Street towards the Journal 
Record building. 

Danny Wilkerson sold "McVeigh" a pack of cigarettes (McVeigh doesn't smoke) and two soft drinks at a deli inside the Regency Towers 
apartments a block from the Murrah Building. Wilkerson recalled a passenger sitting in the cab of the Ryder truck, which had a cab 

overhang, and was shorter than the 24-foot model the FBI claimed McVeigh had rented. ^^^ 

Federal authorities had still more witnesses to call on had they wanted to. Mike Moroz, who was at work at Johnny's Tire Store on 10th and 
Hudson, on April 19, looked up to see a Ryder truck pull in at 8:40 a.m. The occupants were looking for directions to the Murrah Building. 
Moroz caught a glimpse of the passenger — a stocky man with dark curly hair wearing a ball cap, and a tattoo on his upper left arm. 

Several minutes earlier, David Snider was waiting for a delivery in Bricktown, about 25 blocks away, when a Ryder truck passed slowly by, 
as if looking for an address. However, this time the driver was a dark-skinned man with long, straight black hair, wearing a thin mustache 
and tear-drop sunglasses. The passenger was "McVeigh." Since Snider's account of the occupants differed remarkably from the previous 
accounts, could this have been the second Ryder truck described by witnesses? If so, did this mean there were two "McVeighs" and two 

John Doe 2s?^^^ 

At approximately the same time as Snider saw the Ryder truck, Tulsa banker Kyle Hunt came upon the truck at Main and Broadway, trailed 
by a yellow Mercury. Hunt said the Mercury driver was Timothy McVeigh. "He gave me that icy, go-to-hell look," said Hunt. "It kind of 

unnerved me. "^^^ While Hunt didn't see the occupants of the truck, he did recall two passengers in the car. One of them, he said, had long 
hair, similar to the man Phyliss Kingsley saw on Sunday at the Hi-Way Grill. None of the men was Terry Nichols, who was in Herrington that 

Just outside the Murrah Building, Dennis "Rodney" Johnson was driving his catering truck, when he suddenly had to brake to avoid hitting 
two men who were running towards the parking lot across the street.^^^ 

The men, who were in "a fast lockstep" with each other, appeared to be Timothy McVeigh and John Doe 2. Johnson described McVeigh's 
companion as "Mexican or American-Indian." He was "dark-skinned... probably about 5-8 and maybe 160 pounds," Johnson said. "He was 


wearing blue jogger pants with a stripe across the side. He had slicked-black hair.' 

Then there was Gary Lewis. A pressman for the Journal Record, Lewis stepped outside to smoke his pipe just minutes before the blast. As 
stood in the alley across from the Murrah Building, a yellow Mercury peeled away from its spot and bore down on him. The driver, whom he 
made brief eye-contact with, appeared to be Timothy McVeigh. And his passenger resembled the sketch of John Doe 2. The car had an 
Oklahoma tag (not an Arizona tag as authorities claimed) dangling by one bolt. 

Even FBI Agent John Hersley had testified before the Federal Grand Jury that "...several witnesses spotted a yellow car carrying McVeigh 

and another man speeding away from the parking lot near the... [building] before the blast."^^^ 

Finally there was Daina Bradley. A young mother, Bradley was standing by the window of the Social Security office seconds before the blast, 
when she saw a man get out of the passenger side of the Ryder truck. Moments later, Bradley's world turned to blackness, smoke and dust 
as she was showered by falling concrete. Bradley, who lost her leg, her mother, and her two children in the bombing, still clearly recalls the 
man who got out of the truck. He looked like John Doe 2. 

Of course, federal "investigators" would show as little interest in these and other discrepancies as they would in the numerous John Does. 
Some of these witnesses were never even contacted by the FBI, eventhough all of them had repeatedly tried to alert the Bureau. Only after 
federal prosecutors had coerced Daina Bradley into changing her story, did she testify at McVeigh's trial. None of the others were ever called. 


"I know I wasn't called because I would have to testify that I did see John Doe 2. I know I saw John Doe 2," said Rodney Johnson.^ — ^ 

Then in March of 1997, after changing it's mind half a dozen times about the existence of John Doe 2, it was "leaked" to the press that the 
FBI was searching for a John Doe. His name was Robert Jaques. 

This "new" John Doe 2 had appeared at the office of real estate broker William Maloney, of Cassville, Missouri, in November of '94, along 
with Terry Nichols and a man who looked like McVeigh. They were there to discuss purchasing a remote piece of land. Joe Lee Davidson, a 
salesman in Maloney's office, recalled the encounter with Jaques: "The day he was here, he seemed to be the one that was in control and in 

charge of what was going on," said Davidson. "Nichols never said a whole lot and McVeigh never did come in...."^^^ 

Maloney described Jaques as muscular, with a broad, dark face, similar to, but not quite identical as, the original FBI sketch of John Doe 2. 

Is it possible the sudden announcement of Jaques was a diversion, to satisfy a public increasingly savvy about the existence of John Doe 2? 

Nevertheless, a month after this new lead was announced, the government went ahead with the trial of McVeigh, making no attempt to 
introduce any additional suspects. 

They also dropped the lead on Steven Colbern, in spite of the fact that his pick-up was seen stopped ahead of McVeigh 90 minutes after the 


The Middle-Eastern lead was also dropped. The FBI denied putting out the APB on the brown pick-up containing the three Middle Eastern 
males seen speeding away from the bombing. And while the FBI knew about Sam Khalid, they did nothing but ask him some questions. 

An affidavit submitted by FBI Agent John Hersley stated: "A witness to the bombing saw two, possibly three persons in a brown Chevrolet 
pickup — fleeing the area of the crime — just prior to the blast." Although agents interviewed the witness who saw Hussain al-Hussaini 
driving the brown pick-up, she was never brought before a line-up, and never called to testify before the Federal Grand Jury. Hussaini's 

friend Abraham Ahmed was turned loose as well.^^^ 

As in the Kennedy assassination, the FBI sent thousands of agents hither and yonder to scour the country, searching out even the most 
obscure leads. Agents swarmed through Kingman, conducting warrantless searches, arresting innocent people, and wrecking havoc. 
Dozens more swooped down on Terry Nichols 12-year-old son Josh, whom they thought may have been John Doe 2. Agents were sent to 
the Philippines to investigate Nichols' activities there, and thousands more had detained and questioned anyone even remotely suspicious. 

Yet, as in the Kennedy case, few agents actually knew just why they were following up on any given lead. Very few ever were ever allowed 
to compare notes, or catch a glimpse of the "big picture." 

More importantly, those individuals who should have been prime suspects for questioning were never even detained. No agents were sent to 
Elohim city to interview Andreas Strassmeir or Michael Brescia, or Peter and Sonny Ward. Likewise, none of the Middle Eastern suspects 
previously mentioned were arrested. 

Had any FBI agents actually attempted to follow up on any of these leads, like their predecessors in Dallas, they would have been quickly 
reassigned to other cases by Washington. 

The same held true for local law-enforcement. FBI SAC Bob Ricks — who doled out a mendacious dose of propaganda during the Waco 
massacre — was appointed Public Safety Director after the bombing, putting him in charge of the OHP. 

The OSBI were made coffee boys and drivers for the FBI. District Attorney Bob Macy, along with local police, were "advised" to stay out of 
the case.^^^ 

Six days before the start of McVeigh's trial, Steven Jones filed a defense motion citing law-enforcement and defense interviews with a 
Filipino terrorist who admitted meeting with bombing defendant Terry Nichols. 

Lead prosecutor Joseph Hartzler called Jones' carefully investigated and researched information "pulp fiction." 

Yet a Washington-based terrorist expert who investigated the World Trade Center bombing and is familiar with some the suspects in Jones' 
brief said, "The whole idea that no one but Timothy McVeigh — that there's nothing wider than this — no one would believe it if the 
government weren't saying it. It's so implausible a story. 

"The government has the nerve to call it pulp fiction," added the highly-respected source. Their story is 'pulp fiction. '"^^^ 

Apparently, the government was concerned enough about Jones' revelations to order all the witness statements sealed. 

In the end, the FBI propounded its disingenuous theory that McVeigh and Nichols were the "lone bombers" just as quickly as they had 
decided that Lee Harvey Oswald was the "Lone assassin" twenty-eight years ago. 

Choir Boys 

"Stated simply, neittier ttie ATF nor any ottier federal agency had any advance knowledge of the deadly bomb that McVeigh delivered to the 
Murrah Building. . . . The prosecution is not withholding anything that even remotely would support such an outrageous charge. " - Department 

of Justice 

"I can assure you that there has been no government misconduct and the men and women of the FBI that we're working with are beyond 

reproach. " 

- U.S. Attorney Joseph Hartzler 

"Our government, unfortunately, has shown remarkable ability to lie. " 

- Stephen Jones 

One example of the Justice Department's refusal to admit the possibility of any suspects other than McVeigh and Nichols was its stubborn 
insistence on hoarding discovery documents that it should have been rightfully turned over to the defense under the federal Brady 
requirements. In a motion filed six days before the start of McVeigh's trial, Jones alleged that the prosecution not only lied about the 
available evidence, they deliberately obsfucated and distorted certain ATF and FBI reports on Elohim City, deliberately misspelling the 
names Carol Howe, Robert Millar, Andreas Strassmeir, Dennis Mahon and others so that the defense would be unable to retrieve any 
documents regarding these suspects during their computer searches. As Jones wrote in his brief: 

Defense counsel is convinced that the government has engaged in a willful and knowing cover-up of information supplied to it by its 
informant. The defense was unable to locate this insert using a computer because all major search terms contained in the insert were 
misspelled. Elohim City was misspelled or misidentified (Elohm City), as was Mahon (Mehaun), Strassmeir (Strassmeyer), the Rev. Robert 

Millar (Bob Lamar) and in addition, Carol Howe was not identified in the insert at all.^^-^ 

Thus the defense was unable to locate important information that Carol Howe, a ATF informant, had provided critical warnings that the 
Murrah Building was about to be bombed. As Jones wrote: 

Our patience is exhausted... We are no longer convinced the documents drafted and furnished to us, after the fact, by bureaucracies whose 
very existence and credibility is challenged, can be relied upon.... 

The government has told the district court that it had 'no information" of a possible foreign involvement when it did. The government has told 
the district court that "Andreas Strassmeir was never the subject of the investigation," when he was.... 

Statements to the court by the prosecution that it cannot connect Strassmeir and Mahon to the bombing are hardly surprising. They did not 
try very hard to connect them because had they been connected, and Carol Howe's previous warning disclosed, the resulting furor would 
have been unimaginable.... 

The repeated practice of the government and prosecution in this case when the shoe gets binding is to make a partial disclosure, assure the 
District Court it understands its Braofy obligations, and hold its breath, hoping the court does not order further disclosure, or will rely on the 
prosecution's "good faith".... 

This is a solemn criminal case, not Alice in Wonderland where definitions mean only what "the Queen thinks" and what she thinks is not 

known to anyone else.^^-^ 

Lying about additional suspects wasn't the only crime the "Justice" Department was guilty of. Manipulating and confiscating evidence also 
seemed to be a major tool in their arsenal of deceit. 

Richard Bieder, the attorney representing a group bombing victims in their negligence lawsuit against the government, told the London 
Telegraph that he had seen internal ATF documents which supported many of the claims made by Carol Howe. But the reports for 

December 1994, probably the most critical ones, have vanished from the files. ^^^ 

On April 14, 1995, the FBI placed a call to Assistant Chief Charles Gaines at the Oklahoma City Fire Department to warn him of a potential 
terrorist threat within the next few days. Yet like the FBI's warnings of the threat against the life of President Kennedy, or Nixon's infamous 
Watergate tapes, the audio logs of the Fire Department's incoming calls were mysteriously "erased." 

When asked to explain this "accidental" erasure. Assistant Chief Jon Hansen intelligently replied, "We made a boo-boo." Hansen then 

admitted to reporter J.D. Cash that the tapes had been erased after the national media had requested them.^^^ 

On April 28th the tape of James Nichols' hearing was released by court order, and it was blank. Nothing whatsoever could be heard on the 
tape. It was the only record of the proceedings. 

On April 1 9, the seismic data monitor at the Omniplex Museum, four miles from the Murrah Building, had recorded the shock waves of the 
explosion. The seismograph readings, including one from the University of Oklahoma 16 miles away in Norman, presented startling evidence 
— evidence that the explosion that ripped through the Alfred P. Murrah building may in fact have been several distinct blasts. The 
implications of this are ominous. 

At a meeting of the Oklahoma Geophysical Society on November 20th, Seismologists Ray Brown of the Oklahoma Geological Survey and 
Tom Holzer of the U.S. Geological Survey gathered to discuss the findings. Pat Briley, a seismic programmer, who has independently 
investigated the bombing, attended the meeting, as did U.S. Attorney Patrick Ryan and Assistant U.S. Attorney Jerome A. Holmes. 

Although the two scientists disagreed on findings regarding the number of bombs, less than a third of the way through the presentation, 
Ryan got up, walked to the back of the room, and began giving a private press conference: 

"I was certainly satisfied that these scientists could not say that there was anything other than one bomb that caused the seismology 
reading," said Ryan, a statement obviously inconsistent with the discussion occurring at the time. 

"Ryan lied very heavily," said Briley. "This guy really lied." 

After the meeting, Briley politely asked Ryan to give him the original seismogram in the FBI's possession. Ryan got up, angrily accused 

[81 81 

Briley of working for the defense team, then stammered out of the room.' — ^ 

Surveillance cameras located in the parking lot across from the Murrah building, and on neighboring buildings, would have recorded the 
entire fateful event that terrible morning. The tapes would have also shown the building collapsing. They would have conclusively proven 
whether the structure was destroyed by cutting charges, or by a truck-bomb. But like Abraham Zapruder's famous footage of the Kennedy 
assassination, the tapes were quickly confiscated by the FBI. 

In an interview with Jon Rappaport, Hoppy Heidelberg said, "The various surveillance videotapes of the bombing, tapes from, say. 
Southwestern Bell and the Journal Record Building across the street, we don't know that they showed all the details of the bombing, 
including the perpetrators, but it's possible. None of this material was shown to us in the grand jury." 

Certain segments of the footage was presented by the prosecution at trial. One cut included a shot of a blue GMC pick-up with a white 
camper top (the kind owned by Terry Nichols) driving slowly past the Regency Towers apartments near the Murrah Building on April 16 — 
the day Nichols allegedly drove to Oklahoma to pick up McVeigh. 

The prosecution also displayed a still frame of a Ryder truck driving by the Regency Towers on the morning of the blast. The time was 8:59 a. 
m. They then showed a still of the truck blowing up, stamped 9:02 a.m. Curiously, the government was careful not to show the jury any 

[81 91 

footage which showed any suspects getting out of the truck.' — ^ 

Surveillance footage taken by Trooper Charles Hanger upon his arrest of McVeigh had caught a brown pick-up stopped just ahead — 
thought to belong to Steven Colbern. When researcher Ken Armstrong questioned the OHP about the tape, he was told it had been "seized" 

by the FBI. The OHP would not comment further.^^^ 

On June 1st, KFOR reporter Brad Edwards sent the Justice Department a Freedom of Information request concerning the various 
surveillance footage. In their reply, the FBI stated: 

A search of our indices to the Central Records System, as maintained in the Oklahoma City Office, located material responsive request (sic) 
to your request. This material is being withheld in its entirety pursuant to the following subsection of Title 5, United States Code, Section 552: 
(b) (7) (A) 

When Jones finally filed a motion for disclosure after prosecutors refused to hand over the tapes, he was given 400 hours of footage. 

According to defense attorney Amber McGlaughlin, the tapes did not reveal the presence of Timothy McVeigh. ^^^ 

Of course, who knows what the FBI actually turned over to the defense. In the Kennedy case, the most revealing evidence was the Zapruder 
film — homemade footage showing Presidents Kennedy's head being blasted towards the right-rear — indicating the fatal shot came from 
the Grassy Knoll, not the Book Depository as the government claimed. Yet the FBI confiscated Zapruder's film and altered the sequence of 
the incriminating frames, reversing them to give the impression that Kennedy's head had lurched forward. It was only later that experts 
revealed the tampering. 

The FBI said it was a "mistake." 

The Zapruder film was finally released in 1968, the result of District Attorney Jim Garrison's courageous efforts to reveal the truth. The 
question is, when will the American public get to see the video footage of the Oklahoma City bombing? 

While the FBI did their best to keep key evidence from the grand jury, as in the Kennedy case, they even went so far as to convince several 
witnesses that their former statements were false, and to retract them in lieu of statements more favorable to the prosecution. A primary 
example is Michael Fortier, who originally told investigators, "I do not believe that Tim [McVeigh] blew up any building in Oklahoma. There's 
nothing for me to look back upon and say, yeah, that might have been, I should have seen it back then — there's nothing like that... I know 
my friend. Tim McVeigh is not the face of terror as reported on Time magazine..." 

But after the FBI raided his home, Fortier reversed his statement, saying that he and McVeigh has "cased" the federal building, in response 


to an offer of a plea bargain. Fortier was then transferred to the Federal Medical Facility at Fort Worth, Texas. It is not known why.' — ^ 
According to Heidelberg, the FBI brought 24-hour-a-day pressure on Fortier for months before he was arrested. Consequently, Fortier did 

not retain a lawyer, didn't know he needed one, and was subsequently bullied by the Bureau. By the time he managed to retain a lawyer, 
Fortier had already been broken. 

Lori Fortier testified that McVeigh tried to solicit Nichols' help in building the bomb, but that Nichols wanted out. He then allegedly tried to 
solicit her husband. According to her testimony, McVeigh got down on the floor of their trailer and, using soup cans to represent 55-gallon 


drums, demonstrated how to make a bomb.' — ^ 

Were the Fortiers relaying accurate testimony? Like the testimony of Eldon Elliott about McVeigh's height, or that of Thomas Manning 
regarding McVeigh's phone call to Elliott's, none of this information was contained in prior statements made by the Fortiers to the FBI. 

As will be seen with prior incidents of government witness tampering and fabricated testimony, their testimony is highly circumspect. 

The Fortiers' testimony is also somewhat questionable due to their drug use. According to co-worker Deborah Brown, who testified at 
McVeigh's trial, Lori Fortier used crystal methamphetamine almost daily. Methamphetamine is widely known for its ability to induce 

delusional or even psychotic states over time.^^^ 

Fortier eventually confessed to transporting and selling stolen firearms, drug possession, foreknowledge of the bombing plot, and failing to 

inform federal authorities. ^^^ 

Said grand juror Hoppy Heidelberg, "The FBI relied on a man, Fortier, who really couldn't provide anything important to them. You need to 

remember that. That's important."^^^ 

Lori Fortier also testified that "I still believed he (McVeigh) couldn't really do it." Jones then asked her, "Ms. Fortier, you said you thought 
McVeigh really wouldn't carry out his plans, then you said you, 'wanted out' How can you 'want out' if there was nothing to 'be in'"? 

Jones would take this one step further. On cross-examination, he assiduously questioned Fortier's motivations: 

Jones: Now, in addition, in your conversation you had with your brother on April the 25th, 1995 — that's your brother John? 

Fortier: Yes, sir. 

Jones: Did you make the following statement: "I've been thinking about trying to do those talk-show circuits for a long time, come up with 
some asinine story and get my friends to go in on it"? 

Fortier: Yes, sir, I made that statement. 

Jones: And in the same conversation, did your brother say to you: "Whether the story is true or not, if you want to sit here and listen to a 
fable, that's all it was at the time is a fable"? And then did you say: "I found my career, 'cause I can tell a fable"? And then did you burst out 
laughing and say, "I could tell stories all day"? 

Fortier: Yes, sir. 

Jones: Then do you know an individual named Glynn? 

Fortier: Yes. 

Jones: And his last name, sir? 

Fortier: I think you're referring to Glynn Bringle. 

Jones: Did you have a conversation with him by telephone on April the 30th? 

Fortier: Yes. 

Jones: And did you say, "I want to wait till after the trial and do book and movie rights. I can just make up something juicy"? And then did 
you laugh? 

Fortier: I'm not sure if I laughed or not, but I did make that statement. 

Jones: "Something that's worth The Enquirer, you know." You made those statements. 

Fortier: Yes, sir. 

The obvious inference was that the "Justice" Department had a hand in generating the Fortiers' testimony. As Jones pointed out during his 
closing argument, the terms of Fortier's plea agreement provided that any leniency would be contingent upon his performance in court. 

Not true, according to the FBI, which spent over 175 hours soliciting statements from the Fortiers; and Joseph Hartzler, who met with his 


"star witness" between 7 and 10 times to "make sure he told the truth."' — ^ 

In fact, during McVeigh's trial, Lori Fortier testified on cross-examination that she had arrived in Denver five days before she was scheduled 
for trial. She testified that she spent the better part of Friday, Saturday, Sunday, and Monday practicing for her testimony with federal 

Philadelphia prosecutors spent a lot of time with Veronica Jones to "make sure she told the truth" too — convincing her to implicate journalist 
Mumia Abu-Jamal, accused of shooting police officer Daniel Faulkner. Jones, who was facing unrelated felony charges at the time, originally 
told police she saw two other men flee the scene. After threats and promises from police, she changed her story, testifying to the 


government's version of events. Her felony charges were subsequently dropped.' — ^ 

Fortier, whose speech and appearance were magically transformed for his day in court, reportedly received a reduced sentence of three 
years in exchange for his testimony. His wife Lori was granted complete immunity from prosecution for her's. 

Jones also accused the FBI of harassing Jenn